Brief History Of Biolistics And Gene Guns

Genes Figure Cartoon

Biolistic technology was originally developed in the area of plant genetics to introduce genes into target cells that were largely refractory to traditional methods of gene delivery (1). Biolistic lore holds that the gene gun was inspired by interactions between edible bonsai plants and squirrels, and the later involvement of an air rifle to control these interactions. Legend has it that in the course of those events, Dr. John Sanford made the pivotal extrapolation that if an air rifle could be used to deliver macrobullets into a macrotarget, perhaps another gun could be used to deliver microbullets into microtargets like living cells. By extension, if a microbullet could be shot into living cells without killing them, could a microbullet also be used to carry nucleic acids into those cells to genetically modify them

My experience regarding lateral preference and asymmetrical distribution of auricular points

Using a knife (without fork), using a spoon, using a broom (upper hand), striking a match and opening a box (lid). Two supplementary items regard which foot one uses for kicking a ball and which eye one uses alone (for example looking at a spot through a hole or shooting a target with a rifle).

The Mechanics And Biology Of Biolistic Transfection

Creating a supersonic shockwave requires the explosive release of gas or vapor. Generating this much force with helium generally employs gas pressures of 1000 to 2000 psi to create sufficient explosive energy to produce shockwaves. Release of this much gas is comparable to the force generated by a high-powered rifle and, if unrestrained, this gas blast will deafen anyone the room. This amount of gas will also destroy any cells in the path of the blast. Given this, much of the early development of gene guns involved a balancing act of generating sufficient force to produce a shockwave, while en

Mental Illness

At 9 51 on the morning of October 2, 2006, Charles C. Roberts, a 32-year-old milk truck driver, walked into a one-room Amish School in Pennsylvania carrying a 9-mm handgun, 12-gauge shotgun, .30-06 bolt-action rifle, about 600 rounds of ammunition, cans of black powder, a stun gun, two knives, a change of clothes, a sexual lubricant, a truss board and a box containing a hammer, hacksaw, pliers, wire, screws, bolts, and tape. He barricaded the school doors and bound up the arms and legs of the terrified boys and girls huddled in the room. He released 15 male students, and a pregnant assistant teacher, but kept all 10 female students inside the room. As police broke in through the windows, he killed four of the girls and then shot himself. Six girls were taken to the hospital in critical condition. Most people expected that there would be violent, angry responses by the Amish community when they learned of the horrible event. They were surprised to learn that the responses focused on...

Depth of Processing

Objects can have functional and associative relationships or they might have conceptual relationships. Finding the unity in what appears to be diversity is critical for creativity, and when Denney (1974) asked individuals to group objects, elderly people were more likely than younger individuals to group by associative relationships than by semantic categories. For example, whereas a bow and an arrow have an associative relationship, a bow and rifle have a semantic-conceptual relationship (weapons). The means by which the brain develops associative relationships versus conceptual relationships is unknown however, grouping by associative relationships can be done based on the physical properties. Hence, if a person is asked to group the word bow with either arrow or rifle, one could imagine a bow together with an arrow easier than one could imagine a bow together with a rifle unless one activated the deeper concept of weapons. Thus, grouping at the conceptual level is more abstract...

NDE and children

I was born a Jew in Germany, probably some time in late 1937 but as I have no papers and all the people connected with me are dead, I have no way of proving it. My first experience happened when I was 3 or 4 years old. I remember being taken out of my house by my father and a soldier who sent us to the other side of the road. I looked back and saw my mother being held by a group of neighbours. She was yelling at the soldier who told her to be silent. I was afraid and started crying. My mother continued to scream at the soldier so he stepped up to her and hit her in the head with his rifle. As she was lying on the ground an SS officer went over to her, stood with one foot on her body and shot her in the head with his pistol.