Relaxation Techniques

Relax Your Mind

Are you the one who is struggling with stress, there is a book that will be of great importance to you. In the Relax Your Mind book coupled with the bonuses you have access to information on how to reduce stress, how to retrain your mind, how to relax your mind, how to meditate, how to maximize abdominal breathing, how to focus your mind, and so much more. The Relax Your Mind book is for those people looking for a natural approach to relieving stress. This book is a downloadable E-book, no physical product will be shipped to you. Once you order, you will get instant access to download the E-book and all the bonuses into your device. The E-book, workbook, and cards are in adobe acrobat PDF format, which can be viewed on your devices. The audiobook is in mp3 format. The official retailer of this product is ClickBank. It is very newbie friendly and requires no level of technical expertise. Read more here...

Relax Your Mind Summary

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Author: Thomas Calabris
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My Relax Your Mind Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Relaxation and hobbies

It is very easy to become so wrapped up in your son's illness that you forget to take time out for relaxation and hobbies. We all have different ways of relaxing and relieving the day-to-day stresses of life. It is important for you as a carer to remember to give yourself time to relax and escape from your son's illness on a regular basis. To start with I wasn't very good at giving myself time out. I became stressed, lay awake at night and lost weight. As time went on and I came to accept Joe's illness and its effect on our family, I realised how important it was for everyone to have time out from Joe's illness. I found writing, exercise, golf and going out with friends every now and then were very therapeutic. There are lots of activities that it might be useful to consider including

Relaxation techniques

The relaxation response involves the client's response to a quiet soothing environment total concentration on a particular object while trying to let go of all tension. This is sometimes sufficient to promote the relaxed state and can be practised anywhere. Visualisation or imagining involves visualising pleasantly soothing situations conducive to relaxation, e.g. lying on a beach, looking at a tranquil scene etc. Progressive relaxation aims to develop an awareness of the difference between feelings of tension and relaxation. Contraction followed by relaxation of all the muscle groups is performed, working around the body. This is a very effective method of promoting relaxation.

Endothelium Dependent Vasorelaxation of Ginsenosides

Endothelium plays an important role in regulating vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive autacoids, including prostacyclin, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) (79). EDRF has been identified as NO, which is produced from L-arginine by NOS (80). NO relaxes blood vessels mostly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase, which leads to an increased production of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle (81). Ginsenosides have been found to lower blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in rats at doses of 10-100 mg kg. This effect is mediated by release of endothelium-derived NO, enhancing the accumulation of cGMP (82). Recently, it has also been reported that ginseng can improve vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension, possibly by increasing synthesis of NO. Protopanaxatriol and its purified ginsenosides Rg1 and Re caused endothelium-dependent relaxation, which is associated with the formation of cGMP. In...

Stress Reduction Relaxation Strategies Leisure Activities and Exercise

Students with ADHD are often in a state of stress from trying to cope with the challenges and daily struggles in their lives. When one is hyperactive, emotionally over-reactive, and or anxious, it helps to learn relaxation and stress-reduction strategies, as well as find positive outlets to channel one's energy. It is therapeutic to teach children ways to calm their minds and bodies and release inner tension, which can also empower them with a feeling of self-control. The ideas discussed here have health and psychological benefits that are good for all of us, but may be of particular importance for youngsters with ADHD.

Chitting Out with Relaxation Therapy

Relaxation therapy is a strategy that uses steps to achieve an overall calming of both the body and the mind. In general, the person consciously concentrates on relaxing one part of the body, or one set of muscles, at a time until the entire body is in a state of relaxation. The great thing about relaxation therapy is that you can practice it on your own at home as often as you want. Take your time. You can't rush through relaxation therapy. Don't move on to another part of your body until the part that you're concentrating on feels completely relaxed. The relaxation mode continues up through the trunk of your body and out into your arms. You may choose to end with your head and your very, very tired eyes that just want to close. Or you may want to close your eyes at the very beginning of your relaxation session. Either way can work. You may notice that relaxation therapy uses some of the basic techniques that are also used in hypnotherapy however, with relaxation therapy, relaxation...

The Relaxation Response

Herbert Benson, a colleague of mine who is a cardiology professor at Harvard, is widely known for his work on stress and relaxation. In the 1970s he coined the term relaxation response to refer to the opposite of the stress response commonly known as fight or flight. In a stressful situation, the nervous system goes into overdrive and increases one's heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and the blood supply to the muscles these are ways to help the body respond to stress. The relaxation response, in contrast, works by encouraging the nervous system to have the opposite effect. In his book The Relaxation Response, Dr. Benson states the two essential steps to eliciting the relaxation response

Mastering relaxation

Relaxation is the release of tension from your mind and body through conscious effort. It's a learned skill and one you have to practice regularly in order for it to be effective. Several different relaxation techniques are helpful during labor. Progressive muscle relaxation, touch relaxation, massage and guided imagery are just some of the options. You've probably learned about these techniques in your childbirth course, but here's a quick refresher Progressive muscle relaxation. Beginning with your head or feet, relax one muscle group at a time, moving toward the other end of your body. Touch relaxation. Starting at your temples, your partner applies firm but gentle pressure for several seconds, then moves to the base of your skull, shoulders, back, arms, hands, legs and feet. As your partner touches each part of your body, relax the muscle group in that area. Guided imagery. Imagine yourself in an environment that gives you a feeling of relaxation and well-being that special,...

Relaxation

Relaxation means being free from tension and anxiety, which are normally caused by the stresses of life, which upset the body balance. It is impossible to remove all the stressors in life and a certain amount of stress is desirable as it can produce feelings of thrill and excitement. The ability to relax is extremely important as it combats stress and reduces its harmful effects such as fatigue, lethargy, illness and psychological problems. Clients who lead very busy lives or are coping with worries or dealing with unhappy situations may find it very difficult to relax. Advising them and showing them ways of reducing stress and promoting relaxation can form an important part of treatment. Once they have recognised the difference between the tense state and the relaxed state they can continue to practise at home.

Relaxation in IBS

Relaxation provides perhaps the most common and the simplest form of psychotherapy which can be easily taught to patients by nurses. The rationale behind relaxation is that if stress is a factor in the aetiology of IBS, then reducing the emotional tension with relaxation techniques will help to reduce physical symptoms and induce a sense of well-being by allowing the patient to feel more in control. Relaxation therapy normally incorporates some, if not all, of the following elements lying or sitting in a comfortable position, use of peaceful music, closing eyes to reduce visual stimulation, exercises to relax muscles and visual imagery to elicit peaceful situations. Relaxation therapy is a central component in many multi-component psychotherapeutic regimes used to treat IBS.

Terminology and aetiology

Both oesophageal and gastric factors affect the occurrence of reflux. The critical factor is lower oesophageal sphincter incompetence most reflux occurs during transient relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter resulting from failed swallows (swallows not followed by a normal oesophageal peristaltic wave) and gastric distension (mostly after meals). Recent evidence has indicated that the diaphragmatic crural fibres surrounding the oesophageal hiatus act as an external sphincter in concert with the intrinsic lower oesophageal sphincter. Failure of this crural mechanism may allow a hiatus hernia to occur. The hernial sac may additionally provide a sump of gastric contents available for reflux once the lower oesophageal sphincter relaxes. Oesophageal acid clearance depends both on

Clinical Use in Adults

Inhaled corticosteroids are established as the most effective initial antiinflammatory treatment for asthmatics with persistent symptoms. The use of LABA monotherapy instead in such patients leads to a loss of asthma control, e.g., there is increased airway inflammation and exacerbation rates for patients treated with salmeterol monotherapy compared to ICS mono-therapy (100). An alternative strategy is to use LABA as an additional therapy in patients who are symptomatic despite taking ICS. Additional LABA therapy in this context has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbations (58,101,102). Before the introduction of LABA, it was common for the dose of ICS to be increased in such patients. However, this can have disappointing results as the dose-response curve for these drugs is relatively flat for the linear segment (103). Using LABA as additional therapy offers advantages over increasing the dose of ICS LABA provide an alternative mechanism of action (sustained...

Other Magnetic Resonance Methods

By varying the image acquisition parameters, TR (pulse repetition time) and TE (echo time), it is possible to construct images of the proton relaxation times T1 and T2. The development of methods for echo planar imaging makes it possible to collect images with a large number of TR and or TE values quite rapidly and, thereby, to estimate localized T1 and T2 values very reliably. This relaxation time mapping is sometimes referred to as relaxometry. Changes in relaxation times may reflect anomalous cerebral development, as recently demonstrated in schizophrenia (Andreasen et al., 1991 Williamson et al., 1992 Yurgelun-Todd et al., 1995). Alternatively, alterations in cerebral perfusion may lead to small changes in T2 which can be detected using echo planar imaging (Teicher et al., 2000). In the area of substance abuse, relaxation time measurements have also been used to assess brain hydration. In general, as brain water content decreases, relaxation times become shorter. Within the brain,...

How To Minimize And Manage The Different Types Of Fatigue

Your feelings of fatigue may be worsened by underlying depression. Depression is recognized as a symptom of MS and can also occur if life becomes very difficult when you are dealing with the day-to-day challenges of the disease. If so, feelings of overwhelming tiredness or lassitude may be unrelated to your level of activity and more to your mood. In addition, depression can affect sleep, appetite, motivation, and participation in activities. Such feelings can occur in the morning, afternoon, or evening. They do not appear to occur at any particular time of day in fact, when you are depressed, you may wake up feeling tired. If you feel that your fatigue is related to depression, ask your physician to discuss what medications you can take to improve your mood. In addition, psychotherapy, stress management, relaxation training, and support groups can help you deal with the complexities of your disease and the symptoms it can cause. In addition, positive experiences, moderate...

Non Lever And Thrust Using Momentum

The common factor is the maintenance of a sustained position, pressure or movement and the waiting for a response from the tissues. They are all slowly applied using sense of optimum relaxation and change for the better in tissue function. They are reactive techniques rather than direct action techniques and the reader is referred to the section relating to indirect technique for fuller details.

Fatigue In Muscle And The Central Nervous System During Exercise

Of neural transmission at a neuromuscular junction, in which the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscle fiber membrane is prevented as a result of reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. The function of enzymes at a neuromuscular junction, such as cho-linesterase, can fail because of low concentration or hypoactivity. Abnormal metabolism of intracel-lular calcium or potassium also can occur, inhibiting muscle relaxation. Perhaps the central nervous system limits exercise performance as a protective mechanism. Perceived fatigue usually precedes physiologic fatigue. Muscular and neural fatigue can be effectively reversed if a combination of procedures is used, including rest, nutrition therapy, and needling therapy for the fatigued muscles. If muscle fatigue is not properly treated, affected individuals have a higher risk of injury.

What do the lower esophageal sphincter LES and stomach have to do with reflux

Normally, the LES is a one-way valve and only allows food to pass from the esophagus to the stomach. However, when people suffer from reflux, the LES does not function properly and acid and stomach enzymes can travel up into the esophagus. At rest, the LES is closed and relaxes, opening during a swallow. Inappropriate relaxation or weakness of the LES as occurs with a hiatal hernia is a major cause of reflux.

Hardiness As A Concept

Tential disasters into opportunities, had positive interactions with significant others comprised of mutual assistance and encouragement, and prioritized physically healthy activities such as exercising, dieting, relaxation, and following their doctor's recommendations (Maddi, 2002, 2007 Maddi & Kobasa, 1984).

Review of Efficacy Research

There is little literature on CT approaches to drug-resistant depression. Fen-nell and Teasdale (1982) failed to detect a significant effect of CT in five chronic, drug-refractory, depressed outpatients. Antonuccio et al. (1984) applied a psychoeducational group treatment (including relaxation, increasing pleasant activities, cognitive strategies, and social skills) to 10 outpatients with unipolar depression who had not responded to antidepressant medication. All patients continued drug treatment. One patient dropped out of group treatment, four were no longer depressed, two showed some improvement, and three patients were still depressed after psychoeducational group treatment. Improvements were maintained at 9-month follow-up. Miller, Bishop, Norman, and Keitner (1985) examined the effectiveness of a treatment program comprising CT, pharmacotherapy, and short-term hospitalization in six chronic, drug-resistant, depressed females. The approach produced a substantial improvement in...

Effective Treatment Approaches

Components reflective of this approach. In CBT, specific aspects of the disorder are identified and specific treatments are designed for each aspect of the disorder. For anxiety disorders, the specific targets include such aspects as physiological arousal, muscle tension, cognitive worries, and avoidance behavior, among others. Treatment modules are then developed to deal with each of these target behaviors, including relaxation training, breathing retraining, identification and labeling of cognitive errors, strategies to change cognitive errors, and exposure to feared situations. Strategies have also been developed for combining these components for example, practicing cognitive strategies while entering anxiety-producing situations. These approaches to developing and using these strategies are often ordered to increase the likelihood of success. Then they are applied to situations of increasing difficulty to provide the individual with experience in dealing with previously avoided...

The Acute Effects Of Alcohol

The skin becomes flushed and warm. There is relaxation and mild sedation. Persons become talkative with loss of inhibitory control of emotions. Small doses (one to two drinks) do not impair complex intellectual ability however, as the dose increases (two or more drinks or as the blood alcohol concentration approaches and exceeds the legal limit) impairment at multiple levels of the nervous system occurs. All types of motor performance are eventually affected, including maintenance of posture, control of speech, and eye movements. These movements become slower and more inaccurate. There is a decrease in mental functioning, such that there is impairment in attention and concentration, and a diminishing ability to make mental associations. There is a decreased ability to attend to incoming sensory information. Night and color vision are impaired. Judgment and discrimination and the ability to think and reason clearly are adversely affected. Even higher doses result in a...

Other Cns Depressants

Several other classes of drugs act as depressants on the central nervous system. The profile of impairment with barbiturate intoxication largely resembles the acute effects of alcohol. Because of the relatively high abuse potential and severe withdrawal associated with these drugs, the Benzodiazepines have largely displaced Barbiturates in prescriptions for SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC drugs. Currently the most prescribed class of PSYCHOACTIVE drugs in Western industrialized countries, they are typically used for muscle relaxation, sedation, and reduction of ANXIETY. It has become clear that benzodiazepines (e.g., Valium)

Management of high dysphagia

Generally, radiology is often more rewarding than endoscopy in clarifying the cause of high dysphagia. Cineradiography with liquid barium and bread soaked in barium may give valuable functional as well as anatomical information about the pharynx and cricopharyngeal segment. Most problems are related to failure of pharyngeal contraction or to cricopharyngeal relaxation, or a combination of both.

What you can do as the labor coach

Once contractions begin, you both may feel some initial butterflies. After all, it's the big moment you've been anticipating for the past nine months. But during labor and delivery, your goal is to keep the expectant mother relaxed. That means staying as calm as possible yourself. Take some deep breaths together. Between contractions, practice those relaxation techniques you learned in childbirth class. For example, suggest that she let her muscles go limp or that she concentrate on relaxing her jaw and hands. Gently massage her back, feet or shoulders. Reassure her with your words and actions that you're both ready to have this baby.

Support groups for children with cancer

Both groups do a lot of art therapy, relaxation therapy, playing, and talking. They meet twice a month, and I will continue to take them until they ask to stop. I think it has really helped all of them. We also have two teen nights out a year All of the teenagers with cancer get together for an activity such as watching a hockey game or basketball game, or going bowling, to the movies, or out for pizza. They also see each other at our local camp for children surviving cancer (Camp Watcha-Wanna-Do) each year.

The Age Trend Is Not A Reflection Of A Generation Trend

Many western researchers ascribed the increase in the prevalence of right handers with age to decreased social pressures against left hand use (i.e., a generation shift of the social pressures). For this to be true, it must be shown that there is some indication of the relaxation of such pressures. Without such evidence, factors directly related to age should be sought as possible causes of the trend. Conversely, without evidence for such a relaxation, a flat age trend would be expected, as previously stated. There are two ways to infer such a relaxation it may be seen as an increase in the prevalence of left handedness when recent studies are compared with older ones (see Spiegler & Yeni-Komshian, 1983, for such a generation shift). In making comparisons of this sort, one must be careful in equating the age of participants of different studies, because this factor may affect the prevalence independently of the generation effect. A second method is to compare the prevalence of...

Cyclopiazonic Acid Origin and Toxicity

Cylopiazonic acid (CPA) was first isolated from culture of Penicillium cyclo-pium but has also been shown to be produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium such as A.flavus, A. tamarii or P. camemberti (Le Bars, 1979 Martins & Martins, 1999). Therefore, CPA has been detected in many foods and especially cheeses (Le Bars, 1990), even though only few cases of intoxication have been described. However, retrospective analysis of Turkey X disease'' performed in 1986 by Cole suggested that clinical signs were not all typical of aflatoxicosis. He thus tried to demonstrate a possible role for cyclopiazonic acid in this affection. For instance, opisthotonos originally described in Turkey X disease'' can be reproduced by administration of a high dose of cyclopiazonic acid but not by ingestion of aflatoxin (Cole, 1986). Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ ATPase pump of endoplasmic reticulum (Seidler, Jona, Vegh, & Martonosi, 1989) that plays a key role in muscular...

The Self Help Alternative

Most forms of psychosocial treatment, regardless of how they are delivered, share at least three objectives (a) to teach self-management skills to the child and family (e.g., teaching relaxation techniques or cognitive restructuring, modeling behavior modification techniques to parents) (b) to provide information to the child and family about the nature of the condition, including its typical etiology, course, and available treatments and (c) to augment social support networks to enable the child and family to learn from others, cope with their problems, and feel comfort in knowing that their condition is not unique. Self-help can serve all three functions when used either as a complement to face-to-face treatment or as a stand-alone treatment.

Release Mechanisms 731 Hydrophilic Matrices

When a matrix tablet is exposed to GI fluids, the surface of the tablet is wetted and polymer hydrates to form a gel layer, the surface layer polymer transitioning from a glassy solid to a rubbery gelatinous state. The tablet core remains essentially dry at this stage. Drug on the gel surface, if highly soluble and present at high concentration (high dose drug) is likely to pass into solution rapidly, providing an initial pulse of drug. The gel layer (rubbery state) grows progressively as fluid penetrates towards the core, increasing the thickness of the gel layer and diffusion path for drug release. As the outer layer becomes fully hydrated, polymer chain relaxation weakens the gel layer, with loss of integrity, disentanglement, and erosion from the matrix surface. Continuing fluid penetration through the gel layer ultimately leads to complete erosion and drug release. When the exponent n has a value of 1.0, drug release rate is independent of time, viz., zero-order release kinetics...

Identification And Treatment

Treatment may be provided in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Psychoeducation, individual and group therapies, psychodrama, relaxation training, family counseling and RELAPSE PREVENTION training are commonly used treatment techniques, usually combined with an introduction to Gamblers Anonymous. Family treatment and long-term follow-up are important as well. Abstinence from all forms of gambling is one of the treatment goals, along with improved physical and psychological well-being.

Other Sensory Input in the Environment

Certain aromas are sometimes used that have various effects. There has been research in aromatherapy regarding the use of scent to create or change behavior. The following are scents that apparently are good for alertness or attention peppermint, wintergreen, pine, lemon, eucalyptus, and spearmint. Aromatherapists say the fragrances of chamomile, jasmine, lavender, sandalwood, marjoram, and honeysuckle have positive effects on relaxation or reflection (Karges-Bone, 1996). Colors are known to have various effects on behavior. Teachers may want to consider use of certain colors for specific purposes. For example, orange, purple, and red raise levels of alertness. For relaxation, pale blue or green, light pink, lavender, peach, or rose are recommended. In general, cool hues such as blue are relaxing (Karges-Bone, 1996).

Choices in pain management

Natural childbirth means labor and delivery without the use of pain medications. Natural (nonpharmaceutical or nonmedicinal) methods of pain relief take many forms, some dating back centuries. Relaxation and massage are two examples of pain relief options of natural childbirth.

The use of erbium lasers for caries therapy

Operate in free running mode, with pulse duration of 150-400 s. This pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of dental hard tissues ( 1ms) (Niemz, 2004), which provide heat dissipation during ablation and avoid excessive heat transmission to the pulp, for instance. However, at higher energy per pulses, erbium lasers can induce thermal injuries to dental hard tissue, such as the presence of microcracks, melting or even carbonization. In this way, during the clinical application, it is essential to use the correct set up of laser parameters and the use of an adequate air-water spray to provide proper refrigeration and avoid these side effects. However, although the presence of a thin layer of water can increase the ablation process (Fried at al., 2002), an excessive water layer can decrease erbium interaction with dental hard tissues (Niemz, 2004) in this way, the use of

Influence of pulse width on tissue removal

Although the pulse duration of most commercial lasers (range of s) is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of dental hard tissues, laser ablation promotes irregular cavities (depending on composition of target tissue), desiccation of the surface (due to the removal of underlying water) and the presence of few microcracks (related to the energy density), the amount of water coolant and the repetition rate must be adjusted during the clinical procedure. The adjustment of repetition rate is important to assure that the inter-pulse period is longer than the thermal relaxation time of tissues in this way, it is possible that the temperature of the irradiated tissues decrease between laser pulses (McDonald et al., 2001). Another strategy for cooling the tissue during laser irradiation is reducing the pulse duration (Seka et al., 1995). Depending on the pulse duration (

Too many wakeup calls Youre constantly waking

What can help A white-noise generator that makes a kind of sshhhh sound can help you tune out that noisy world and fall deeply asleep. Soft music on the radio may help lull you to sleep. Some people can benefit from deep-breathing exercises, meditation, or relaxation therapy. (Read Chapter 13 for more information on these techniques.)

Functions of the gall bladder

During their passage through the duodenal wall, the common bile duct, the pancreatic duct and the ampulla of Vater are surrounded by an arrangement of smooth muscles, the spincter of Oddi. The closure of this sphincter prevents bile from entering the duodenum. This closure results in formed bile being diverted into the gall bladder. The main stimulus for the relaxation of the sphincter muscle is cholecystokinin (CCK). Thus when levels of CCK increase in the blood during a meal, the gall bladder contracts, the sphincter of Oddi Vasoactive inhibitory peptide (VIP), pancreatic polypeptide and stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the gall bladder, all cause gall bladder relaxation. Bile acids, by means of feedback control, also inhibit gall bladder contraction.

Smoking as a Physiological and Psychological Addiction

Within a learning-based model, smoking is viewed as a behavior where nicotine itself serves as a positive reinforcer (via sensations such as euphoria, relaxation, warmth, etc.), in that the drug strengthens behavior leading to its own presentation (Goldberg, Spealman, & Goldberg, 1981). Nicotine may also serve as a negative reinforcer (via escape from negative states such as anxiety, anger, fatigue, etc.), leading to an increase in smoking behavior. In addition, there are a vast number of discriminative stimuli present in the environment (i.e., cues) that trigger the behavior of smoking, whether it be an experience of a particular emotion (e.g., boredom, anxiety, excitement), a particular time (e.g., between classes), a particular place (e.g., bar), or the presence of a particular person (e.g., fellow coworker who smokes). Conceptualizing smoking within a behavioral model becomes important, as most smoking cessation programs are based on such principles. It is the combination of the...

Duane C McBride Revised by Jonathan Caulkins

Safer Use of Drugs People commonly use drugs in safe ways, that is, nonabusively. Safe use means that drug use does not significantly impair health or interfere with social or economic functioning. For example, most users of alcohol consume that drug in moderation, not to the point of extreme intoxication, during specified hours, and for specified purposes, such as relaxation after daily work or promotion of social interchange.

Treating anxiety disorders

Tina has fibromyalgia, and has suffered from frequent occurrences of her heart racing uncontrollably and feeling faint. But the doctor said that her heart was fine. Tina consulted a therapist and learned to avoid panicking over minor problems. She became more proactive about resolving her FMS with relaxation therapy. (Read about relaxation therapy in Chapter 13.)

Chest pains another step back

On Sunday morning Joe complained to the staff on duty that he was feeling chest pains. He felt his heart was trying to beat too fast and he felt uncomfortable. When checked, his pulse, blood pressure and temperature were in the normal range and so the care team did some relaxation exercises with Joe. The duty doctor was informed and he advised the care team to monitor Joe carefully over the next few hours. Joe was low in mood all afternoon and had to be persuaded to join in with games with the other patients. After dinner he complained of chest pains again and became very frightened, thinking he was having a heart attack. Once again the care team reassured Joe, took him through some relaxation exercises and explained that anxiety can cause pains like these to happen. Once Joe had calmed down one of the care team phoned me to let me know of this latest episode. We agreed that it was probably best if I didn't speak to Joe that evening because he was using me as an outlet for his anger...

Relaxing the Heart and Soul

Knowing what relaxation can do for you Practicing different relaxation strategies Rooting out things that ruin sleep Capturing pleasurable sleep In this chapter, we look at the benefits of relaxation. We give you some quick, effective strategies for teaching your body to chill out, even when you find yourself in stressful situations. Finally, we show you how to enhance the quality of your sleep, which increases your ability to cope with stress. Relaxation What's in It for Me We know your life is probably hectic and stressed, and time is hard to come by. Learning to relax takes some time, so why in the world would you want to devote precious minutes to the task of relaxation We can think of a few pretty good reasons 4. Take stock of your life, and reflect on whether you need to do something about your approach to relaxation. Personal Relaxation Review Although rather rare, some people report that relaxation techniques sometimes actually induce a sense of panic and loss of control. If...

Getting better but feeling worse

I had a long conversation with Fiona the next day. Joe had had a fitful night and the staff on duty had observed that he had slept in a tightly curled foetal position. Fiona spent several hours with Joe after breakfast and for once he had engaged in conversation. He had explained that he was feeling very homesick over the weekend and had taken things out on his mum by shouting at her and saying some things he didn't mean. He said the chest pains had frightened him but accepted that these were caused by his anxiety. He felt that the relaxation exercises had helped and he would be happy to do them again. Fiona had discussed with Joe several ways of coping with stress and written them down for him Practise relaxation techniques with staff.These guidelines all made sense to me, and Fiona seemed to think Joe had taken them on board. She went on to explain the key points that she would be discussing with Joe's consultant psychiatrist following the events of the weekend Further work was...

Slow Control System Of The Brain

The C-fluctuations of electrical activity that arise after introduction of a disturbance (in the form of the above-described agent) have the following characteristics. Electrical activity is markedly intensified in the stimulated nucleus and certain other nuclei after a latency period of some tens of minutes. This intensification lasts several minutes. The first cycle of excitation in these structures is followed by a rest period reflecting the original state of the electrical activity. However, 10-20 min later a new wave of excitation arises in the same nuclei, despite the absence of additional stimulations this wave, in turn, gives way to another rest period. Such cycles of excitation (with a similar type of electrical pattern) are periodically repeated as often as five times within 2 h. They are comparable to an oscillatory process of damped nature. Thereupon, temporary, more or less sustained relaxation of activity occurs in all the nuclei. A second stage of fluctuations of...

Acute Administration

Logsdail, S., Miller, D., Macmanus, D., Johnson, G., Lolin, Y. and O'Gorman, P., The effect of moderate blood alcohol levels on T1 and T2 relaxation times in the brains of normal volunteers. Magn. Reson. Med. 4 378-379, 1987. Meyerhoff, D. J., Ethanol in human brain relaxation and magnetization transfer. International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Sixth Scientific Meeting and Exhibition. Sydney, Australia, p. 193, 1998. Abstract

Chronic Administration

D., Ridgway, J. and Best, J. J., NMR T relaxation time of the brain during alcohol withdrawal and its lack of relationship with symptom severity. Br. J. Addict. 84 669-672, 1989. Agartz, I., Saaf, J., Wahlund, L. O. and Wetterberg, L., T and T2 relaxation time estimates and brain measures during withdrawal in alcoholic men. Drug Alcohol Depend. 29 157-169, 1991.

Models of Self Administered Treatment in Primary Care Settings

Donnan and colleagues (Donnan, Hutchinson, Paxton, Grant, & Firth, 1990) created a self-help booklet and tape for those with chronic anxiety that provided education about anxiety, assistance with problem-solving, instruction on applied relaxation, suggestions for better coping with worry and panic attacks, and assistance in evaluating personal expectations. The audiotape duplicated information in the booklet and provided detailed instructions about relaxation exercises. Self-help participants, relative to controls, had greater pre-post test reductions in anxiety and depression and improvements in general health problems. Results from a 3-month follow-up revealed that self-help participants, relative to controls, had 12 weeks of 79-page self-help booklet and relaxation audiotape (Stresspac) vs. advice-only vs. no treatment 4 weeks with a 42-page self-help booklet (Managing Anxiety and Depression A Self-Help Guide) vs. treatment as usual 10 weeks of computer-guided self-exposure (Fear...

Development Of Heroin Abuse

Initial heroin use is motivated by curiosity and the desire to use it without becoming addicted. Heroin is injected into a vein (although it is sometimes inhaled), and the user experiences an immediate rush, characterized by feelings of relaxation and well-being. As use escalates, withdrawal symptoms (e.g., cramps, irritability) may appear as the drug is eliminated from the body. At this point, individuals may start using the drug both for its positive effects and for alleviating uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. Drug use may also be motivated by an attempt to cope with feelings of Stress, hopelessness, or depression. Whatever the causes of initial use, the frequent and repeated acquisition of heroin soon becomes a priority some addicted individuals may resort to illegal activity (e.g., stealing prostitution) to buy illicit drugs. In addition heroin abusers are often concurrently addicted to Alcohol and or other drugs, including Cocaine and Benzodiazepines (e.g., Valium, Zanax) that...

Gastric Motility and Emptying The Role of the Stomach as a Reservoir and a Churn

Motility of the stomach allows it to serve as a reservoir, act as a churn to fragment food and mix it with gastric secretions to aid digestion, and to empty gastric contents into the duodenum at a controlled rate. Gastric motility and storage are complex and subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms. The first aspect of gastric motility is gastric filling. Accommodation of large changes in volume when a meal is eaten is achieved by the plasticity of the stomach smooth musculature and by receptive relaxation. Plasticity means that smooth muscle can maintain constant tension over a wide range of lengths without changing tension. Mechanoreceptors in the proximal stomach signal the degree of distension and, beyond a certain level, a stretch-activated contraction is initiated and pacesetter cells are depolarized. These properties are augmented by receptive relaxation of the deep folds of the stomach (known as rugae), which is mediated by the vagus nerve and associated with eating, possibly...

Proper Duration of Needling Time

In most cases, needles can be left in the ARPs from a few seconds to a few minutes. In cases of acute pain, a few seconds are sufficient for healing because the muscles may relax very quickly. In cases of chronic pain or internal disease, the needles should be retained longer to achieve more muscle relaxation, and this may cause the needle-induced lesions to stay longer and may reduce the swelling. In chronic cases, even 20-minute needling may not be

Relaxing Will Cure What Ails

Certainly can exacerbate fibromyalgia. Maybe some rest and relaxation would make you feel much better. But when you have fibromyalgia, a vacation can't cure you. You could win the lottery and retire tomorrow, and you'd still have periodic flare-ups of the problem although it beats working a day job at the office with your FMS

Treatment Of Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms

Not attained group support, where individuals support each other in their quit attempts and cognitive restructuring, where smokers are taught to think differently about smoking and cigarettes. Other components include relaxation exercises, coping tactics, visualization and addressing of tempting situations, simple messages to deal with withdrawal symptoms (e.g., deep breathing, delay so the urge will pass, drink water, do something else), and stimulus control (e.g., getting rid of ashtrays, having a smoke-free home). Multicomponent behavioral programs have had much success in helping smokers achieve cessation. Much research suggests that nicotine replacement or pharmacologic approaches without a behavioral component have significantly lower success rates than those with a behavioral component.

Potential Adjunctive Therapies

The common inhalational anesthetics (enflurane, isoflurane, and halothane) have all been reported to have beneficial effects via smooth muscle relaxation (196-199). Limitations on the use of these agents include lack of proper expertise among medical intensivists concerning anesthetic use and the concomitant restrictions in the applicability of anesthesia ventilators with asthmatics (200). These ventilators have flow and pressure limits that can lead to inadequate tidal volumes and longer I E ratios in severely obstructed patients (200).

Regional Transarterial Chemoembolization TACE

Inconclusive Mri Liver Spots

Follow-up imaging after TACE is possible between the first week and approximately two to three months after the procedure. If T1-weighted dynamic imaging is performed within the first week after TACE, the increased signal intensity seen in tumor nodules that accumulate lipiodol can sometimes make it difficult to detect residual hy-pervascular tumor tissue (Fig. 11). On the other hand, persistent lipiodol retention for more than four weeks indicates therapeutic effectiveness. Decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images may also be observed within one week of treatment. However, remaining areas of higher signal intensity on T2-weighted images may not necessarily indicate residual tumor tissue, since the T2 relaxation time is also influenced by early concomitant modifications, such as ischemia, hemorrhage, edema and initial colliquative necrosis 4,31 . trast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI performed two to three months after therapy is very sensitive for detecting or excluding recurrent...

Stretching And Flexibility

A regular stretching program is important to maintain optimal length of muscles and other soft tissue structures (e.g., tendons, fascia, and connective tissue). If you have tightness in any areas, you increase your risk of injury or possible contractures secondary to abnormal shortening of the muscles or other soft tissue structures. Ultimately, such tightness reduces mobility, because of the decrease in range of motion, and makes you more prone to sprains and strains. Finally, a stretching program reduces muscle tension and increases relaxation.

Techniques for Liver MR Imaging

Normal Mri Liver

Another critical element in T1-weighted breath-hold imaging is the use of intravenously-administered gadolinium contrast agents (see Chapt. 3). These agents shorten the T1 relaxation rate of tissues resulting in marked elevation of signal on T1-weighted images. They are used to assess focal liver lesions based upon characteristic vascular enhancement patterns which can be distinguished from adjacent normal hepatic parenchyma 33,36 . The liver is unique in having a dual blood supply, receiving 70-80 of afferent blood flow from the portal vein, and the remainder from the hepatic artery. Hepatic tumors develop selective portal-venous or hepatic arterial blood supply based on their specific characteristics. Tumors that derive blood supply from hepatic arterial branches are best visualized during the hepatic arterial dominant phase of liver enhancement. Hypovascular tumors are predominantly supplied by portal-venous branches, and demonstrate enhancement-time curves that are different from...

Loss of control and binge eating in children and adolescents

ROC is a 12-session intervention in which information is covered in separate parent and child groups. The first five sessions parallel the CAAT program described above, while the last seven sessions provide psycho-education and skills-based learning about overeating, craving, and environmental food cues. Children and parents are taught methods to manage tricky hungers such as distraction, activity substitution, relaxation, mindful eating, media awareness, and cost benefit analyses. Behavioral parenting skills implemented in ROC include daily meetings to discuss the family's ROC progress, positive reinforcement, self-monitoring, behavior modeling, stimulus control to decrease external food cues in the home, and a family-based rewards system. Individual parent child dyads then engage in guided experiential learning, focused on helping children and parents learn to monitor internal hunger and fullness and to reduce responsiveness to hedonic food cues.

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

Progressive muscle relaxation) incompatible with binge eating are identified. For patients with poor body image, mindfulness exercises concerning eating and body awareness are utilized, including imagining themselves in a full-length mirror while noting any judgmental thoughts that may arise (e.g., I look disgusting ).

Subconscious Incubation

Many creative people have related that after discovering an unresolved problem, they are unable to immediately to solve this problem. After multiple attempts, they might become frustrated, give up trying to solve the problem, and then move on to other problems. Sometimes, after a few days, weeks, or months, suddenly the solution of this problem might come to them. As I mentioned, this experience has been termed illumination, or the aha experience, by Wallas (1926). The ability to suddenly understand the solution of a problem suggests that the brain has been actively manipulating stored knowledge. Wallas called this process of subconscious knowledge manipulation incubation. In his book Origins of Genius, Simonton (1999) quoted the famous French mathematician Poincare. As I mentioned in the relaxation section, Poincare wrote how he could not solve a mathematical problem and got his mind off this problem and then came up with the solution (i.e., I went to spend a few days at the seaside...

Functional properties and toxicity

Plant (1920) applied 'waters of lavender' to the intestine of dogs in vivo and reported increased activity, which was sometimes followed by relaxation and decreased peristaltic activity. Linalool was reported to relax the small intestine of the mouse (Imaseki and Kitabatake, 1962) while Shipochliev (1968) observed a spasmolytic action on rabbit and guinea pig gut by the essential oil of lavender (L. spica L.). Reiter and Brandt (1985) report that linalool relaxes the longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum. A spasmolytic activity of L. dentata L. oil and its components 1,8-cineole and a- and -pinene, has been observed on rat duodenum. Izzo et al. (1996) showed that the essential oil of L. angustifolia Mill. relaxed both longitudinal and circular muscle of the guinea pig ileum. There appears therefore to be good agreement that the oils of lavender are spasmolytic on intestinal muscle but Lis-Balchin et al. (1996a, 1996b) and Lis-Balchin and Hart (1999) reported that, with some...

Sleepdisordered breathing disorders in neurological diseases

Sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory failure are a common consequence of neuromuscular diseases. Respiratory failure as a result of the underlying disease is more prominent during physiological sleep. Ventilation disorders caused by weakening of breathing muscles occur mostly in patients at REM sleep stage. Physiological relaxation of most of the body muscles (except diaphragm and oculomotory muscles, Tabachnik, 1981) and respiratory drive instability may be the cause of breathing disorders during this phase of sleep. It was confirmed in patients with neuromuscular diseases in which blood saturation was measured (Bourke, 2002 Katz, 2009). Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with neuromuscular diseases can be either of central or obstructive origin. The most common type of sleep-disordered breathing in these patients are central hypoventilation and central apneas.

Reporter Genes And Reporter Probes

Reporter Cell

Figure 4 Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) In MRI, subjects are placed in a strong, external, magnetic field, B0, produced by a hollow, cylindrical magnet. The B0 field is nearly uniform and points parallel to the long axis of the magnet. Imaging with MRI is dependent upon atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons, such as hydrogen (JH). Such atoms have their own net magnetic field a.k.a., magnetic dipole moment (MDM) and their moments align accordingly when placed in this external magnetic field. Once equilibrium has been achieved between the subject and the magnet, energy can be added to the system in the form of a radiofrequency (RF) pulse. In most cases, this pulse, which generates its own magnetic field, can change the alignment of the hydrogen atoms such that their moments are now perpendicular to B0. Once the RF pulse is ''turned off'', the hydrogen atoms realign or ''relax'' to B0 and give up energy in the form of RF waves during the relaxation period....

Gallbladder Carcinoma

Gallbladder Findings

MRI findings in gallbladder carcinoma are similar to those reported with CT. MRI demonstrates prolongation of the T1 and T2 relaxation time in gallbladder carcinoma and is therefore heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted images and hypoin-tense on T1-weighted images compared with liver parenchyma. Ill-defined early enhancement is a typical appearance of gallbladder carcinoma in dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI. Combining MRI and MRCP offers the potential of evaluating parenchymal, vascular, biliary, and nodal involvement with a single noninvasive examination. Based on MRI alone, however, it may be difficult to distinguish carcinoma of the gallbladder from inflammatory and metastatic disease.88,94

Drug And Alcohol Use Among Youth Gangs

Vigil (1985, 1988) described a variety of meanings and roles of substances among Chicano gang members in East Los Angeles, from social lubricant during times of collective relaxation to facilitator for observance of ritual behaviors such as locura acts of AGGRESSION or VIOLENCE. In these contexts, drug use provided a means of social status and acceptance, as well as mutual reinforcement, and was a natural social process of gang life. Vigil (1988) notes that these patterns are confined to substances that enhance gang social proccesses Buford (1980) depicted crowd violence among English football (soccer) ''supporters'' as an inevitable consequence of the game's setting and the dynamics of crowds of youths. Expectancies of both intoxication and violence preceded the arrival of the ''lads'' at drinking locations surrounding the stadiums. The expectancies were played out in crowd behavior through rituals that were repeated before each match. Alcohol consumption before and during episodes...

Neuromuscular Disorders

Sphincter (UES) relaxation, and low lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressures. Cricopharyngeal myotomy or UES dilation may be effective in temporarily improving dysphagia in these patients however, the long-term prognosis is unchanged after intervention (9). Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) comprise a group of neuromuscular disorders with varied clinical presentations, most of which occur early in childhood. Over one-third of patients with SMAs suffer from dysphagia. Parkinson's disease is a progressive degenerative disorder caused by the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra. The resulting disorder is characterized by rigidity and resting tremor. The rigidity is caused by simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscle groups that are usually coordinated to produce fine muscle movements. The resulting dysphagia is a result of poor bolus transport during the oral phase, early spill into the pharynx, and a prolonged pharyngeal transit time. The...

Non Hodgkins Lymphoma and Hodgkins Disease

Hepatic Lymphoma

On MR images, focal hepatic lymphoma is generally seen as homogeneously hypointense compared to the normal parenchyma on unenhanced T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Dynamic imaging after the administration of a gadolinium contrast agent typically reveals a hypointense appearance on arterial phase images, followed by homogeneous, delayed enhancement on portal-venous phase images and isointensity on equilibrium phase images (Figs. 39, 40). Susceptibility artifacts may be caused by hemorrhage in pre-treated focal infiltrations and may be more clearly delineated on fat-suppressed T1-weighted images 4 . Although lymphoma is readily distinguishable from normal liver, the difference in relaxation times from metastases and HCC is not significant.

What is a Stretta procedure

Stretta Procedure

Generally, a weak or lax lower esophageal sphincter causes reflux, although some reflux is related to inappropriate relaxation of the LES. Historically, antireflux surgical procedures wrap part of the stomach around the LES to tighten or reinforce this region. As mentioned earlier, several techniques have been developed to accomplish this nonoperatively with an endoscope to avoid the risks and discomfort of surgery.

Techniques For The Cervical Area

The cervical spine poses several problems for the manipulative practitioner. Patients are often nervous of having their neck handled. This is either through natural fear of damage to the area from its apparent fragility, or due to having had a previous bad experience. Some operators are also afraid of harming the patient with techniques in the neck and unconsciously transmit this to the patient. The patient then finds relaxation impossible, thus perpetuating the vicious circle. Some patients feel threatened if they cannot see the practitioner, and in these cases techniques should be performed from the side or front of the patient. Some patients intensely dislike chin hold techniques, and in these cases cradle hold methods are preferable. The use of rhythm is essential to produce a dynamic state of relaxation, and it is also easier to accelerate in thrust technique from a slightly moving pathway.

Gallbladder And Intestinal Motility

There is increasing insight into pathogenesis of impaired gallbladder motility. Significant absorbtion of cholesterol seems to occur from supersaturated bile in the gall-bladder.37,38 Excess cholesterol is then incorporated within the sarcolemmal plasma membrane of the gallbladder smooth muscle cell, with decreased membrane fluidity, impaired contractility, and impaired relaxation as a result.39 In addition, the gallbladder wall is exposed to detergent bile salts, unesterified cholesterol, and bacteria.40,41 As a result, a proinflammatory Th1 immune response may occur, which contributes to hypomotility. Although impaired motility could be in many cases secondary to biliary cholesterol supersaturation, it may still facilitate the process of gallstone formation. Gallbladder motility is often impaired in high-risk situations for gallstone formation, such as pregnancy, obesity, diabetes mellitus, gastric surgery, treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide, very low calorie...

Psychosocial Influences On Painrelated Limitations In Cancer Survivors

Cognitive-behavioral approaches have dominated psychological intervention research on cancer pain management. Cognitive-behavioral perspectives proceed from the view that an individual's interpretation, evaluation and beliefs about their health condition, and their coping repertoire with respect to pain and disability will impact on the degree of emotional and physical disability that will be associated with cancer.25,28 It is important to note that the term cognitive-behavioral does not refer to a specific intervention but, rather, to a class of intervention strategies. The strategies included under the heading of cognitive-behavioral interventions vary widely and may include self-instruction (e.g., motivational self-talk), relaxation or biofeedback, developing coping strategies (e.g., distraction, imagery), increasing assertiveness, minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts, changing maladaptive beliefs about pain, and goal setting.67 A client referred for cognitive-behavioral...

Diffuse Oesophageal Spasm

Diffuse oesophageal spasm (DES) is a relatively rare motor disorder. Associated manometric abnormalities may include hypertensive and repetitive contractions. The lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) may also be hypertensive. Although LES relaxation with deglutition is generally normal, disturbances in LES function are often seen. These abnormalities are, however, not required for the diagnosis (Massey 2001). In a study of eight DES patients with chest pain or dysphagia, peppermint oil had no effect on LES pressures or contractile pressures and durations in the oesophagus, yet completely eliminated simultaneous oesophageal contractions in all patients (P 0.01). The number of multiphasic, spontaneous and missed contractions also improved. Two of the eight patients had their chest pain resolved after taking the peppermint oil (Pimentel et al 2001).

Geomatrix Partially Coated Swellable Matrices

The Amount Drug

There have been many attempts to control release kinetics in hydrophilic matrices by manipulating and balancing diffusion and relaxation mechanisms. Zero-order release from a matrix was obtained by designing an appropriate matrix shape 1 or nonuniform drug distribution 2 , by using ionic-exchange resins, hydrophobic porous materials 3, 4 , hydrophilic soluble polymers capable of modifying the effective diffusivity of drug 5 , or by surface cross-linking of the matrix 6 and others. Geometric design of zero-order release in swellable matrices resides in maintaining a constant release area during matrix swelling and drug diffusion. This releasing area is the area of the swollen matrix surface in contact with the dissolution medium. A partially coated matrix, providing a constant releasing area takes the form of a core-in-cup system, i.e., a disk of drug and swellable soluble polymer coated with an impermeable film on the lateral surface and on one base (Fig. 11.2). The findings indicated...

Understanding Popular Diets

The other major diet phenomenon of recent years has been Dr. Dean Ornish s plan. The Ornish approach is similar to Pritikin's. It calls for severe total fat restriction and liberal consumption of carbohydrates. He also emphasizes exercise and relaxation techniques. In several small studies, he has demonstrated improved vascular health as a result of his diet. The biggest problem that I see in the Ornish approach is one that he readily acknowledges It is very difficult to follow. Another issue is its restriction of total fats. Most polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are good for you and your blood vessels. So why not use them for satiety and to make meals taste better Also troubling is that in selected patients, the high carb intake can induce the prediabetes syndrome we'll discuss beginning on page 75. Since at least one-quarter of Americans are predisposed to this syndrome, and it is present in more than 50 percent of those who have had heart attacks, it is no small concern....

Social Phobia Social Anxiety

Of the nine studies, seven used written manuals and two evaluated a videotaped SH program. Among the seven studies using written manuals, six used published SH books. A Guide to Rational Living and A New Guide to Rational Living (Ellis & Harper, 1962, 1975) emphasized cognitive strategies and were examined by two studies (Schelver & Gutsch, 1983 Vestre & Judge, 1989). A Manual for Self-Management of Public Speaking Anxiety (Marshall & Andrew, 1973) described relaxation and desensitization strategies and was tested in two studies (Kirsh & Henry, 1979 Marshall et al., 1976). Dying of Embarrassment (Markway, Carmin, Pollard, & Flynn, 1992) described cognitive-behavioral approaches for social anxiety and, along with a commercially available audiotape, Letting Go of Stress, was used to treat people who received a SoP diagnosis (Walker et al., 2001). Overcoming Shyness and Social Phobia A Step-by-Step Guide (Rapee, 1998) is a cognitive-behavioral SH book that was evaluated in individuals...

Acceptance of Group Resistance in a School Based Anger Management Group with Urban Adolescents

The group meets once a week for one hour. The setting is the school counselor's office in an environment that is welcoming and relaxed. The group model integrates psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, relaxation training, journaling, and the processing of feelings related to normative life transitions. Group can be scheduled during the school day at a specific time or can be conducted after school. Group planning plays a large role in group success and before starting the group, the leader must do a thorough job of group selection. Brigman & Goodman (2001) provide a very helpful pregroup interview outline that can be used when making determinations of group composition.

The representation of the kidney

The application on average of 2.8 single-use steel implants (ASP) reduced pain by 70-80 in eight cases and by 40-70 in four cases in two cases this had no effect at all. The reduction of colic and the presumed relaxation of the smooth muscle of the ureter favored the expulsion of calculi in the following hours days however, this was demonstrated in only eight out of 14 cases. The diameter of the calculi in no case exceeded 5-6 mm on examination six calculi were found to be of calcium oxalate, two of uric acid. In only one of these cases did I find tenderness on Nogier's kidney and ureter point.

Operator Posture And Stance

Breathing also changes posture on inhalation the spine lengthens and straightens slightly, and the reverse happens on exhalation. It is easier to transmit a sense of relaxation to the patient if the operator is relaxing himself. A controlled outward breath will often help to produce an optimum sense of tissue relaxation in the patient. If the operator asks the patient to breathe out at the same time, this shows how another modifying factor of patient respiration can be combined with operator posture and breathing to good effect.

Available Self Help Materials and Target Audience

A search of the Amazon.com Web site using the keywords self-help and sleep produced over 40 hits. Included in the top-selling books were No More Sleepless Nights (Hauri, 1996), Can't Sleep, Can't Stay Awake A Woman's Guide to Sleep Disorders (Kryger, 1999), Say Good Night to Insomnia (Jacobs, 1999), and Seven Days to a Perfect Sleep (Gordon, 2003). The majority of available materials come in book form. Audio media (tapes or compact disks) comprise the remaining commercially available titles. The latter products typically consist of audio recordings of relaxation or self-hypnotic exercises. It should be noted that these titles are ones devoted exclusively to the topic of sleep. Many self-help books on other health problems (e.g., chronic pain, depression, menopause) include abbreviated advice for enhancing sleep or combating insomnia.

Raymond J Joehl Indications

Laparoscopic Heller myotomy is indicated in operable patients who are candidates for laparoscopy and who have had diagnostic studies indicating a swallowing disorder consistent with achalasia, especially a barium swallow (showing the characteristic bird-beak appearance of the narrowed esophagogastric junction (EGJ)), an upper endoscopy to rule out the possibility of a neoplasm (pseudoachalasia), and esophageal manometry that shows absence of peristalsis in the proximal and midesophagus and absence of swallow-induced relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), usually with high basal pressure 20 mmHg.

Implications for practice

Fatigue needs an integrative approach. Exercise and physical activity should be integrated with other fatigue management strategies, including modifying dietary needs, relieving other symptoms, practicing progressive muscle relaxation, and assessing meeting emotional and spiritual needs. Cognitive therapy focusing on increasing individuals' self-efficacy can be an effective motivational intervention to encourage individuals with cancer to participate in exercise and physical activity (Haas 2000). It can be assumed that an integrative approach to fatigue management will improve the ability of cancer patients and survivors to manage their fatigue.

The Role of Tetrahydrobiopterin in Nitric Oxide Synthase

Amide Anion

Nitric oxide ( NO) was discovered as the endothelium-derived relaxation factor. It is produced in the central nervous system, lungs, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells in response to a variety of stimuli. It initiates a cGMP signaling cascade. In smooth muscle, nitric oxide activates a cytosolic guanylate cyclase by reacting with a heme-containing regulatory subunit and causing a conformational change. This results in smooth muscle relaxation and hence vasodilatation as a result of reduced intracellular calcium in response to the increased concentration of cGMP. This role of nitric oxide in stimulating guanyl cyclase explains the clinically useful vasodilatory action of nitroglycerine and aryl nitrites, which decompose in vivo to yield nitric oxide. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide also inhibits platelet aggregation, again acting byway of activation of guanylate cyclase.

Receptor Activation and Signaling

Gumg Transmembrane

The activated p2-AR binds to cytoplasmic G-proteins (Fig. 2) this coupling process requires several molecular interactions between the intracellular portions of the receptor and G-protein (6). The p2-AR G-protein complex activates the enzyme adenyl cyclase, which is responsible for the conversion of ATP to cAMP. This activates protein kinase A, which is able to phosphorylate proteins that are directly involved in the regulation of smooth muscle tone. Additionally, intracellular Ca levels are reduced through a variety of mechanisms. This also contributes to smooth muscle relaxation. There is also evidence that the activated p2-AR G-protein complex interacts with cell membrane K channels (7). Figure 2 b2-Adrenoreceptor (b2-AR) signaling pathways. Agonist binding causes receptor coupling to G-proteins (G-P), which increases adenylate cyclase (A-C) conversion of ATP to cAMP. This activates protein kinase A (PKA), leading to smooth muscle relaxation. The b2-AR G-P complex also interacts...

Ectomorph training and nutrition strategies

Ectomorphs tend to be high strung, stressed and hyperactive. Stress reduction techniques can help the ectomorph get better results from their nutrition and exercise programs. Taking up meditation can be especially beneficial. An excellent book about meditation from a scientific point of view is The Relaxation Response by Herbert Benson.

Balancing Motherhood And Diabetes

Rachel Garlinghouse has two young daughters, Ella and Emery and she says I know that if I do not put my health first, everyone in my family will suffer. Diabetes or not, how I treat myself is likely how my daughters will learn to treat themselves. I value exercise, healthy eating, sleep, and relaxation. I work very hard to make sure we aren't overscheduled as a family. At times, yes, it's difficult to say 'no' to others and 'yes' to self, but if you don't take care of yourself now, you will pay for it later.

Techniques For The Cervicothoracic Junction Area

Get adequate relaxation in the area should alert the practitioner to this possibility. As a precursor to incipient cardiac infarction there can also be a characteristic feel to this area, presumably due to aberrant viscero-somatic reflex patterns. This manifests as an increasing state of tension with a 'sheet like' nature in that there is no specific point of tension. There is, rather, a generalized state that partly resolves with manual treatment only to recur very rapidly. This is difficult to describe, but once it has been felt, will never be forgotten. This muscular state disappears almost immediately after a myocardial infarction, presumably due to the changes in the reflex patterns. There may be other factors in operation here such as changes in life-style, the shock to the system, and many others, but it is, nevertheless, quite characteristic. Tips Try using the expiration phase of breathing to give the best relaxation effect.

Massage in classical Greece and Rome

The Greeks believed in the cultivation of a healthy mind and body, which is similar to the 'holistic approach' practised by many people today. Rituals of bathing, massage, exercise or dancing were practised by men and women. They encouraged the pursuit of physical fitness and organised regular sporting, gymnastic and athletic competitions. Massage was used before events to improve performance and after events to relieve fatigue and aid recovery. Gladiators and soldiers were massaged before battle to give vigour and promote fitness and health, and afterwards to aid recovery, healing and relaxation. Homer writes in the poem The Odyssey of Greek soldiers being rubbed with oils and anointed by beautiful women to aid their recovery and regain strength on return from battle. The Romans followed similar routines to the Greeks. They practised bathing, exercise and massage for health and social relaxation. Large private and public baths were built. These included water baths and steam rooms,...

Viigarlic Allium Sativum

Overall effectiveness of garlic probably revolves around the synergistic effect of various organosulfur compounds produced from the metabolism of g-glutamylcysteines found within intact garlic bulbs (56). These compounds may act to inhibit cholesterol synthesis (54,57), alter platelet function (58), and cause smooth-muscle relaxation (59).

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on appetite control

The effect of dietary MCT versus LCT on short-term food intake has been compared in rats (Maggio and Koopmans, 1982 Furuse et al1992). The satiating effect of these two triglycerides appears to be related to their caloric content rather than to chain length (Feinle et al2001 Westerterp-Plantenga, 2004a). In addition, the ingestion of MCT as a bolus does not stimulate contraction of the gallbladder nor raise the plasma cholecystoki-nin (CCK) level in the manner in which it occurs following LCT ingestion (Hopman et al., 1984). This gastric relaxation by MCT is not sufficient to induce satiation therefore, the nutrient-induced gastric relaxation occurs through other mechanisms than CCK (Furuse et al., 1992 Barbera et al 2000). According to Maas et al. (1998), MCT inhibit gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, but less so than LCT. Overall, it has been determined that the satiating effects of a fat depend on the fatty acid chain length, and moreover that the role of CCK and...

Mind and brain identity theories

According to Francisco Varela, the reductionist approach considers the 'subjective' side of human experience as unreliable and unsafe, and regards it as a second order of expression to an objective knowledge, which is considered valid and scientific (Varela et al. 2001). This attitude has its own risks. Probably the most insidious one is derived from the argument that the NDE is a mere product of the brain. None of us can deny that the experience and the brain activities are interconnected. A large number of clinical studies provide evidence of such a relation. Let us take an appealing example such as that of the smell of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia).1 Masatoshi and his colleagues at the Tohoku University in Japan have shown from a PET measurement that the lavender aroma produces 'a metabolic reduction in the right superior temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus and activations in the left posterior part of the cingulate gyrus' (Itoh et al. 2004 109). These results mean...

The Representation Of Tinnitus On The Auricle

I tried, for example, to treat the tender points located in 10 patients with chronic tinnitus (5 males and 5 females, average age 61.8 years) (on the right of Fig. 5.32). Despite the number of tender points identified (on average 3.7) the result of treatment was deceptive and the only positive effect was that of relaxation, which presumably increased the patient's tolerance of the symptom. The distribution of points, in the hypothesis that they really could be associated with tinnitus, was scattered over the whole ear lobe. This dispersion, in my opinion, indicates a multiple-site dysfunction and confirms the existence of multifactorial causes which should be managed only with an interdisciplinary approach aimed at improving this condition.

Technological Issues

Rheolograph

Several materials, including detergents, have been shown to improve the bread making properties of SPI-containing dough and the quality of protein-fortified bread. Studies have reported the effects of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), nonionic hydrophilic polysorbate 60 (Tween 60), and nonionic lipophilic sodium tristearate (Span 65) on the rheological properties of the SPI-containing dough (Chen and Rasper, 1982). These detergents did not alter 423 water adsorption of SPI-containing dough according to the farinograph assay, nor did they improve the increased resistance to extension or the relaxation time according to the tensile strength test. However, Tween 60 improved gas retention in the dough and increased loaf volume. SSL and Span 65 also improved gas retention in dough, but they did not completely restore the normal loaf volume of bread containing SPI.

Mellowing Your Muscles

One of the most thoroughly researched methods for teaching your body to relax is called progressive muscle relaxation. It sounds scientific and complicated, but you can find easy techniques for muscle relaxation in a variety of books, tapes, CDs, and on the Internet. Flat out Muscle relaxation works. That's why, in this section, we give you one of our favorite muscle relaxation strategies. In the beginning, this technique will take you about 15 or 20 minutes. As you practice the exercise, you'll be able to accomplish relaxation in a shorter period of time. After a while, some people are able to relax their bodies within just two or three minutes To get the most out of this relaxation exercise, find a quiet place where you're unlikely to be disturbed. Turn off phones and pagers. Wear comfortable clothing, take off your shoes, and loosen any tight belts or restrictive clothing. The following relaxation procedure is excerpted from our book, Overcoming Anxiety For Dummies (Wiley)....

Classical or Respondent Conditioning

In systematic desensitization, patients are slowly presented with the feared object in stages, beginning with the least-feared situation and ending with a situation that provokes the most fear. The therapist teaches the patient to remain relaxed as the feared object approaches so eventually the patient associates it not with fear but with calmness and relaxation. One example is the case of Little Albert, in which Watson attempted to extinguish the baby's fear of the white rat by giving him food (a stimulus that elicited pleasure) while showing the white rat. In this case, the white rat ceases to be paired with a fear-inducing stimulus and instead becomes linked to a pleasure-inducing stimulus.

Can medicines exacerbate GERD

Smooth muscle hormones and other local factors control these muscle cells. Smooth muscle is a muscle type that is not within your conscious control, unlike the muscles in your arms or legs. Smooth muscles line blood vessels, and when these muscles are relaxed, your blood pressure drops. Smooth muscle also lines the gut, including the esophagus, the lower esophageal sphincter, and the colon (large intestine). Side effects of calcium channel blockers are relaxation of the LES, which can lead to reflux, and relaxation of the colon, which can lead to constipation.

Pathophysiology of GORD

Abnormalities of the lower oesophageal sphincter related to GORD In health the lower oesophageal sphincter is tonically contracted, relaxing only during swallowing. Some patients with GORD have reduced lower oesopha-geal sphincter tone, permitting reflux when intra-abdominal pressure rises. In others basal sphincter tone is normal but reflux occurs in response to frequent episodes of inappropriate sphincter relaxation.

Review of Selected Manuals

Kicking Butts Quit Smoking and Take Charge of Your Health (American Cancer Society, 2003). This manual outlines many options to quitting smoking and advocates using a combination of methods to stop. Its chapters are clearly labeled and divided into short, easily readable sections. In addition to the components of the quit smoking treatment described in the general review above, this book also includes cognitive restructuring and relaxation skills development. It addresses all nicotine replacement therapies as well as non-nicotine replacement therapies and highlights the advantages and disadvantages to each in a well-organized, easy-to-read chart. The book includes brief motivational activities mostly as checklists throughout the book and provides references to support groups, major organizations, and telephone counseling. In addition to the components described earlier, this book includes cognitive restructuring, relapse prevention (addressed before and after quitting), information on...

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Although two controlled studies for OCD (Fritzler, Hecker, & Losee, 1997 Greist et al., 2002) compared SH interventions to other venues, only one (Greist et al., 2002) reported group comparison data. Greist et al. (2002) compared computer-guided, telephone-based, behavior therapy (BT STEPS), therapist-directed behavior therapy, and book- and audiotape-guided relaxation training among individuals who received a diagnosis of OCD. The program consisted of three steps for education and assessment and six treatment steps for practicing self-exposure and ritual prevention. Individuals in all groups had 10 weeks to complete their treatment. All study participants improved at posttreatment, but the magnitude of symptom improvement assessed by self-administered and clinician-rated questionnaires was largest in the therapist-assisted treatment followed by the BT STEPS group. Individuals receiving BT STEPS had outcomes similar to individuals receiving the TDI on several measures, including time...

Reducing stress and tension

The client must be greeted pleasantly and made to feel cared for and cosseted. The procedure should be clearly explained and the client should be encouraged to ask questions, which must be answered immediately. S he must be encouraged to discuss any problems or worries that may contribute to stress. A sympathetic but not patronising approach will reduce anxiety and help the client to relax. This is particularly important with new or nervous clients. Relaxation can be further encouraged by suggesting that the client empties the mind or concentrates on some pleasant visual imagery. Keep conversation to a minimum once the massage has started. Although most of these factors apply to most massage treatments, they are particularly important for relaxation and will greatly influence the effectiveness of the treatment.

Stress Busting with Biofeedback Therapy

If relaxation therapy can help with heartburn, it can help with fibromyalgia In 1994, researchers reported on the results of training people who suffer from severe chronic heartburn in relaxation therapy in Gastroenterology, a journal for physicians specializing in digestive diseases. Chronic heartburn What's that got to do with fibromyalgia Just bear with me for a moment. The researchers had inserted special instruments in the stomachs of the subjects, so that they could actually measure each person's stomach acidity when the experiment began, and then again when it ended. Then they trained subjects in one group to perform relaxation therapy, while the other group watched a movie. Both groups were given the same heartburn-inducing meals. (Pepperoni pizza with extra cheese and cola to drink.) So what happened The relaxation-therapy group experienced a significant reduction in the level of acidity in their stomachs, and they also felt much better. The other group, which didn't receive...

And Other Medical Systems

Another important concept in CAM is vitalism, which refers to the belief that there is a life force that helps to promote health and healing. Associated with this concept is the idea that illness results from imbalance or blockage of an essential flow of energy. Restoring balance is therefore often the goal. Spirituality may be a part of CAM, though many CAM therapies utilize nonreligious forms of spirituality such as meditation and relaxation techniques. Also common to most CAM therapies is the belief that health is not just the absence of illness, but a positive state. Health is a goal to be gained by effort rather than just good luck. In this view, the individual has a responsibility to do the things that achieve balance and promote wellness (for example, meditating or following a specific diet). Conventional medicine is more concerned with the pathology of a particular illness, including its cause and effect. The emphasis is not holistic, since treatments target a particular...

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

Caffeine decreases peripheral resistance by direct vasodilatation and increases blood flow to a small extent. This effect results from the relaxation of smooth muscle of blood vessels. For coronary arteries, vasodilatation is also observed in vitro, but the effects of caffeine in human coronary arteries in vivo are unknown. Different effects of caffeine on circulation can be observed in different vascular beds and, for example, the treatment of migraine headaches by caffeine is mediated through the vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. It has also been shown that caffeine is capable of attenuating postprandial hypotension in patients with auto-nomic failure.

Making Lifestyle Changes Pulling Yourself into a Non Fibro World

Stress is a normal part of life, but if you have fibromyalgia on top of the usual daily stresses, or maybe with some extra stress thrown in once in a while, you're in a bad situation. Stress can greatly worsen the chronic pain, fatigue, and other symptoms of the person with fibromyalgia. Be sure to read Chapter 13 for my suggestions on relaxation therapy, hypnosis, meditation, and other methods to destress yourself. They work

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