Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook

Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook

This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds from the Babbling Brooks.

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Brain Evolution System

This mp3 recording contains relaxing recordings that change your brainwaves to relax you at a deeper level than you normally have access to. This recording removes stress and anxiety, sharpens your thought process, and boosts your mood and happiness. These sound recordings are carefully designed to boost your brainwaves into peak mode, bringing fully mental strength to you ON Demand any time that you need! These brainwave stimulations bring up your IQ, take away your stress, and bring you to a state of tranquility and relaxation. It only takes 30 minutes a day of listening to unlock the full potential of your brain. You can change your mood ANY time that you want with this program. Lee Benson is a brainwave expert who has worked for years to create the perfect brainwave stimulation program, and this is the program that has the full ability to change your whole life. All it takes is this mp3 and 30 minutes a day.

Brain Evolution System Overview

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Relaxation and hobbies

It is very easy to become so wrapped up in your son's illness that you forget to take time out for relaxation and hobbies. We all have different ways of relaxing and relieving the day-to-day stresses of life. It is important for you as a carer to remember to give yourself time to relax and escape from your son's illness on a regular basis. To start with I wasn't very good at giving myself time out. I became stressed, lay awake at night and lost weight. As time went on and I came to accept Joe's illness and its effect on our family, I realised how important it was for everyone to have time out from Joe's illness. I found writing, exercise, golf and going out with friends every now and then were very therapeutic. There are lots of activities that it might be useful to consider including

Chitting Out with Relaxation Therapy

Relaxation therapy is a strategy that uses steps to achieve an overall calming of both the body and the mind. In general, the person consciously concentrates on relaxing one part of the body, or one set of muscles, at a time until the entire body is in a state of relaxation. The great thing about relaxation therapy is that you can practice it on your own at home as often as you want. Take your time. You can't rush through relaxation therapy. Don't move on to another part of your body until the part that you're concentrating on feels completely relaxed. The relaxation mode continues up through the trunk of your body and out into your arms. You may choose to end with your head and your very, very tired eyes that just want to close. Or you may want to close your eyes at the very beginning of your relaxation session. Either way can work. You may notice that relaxation therapy uses some of the basic techniques that are also used in hypnotherapy however, with relaxation therapy, relaxation...

Relaxation techniques

Relaxation is the release of tension from the mind and body through conscious effort. By reducing muscle tension during labor and delivery, you can short-circuit a fear-tension-pain cycle. Relaxation allows your body to work more naturally, helping you conserve energy for the work ahead. Relaxation and patterned breathing are mainstays of the self-comforting measures women use for labor. These methods and others are usually taught in childbirth classes. Relaxation doesn't mean fighting the pain, which would actually create more tension. It means allowing the pain to roll over you while you concentrate on tension-relieving and distracting exercises. Relaxation is actually a learned skill and one that will be most effective if you practice it before the onset of labor. The more proficient you become at it, the more self-confident you'll be during labor. Here are some tips for mastering self-relaxation With a natural pain relief technique called progressive relaxation, you relax groups...

The Relaxation Response

Herbert Benson, a colleague of mine who is a cardiology professor at Harvard, is widely known for his work on stress and relaxation. In the 1970s he coined the term relaxation response to refer to the opposite of the stress response commonly known as fight or flight. In a stressful situation, the nervous system goes into overdrive and increases one's heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and the blood supply to the muscles these are ways to help the body respond to stress. The relaxation response, in contrast, works by encouraging the nervous system to have the opposite effect. In his book The Relaxation Response, Dr. Benson states the two essential steps to eliciting the relaxation response

Endothelium Dependent Vasorelaxation of Ginsenosides

Endothelium plays an important role in regulating vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive autacoids, including prostacyclin, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) (79). EDRF has been identified as NO, which is produced from L-arginine by NOS (80). NO relaxes blood vessels mostly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase, which leads to an increased production of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle (81). Ginsenosides have been found to lower blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in rats at doses of 10-100 mg kg. This effect is mediated by release of endothelium-derived NO, enhancing the accumulation of cGMP (82). Recently, it has also been reported that ginseng can improve vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension, possibly by increasing synthesis of NO. Protopanaxatriol and its purified ginsenosides Rg1 and Re caused endothelium-dependent relaxation, which is associated with the formation of cGMP. In...

Stress Reduction Relaxation Strategies Leisure Activities and Exercise

Students with ADHD are often in a state of stress from trying to cope with the challenges and daily struggles in their lives. When one is hyperactive, emotionally over-reactive, and or anxious, it helps to learn relaxation and stress-reduction strategies, as well as find positive outlets to channel one's energy. It is therapeutic to teach children ways to calm their minds and bodies and release inner tension, which can also empower them with a feeling of self-control. The ideas discussed here have health and psychological benefits that are good for all of us, but may be of particular importance for youngsters with ADHD.

Mastering relaxation

Relaxation is the release of tension from your mind and body through conscious effort. It's a learned skill and one you have to practice regularly in order for it to be effective. Several different relaxation techniques are helpful during labor. Progressive muscle relaxation, touch relaxation, massage and guided imagery are just some of the options. You've probably learned about these techniques in your childbirth course, but here's a quick refresher Progressive muscle relaxation. Beginning with your head or feet, relax one muscle group at a time, moving toward the other end of your body. Touch relaxation. Starting at your temples, your partner applies firm but gentle pressure for several seconds, then moves to the base of your skull, shoulders, back, arms, hands, legs and feet. As your partner touches each part of your body, relax the muscle group in that area. Guided imagery. Imagine yourself in an environment that gives you a feeling of relaxation and well-being that special,...

Relaxation

Relaxation means being free from tension and anxiety, which are normally caused by the stresses of life, which upset the body balance. It is impossible to remove all the stressors in life and a certain amount of stress is desirable as it can produce feelings of thrill and excitement. The ability to relax is extremely important as it combats stress and reduces its harmful effects such as fatigue, lethargy, illness and psychological problems. Clients who lead very busy lives or are coping with worries or dealing with unhappy situations may find it very difficult to relax. Advising them and showing them ways of reducing stress and promoting relaxation can form an important part of treatment. Once they have recognised the difference between the tense state and the relaxed state they can continue to practise at home.

Relaxation in IBS

Relaxation provides perhaps the most common and the simplest form of psychotherapy which can be easily taught to patients by nurses. The rationale behind relaxation is that if stress is a factor in the aetiology of IBS, then reducing the emotional tension with relaxation techniques will help to reduce physical symptoms and induce a sense of well-being by allowing the patient to feel more in control. Relaxation therapy normally incorporates some, if not all, of the following elements lying or sitting in a comfortable position, use of peaceful music, closing eyes to reduce visual stimulation, exercises to relax muscles and visual imagery to elicit peaceful situations. Relaxation therapy is a central component in many multi-component psychotherapeutic regimes used to treat IBS.

Modifying Your Lifestyle Small Changes Big Results

You can make some nonmedical lifestyle changes to ease your pain. In Chapters 13 and 14, I tell you how you can control stress using relaxation therapy, hypnotherapy, meditation, and yoga, and provide details on how to get a good night's sleep. In Chapter 15, I include important information on exercising, losing weight, and making key dietary changes that may help considerably. In Chapter 16, I cover dealing with the emotional fallout of FMS, and, if you need a therapist, I offer advice on finding a good one.

Fightor Flight Response

Serotonin has an opposite effect from norepinephrine and epinephrine. In the face of a threatening environment, the serotonergic system increases feelings of well being, calm, relaxation, confidence, and concentration. Serotonergic neuronal networks counterbalance the effects of noradrenaline associated with arousal, fear, anger, tension, aggression, violence, obsessive-compulsive actions, overeating, and anxiety and sleep disturbances.

Alcohol And Its Complications In The Elderly

A number of studies have shown that alcohol in moderate amounts is actually a good medicine for the elderly (even the Prohibition Amendment permitted the sale of alcohol for medicinal purposes) and that it improves social interaction, mental alertness, and several signs of physical health. Alcohol is primarily a drug which depresses or deadens the central nervous system (CNS). Paradoxically, in moderate amounts it may seem to act as a stimulant with mood-elevating effects that account for its popularity. What it is actually doing in these cases is to depress or deaden inhibitions. The lack of inhibitions contributes to feelings of relaxation, confidence, and euphoria. However, alcohol abuse can result in serious damage to the brain and to the rest of the nervous system. It can cause brain tissue to shrink or waste away, unsteadiness and lack of coordination in movement, and damage to nerves throughout the body. Large doses of alcohol cause inflammation of the stomach, pancreas, and...

How your mental computer is programmed for success or failure

Suggestions given under hypnosis or affirmations repeated during deep relaxation are quick ways to access the subconscious mind. Another way to penetrate the subconscious (although much slower) is through repetition. Everything you hear, see, say, read or think repeatedly will eventually filter into your subconscious mind. In other words, you are constantly programming your brain through conscious self-suggestion - or you are allowing your brain to be programmed through external suggestion.

Alcohol And Aids Alcohol and AIDS

Conventional wisdom based on long experience is that alcohol's relaxation of sexual inhibition will increase risky sexual behaviors in those who use alcohol even in moderation (2-3 drinks a day). Risky behaviors include unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse with more than one partner, unprotected intercourse with intravenous drug users, who have a high risk of HIV infection, and unprotected oral sex with potentially protected infected partners. Anyone who has used intravenous drugs or had sex with more than one person is at significant risk of infection with HIV and other pathogens.

Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

Urodynamic studies have been conducted in small samples of PD patients with persistent bladder complaints to elucidate the nature of the problem. Berger et al. (60) studied 29 patients and found that detrusor hyperreflexia was present in 90 and that incomplete sphincter relaxation during involuntary detrusor contractions as shown

American Society For The Prevention Of Temperance

AMOBARBITAL Amobarbital (Amytal) is one of the many different members of the BARBITURATE family of central nervous system depressants used to produce relaxation, sleep, anesthesia, and anticonvulsant effects. In terms of the duration of its effects, it is considered an intermediate-acting barbiturate. When taken by mouth, its sedating effects take about 1 hour to develop and last about 6 to 8 hours, although it takes considerably longer for all the drug to leave the body.

Peptides of the gastrointestinal tract

Some of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by peptides, derivatives of amino acids and a variety of mediators released from nerves. These functions include contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle wall and the sphincters (physiological 'gatekeepers' of the gastrointestinal tract) secretion of enzymes for digestion secretion of fluids and electrolytes and growth of the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract.

Recommended Treatment for ADHD

The counseling portion of the treatment plan may include both individual and family counseling. Family counseling may be useful in planning and evaluating workable strategies, such as conflict resolution, and providing needed emotional support. Individual counseling for the ADHD child can provide training in social skills, anger control, and relaxation techniques.

Terminology and aetiology

Both oesophageal and gastric factors affect the occurrence of reflux. The critical factor is lower oesophageal sphincter incompetence most reflux occurs during transient relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter resulting from failed swallows (swallows not followed by a normal oesophageal peristaltic wave) and gastric distension (mostly after meals). Recent evidence has indicated that the diaphragmatic crural fibres surrounding the oesophageal hiatus act as an external sphincter in concert with the intrinsic lower oesophageal sphincter. Failure of this crural mechanism may allow a hiatus hernia to occur. The hernial sac may additionally provide a sump of gastric contents available for reflux once the lower oesophageal sphincter relaxes. Oesophageal acid clearance depends both on

Motility movement in the gastrointestinal tract

Motility refers to contraction and relaxation of the walls and sphincters of the gastrointestinal tract. Motility involves the grinding and mixing of ingested food in preparation for digestion and absorption it then propels the food along the gastrointestinal tract. Smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract enables

Physiological factors influencing food intake

Chemoreceptors in the gastrointestinal tract detect the chemical presence of nutrients, and provide information on the composition of the foods consumed. Factors such as cholecystokinine (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are released in response to the chemical presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract. CCK is a hormone released in the duodenum in response to consumption of fat (i.e. long-chain fatty acids) or protein (i.e. amino acids). GLP-1 is a hormone released in the blood by mucosal cells of the gut in response to the presence of carbohydrates and fat (Macintosh et al., 2001). CCK and GLP-1 suppress appetite by decreasing gastric emptying - by affecting the pyloric pressure, stomach motility and stomach muscle relaxation. By decreasing stomach emptying, the stomach distension increases, leading to sensations of fullness (Geliebter et al., 1988 Rolls et al., 1998). GLP-1 stimulates the islet B-cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin, thereby lowering blood glucose...

Personcentred Planning

Smull (2004, cited in Grant et al. 2005) makes a poignant observation, demonstrating the need for care providers to change their attitudes. He talks about comfort rituals, noting that we would not deny ourselves a glass of wine for relaxation at the end of a 'bad' day, but would probably feel it was all the more reason to indulge in this comfort, whereas people with learning disabilities are often denied their comfort ritual if they have not been 'good', or have had a 'bad day'. This is a valid point in terms of care providers' controlling people's lives, and involves carers' having to change their attitudes and perceptions to give back that control to where it belongs - to the people themselves.

Different Mechanisms Of Action Of Bioactive Constituents

Extracts also exhibit antioxidation effects that are probably mediated through nitric oxide pathways (13). Thus platelet-activating and antioxidation effects could combine to reduce inflammation and increase microcirculatory blood flow and presumably improve brain function. This effect may also be augmented by the biflavone ginkgetin, which can downregulate COX-2 induction in vivo and this downregulating potential is associated with an anti-inflammatory activity (13,14). These inflammatory effects are further augmented through the activation of other pathways by the ginkolides. For example, oral administration of the ginkolide bilobalide can protect against ischemia-induced neuron death (15) by promoting expression of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in rat astrocytes (16). Other contributing effects are membrane-stabilizing, spasmolytic, and smooth-muscle-relaxation properties exerted through alpha-adre-nergic receptors and the...

Physiotherapy procedures in the management of the patient with prostate cancer

One of the objectives of the intervention of the physiotherapy is to re-train the muscles of the pelvis by improving the active retention strength of the striated muscles of the pelvic floor in order to overcome the insufficiency of the injured sphincters and improve the continence of men with PCa. This level includes the awareness of the pelvic floor musculature and the coordination of the contraction-relaxation process to improve the control and the quality of the muscle contraction. Specific attention is given to the muscles of the deep plane of the pelvic floor 5, 24, 25 .

Effects on the Respiratory System

In caffeine-naive subjects, a dose of 4mgkg_1 increases the mean respiratory rate. This effect is not found in chronic caffeine ingestion. Several mechanisms have been suggested, such as an increase in pulmonary blood flow, an increased supply of air to the lungs due to the relaxation of bronchiolar and alveolar smooth muscle, an increase in sensitivity of the medullary respiratory center to carbon dioxide, stimulation of the central respiratory drive, an improved skeletal muscle contraction, and an increase in cardiac output.

Clinical Use in Adults

Inhaled corticosteroids are established as the most effective initial antiinflammatory treatment for asthmatics with persistent symptoms. The use of LABA monotherapy instead in such patients leads to a loss of asthma control, e.g., there is increased airway inflammation and exacerbation rates for patients treated with salmeterol monotherapy compared to ICS mono-therapy (100). An alternative strategy is to use LABA as an additional therapy in patients who are symptomatic despite taking ICS. Additional LABA therapy in this context has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbations (58,101,102). Before the introduction of LABA, it was common for the dose of ICS to be increased in such patients. However, this can have disappointing results as the dose-response curve for these drugs is relatively flat for the linear segment (103). Using LABA as additional therapy offers advantages over increasing the dose of ICS LABA provide an alternative mechanism of action (sustained...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Contrast agents may be used to enhance MRI images (Bradley et al., 1993). Agents which have been approved for clinical use are strongly paramagnetic and contain chelated gadolinium. These agents work by altering the local magnetic environment and, by extension, tissue relaxation times. Contrast agents will diffuse from the intravascular to the extracellular space when there is some compromise of the blood brain barrier (e.g., in the case of cerebral neoplasm or inflammation, Fig. 13). MR contrast is well tolerated and the most common severe reaction is the induction of an asthma attack in patients with pre-existing reactive airway disease.

Motility in the oesophagus

When food is not being ingested, both oesophageal sphincters remain closed. The presence of a bolus of food in the pharynx opens the upper oesophageal sphincter and allows the food to pass into the oesophagus. A peristaltic wave consists of a wave of contraction of the circular muscle, followed by a wave of relaxation. These waves of contraction pass along the walls of the oesophagus and move foodstuff towards the stomach. Each peristaltic wave takes about nine seconds to travel the length of the oesophagus. Therefore it is not primarily gravity, but peristalsis, that moves food towards the stomach, although gravity does assist the process. Secondary peristalsis, which arises from within the oesophagus, is controlled by sympathetic stimulation.

Other Magnetic Resonance Methods

By varying the image acquisition parameters, TR (pulse repetition time) and TE (echo time), it is possible to construct images of the proton relaxation times T1 and T2. The development of methods for echo planar imaging makes it possible to collect images with a large number of TR and or TE values quite rapidly and, thereby, to estimate localized T1 and T2 values very reliably. This relaxation time mapping is sometimes referred to as relaxometry. Changes in relaxation times may reflect anomalous cerebral development, as recently demonstrated in schizophrenia (Andreasen et al., 1991 Williamson et al., 1992 Yurgelun-Todd et al., 1995). Alternatively, alterations in cerebral perfusion may lead to small changes in T2 which can be detected using echo planar imaging (Teicher et al., 2000). In the area of substance abuse, relaxation time measurements have also been used to assess brain hydration. In general, as brain water content decreases, relaxation times become shorter. Within the brain,...

How To Minimize And Manage The Different Types Of Fatigue

Your feelings of fatigue may be worsened by underlying depression. Depression is recognized as a symptom of MS and can also occur if life becomes very difficult when you are dealing with the day-to-day challenges of the disease. If so, feelings of overwhelming tiredness or lassitude may be unrelated to your level of activity and more to your mood. In addition, depression can affect sleep, appetite, motivation, and participation in activities. Such feelings can occur in the morning, afternoon, or evening. They do not appear to occur at any particular time of day in fact, when you are depressed, you may wake up feeling tired. If you feel that your fatigue is related to depression, ask your physician to discuss what medications you can take to improve your mood. In addition, psychotherapy, stress management, relaxation training, and support groups can help you deal with the complexities of your disease and the symptoms it can cause. In addition, positive experiences, moderate...

Non Lever And Thrust Using Momentum

The common factor is the maintenance of a sustained position, pressure or movement and the waiting for a response from the tissues. They are all slowly applied using sense of optimum relaxation and change for the better in tissue function. They are reactive techniques rather than direct action techniques and the reader is referred to the section relating to indirect technique for fuller details.

Fatigue In Muscle And The Central Nervous System During Exercise

Of neural transmission at a neuromuscular junction, in which the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscle fiber membrane is prevented as a result of reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. The function of enzymes at a neuromuscular junction, such as cho-linesterase, can fail because of low concentration or hypoactivity. Abnormal metabolism of intracel-lular calcium or potassium also can occur, inhibiting muscle relaxation. Perhaps the central nervous system limits exercise performance as a protective mechanism. Perceived fatigue usually precedes physiologic fatigue. Muscular and neural fatigue can be effectively reversed if a combination of procedures is used, including rest, nutrition therapy, and needling therapy for the fatigued muscles. If muscle fatigue is not properly treated, affected individuals have a higher risk of injury.

Your emotions during weeks 29 to 32 Conquering anxiety

The anxiety or even the natural anticipation you're feeling about your baby's arrival may be making it difficult for you to get to sleep or sleep through the night. If you're feeling restless or anxious at night, try some of the relaxation exercises you've learned in childbirth classes. They may help you get some rest, and doing them now will be good practice for the big event.

Weighing up complementary therapies

Many of the available therapies are geared towards improving general wellbeing and emotional health. Massage therapies, reflexology, yoga, meditation, stress management, relaxation and aromatherapy are all ways to help you handle the stresses of life and many infertile couples find these forms of therapies helpful.

What do the lower esophageal sphincter LES and stomach have to do with reflux

Normally, the LES is a one-way valve and only allows food to pass from the esophagus to the stomach. However, when people suffer from reflux, the LES does not function properly and acid and stomach enzymes can travel up into the esophagus. At rest, the LES is closed and relaxes, opening during a swallow. Inappropriate relaxation or weakness of the LES as occurs with a hiatal hernia is a major cause of reflux.

Abstinence and Relapse

In all three brain regions, suggestive of neuronal loss (Jagannathan et al., 1996). The presence of NAA abnormalities suggests that metabolite ratios using NAA in the denominator might not provide stable measures in alcoholics. Seitz and colleagues (1999) reported both reduced cerebellar volumes and reduced NAA Cr ratios in recently abstinent alcoholics, consistent with neuronal loss. Phosphorus (31P) MRS has also been used to evaluate the neurochemical effects of chonic alcohol abuse. White matter phosphocreatine (PCr) and phosphodiester (PDE) levels were reduced in alcoholics, and correlations between white matter PDE levels and both age and ventricular volumes were found (Meyerhoff et al., 1995). PCr abnormalities implied bioenergetic dysfunction while abnormal PDE levels were interpreted to reflect either altered phospholipid concentration or phospholipid relaxation rates (Meyerhoff et al., 1995).

Hepatic Cirrhosis and Encephalopathy

Cerebral volume changes including frontal and parietal sulcal width increases were described in nonencephalopathic cirrhotic alcoholics (Moore et al., 1989). Cirrhotic alcoholics were found to have more frontal and parietal lobe morphologic abnormalities than noncirrhotic alcoholics (Barthauer et al., 1992). One study noted associations between brain atrophy and both memory and frontal-premotor function (Kulisevsky et al., 1992). In addition to cerebral volume abnormalities, symmetric globus pallidus T1 hyperintensites have been described in alcoholics with chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) (Zeneroli et al., 1991). Additionally, correlations between pallidal signal intensity and plasma ammonia levels (Kulisevsky et al., 1992), severity of hepatic dysfunction (Pujol et al., 1993), and brain atrophy (Kulisevsky et al., 1993) have been identified. Reversibility of the T1 abnormality was confirmed by a study documenting the disappearance of pallidal T1 hyperintensites following liver...

Hardiness As A Concept

Tential disasters into opportunities, had positive interactions with significant others comprised of mutual assistance and encouragement, and prioritized physically healthy activities such as exercising, dieting, relaxation, and following their doctor's recommendations (Maddi, 2002, 2007 Maddi & Kobasa, 1984).

Review of Efficacy Research

There is little literature on CT approaches to drug-resistant depression. Fen-nell and Teasdale (1982) failed to detect a significant effect of CT in five chronic, drug-refractory, depressed outpatients. Antonuccio et al. (1984) applied a psychoeducational group treatment (including relaxation, increasing pleasant activities, cognitive strategies, and social skills) to 10 outpatients with unipolar depression who had not responded to antidepressant medication. All patients continued drug treatment. One patient dropped out of group treatment, four were no longer depressed, two showed some improvement, and three patients were still depressed after psychoeducational group treatment. Improvements were maintained at 9-month follow-up. Miller, Bishop, Norman, and Keitner (1985) examined the effectiveness of a treatment program comprising CT, pharmacotherapy, and short-term hospitalization in six chronic, drug-resistant, depressed females. The approach produced a substantial improvement in...

Mind Body Interventions

Meditation is the ability to self-regulate your thoughts in order to suspend the normal stream of consciousness. A common goal of meditation, which distinguishes it from relaxation, is to reach a state of thoughtless awareness during which you are passively aware of sensations at the present moment. There are a number of different methods that people use to meditate. The methods that involve the constant repetition of sounds or images without aiming for a state of thoughtless awareness are sometimes called quasi-meditative. Meditation is generally thought to be safe for most people. (Meditation is explored in more detail in Chapter 12.)

Self Help Therapies for Anxiety Disorders

Information (b) they can be accessed whenever and however the individual user wants and (c) they can provide information, case studies, and even extractable forms to chart progress. Audiotapes, on the other hand, have the primary advantage of accessibility while the individual is otherwise occupied, such as while driving. To date, commercially available audiotapes for anxiety disorders have focused on specific strategies such as relaxation and desensitization and have not provided more comprehensive treatments.

Can stress increase GERD

Some people do experience heartburn in times of stress. This can occur because stress hormones cause stomach relaxation, and food can linger in the stomach for increased periods of time. Stress hormones may increase stomach acid production. Both of these stress-related factors may result in flares of GERD during emotionally difficult times.

Effective Treatment Approaches

Components reflective of this approach. In CBT, specific aspects of the disorder are identified and specific treatments are designed for each aspect of the disorder. For anxiety disorders, the specific targets include such aspects as physiological arousal, muscle tension, cognitive worries, and avoidance behavior, among others. Treatment modules are then developed to deal with each of these target behaviors, including relaxation training, breathing retraining, identification and labeling of cognitive errors, strategies to change cognitive errors, and exposure to feared situations. Strategies have also been developed for combining these components for example, practicing cognitive strategies while entering anxiety-producing situations. These approaches to developing and using these strategies are often ordered to increase the likelihood of success. Then they are applied to situations of increasing difficulty to provide the individual with experience in dealing with previously avoided...

Are Expressions Necessary For Emotional Experience

The inhibition procedures used in Duclos's study were designed to mimic those used in the behavior therapy technique of systematic desen-sitization in treating anxiety disorders. In systematic desensitization, clients are taught to relax all their skeletal muscles and then to contemplate the objects of their anxiety while maintaining the relaxation (Wolpe, 1958). The muscular relaxation prevents the feelings of anxiety, as self-perception theory would predict as a result, the association between stimulus and anxiety is weakened and eventually disappears. Relaxation techniques are also successful in the treatment of anger (Hazaleus & Deffenbacher, 1986). The success of systematic desensitization therapy demonstrates, in a very practical way, that feelings depend on expressive behavior occurring first.

Take childbirth classes if you havent already

Childbirth classes are often taught by nurses, who cover more than just breathing techniques used for relaxation during labor, or so-called natural childbirth. They typically address all aspects of labor and delivery, as well as newborn care. You'll likely learn about signs of labor, pain relief options during labor, birthing positions, postnatal care and care of a newborn, including information on breast-feeding.

Blood supply to skeletal muscle

They then further divide forming capillary networks within the endomysium, where they join venules that lead to veins. When muscles are relaxed, the capillary network delivers blood to the muscle fibres. When muscles contract, the pressure impedes the flow of blood through the capillary beds, which reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients and limits removal of waste. During exercise, muscle fibres alternately contract and relax, and the capillaries deliver blood during the relaxation phase. However, repeated or sustained contractions, such as isometric work or exercising without sufficient rest periods, prevents blood flow to the muscle fibres, due to compression on blood vessels and capillaries. This results in muscle fatigue, due to lack of oxygen and nutrients and the accumulation of waste products such as lactic acid. The strength and speed of contraction becomes progressively weaker until the muscle finally fails to relax completely, resulting in muscle spasm and...

The Acute Effects Of Alcohol

The skin becomes flushed and warm. There is relaxation and mild sedation. Persons become talkative with loss of inhibitory control of emotions. Small doses (one to two drinks) do not impair complex intellectual ability however, as the dose increases (two or more drinks or as the blood alcohol concentration approaches and exceeds the legal limit) impairment at multiple levels of the nervous system occurs. All types of motor performance are eventually affected, including maintenance of posture, control of speech, and eye movements. These movements become slower and more inaccurate. There is a decrease in mental functioning, such that there is impairment in attention and concentration, and a diminishing ability to make mental associations. There is a decreased ability to attend to incoming sensory information. Night and color vision are impaired. Judgment and discrimination and the ability to think and reason clearly are adversely affected. Even higher doses result in a...

Table 61 Some Experts Recommendations on CAM Therapies

Improve sleep, relieve pain, and diminish symptoms of anxiety or depression. Some CAM therapies can help with treatment-related side effects, such as nausea or hot flashes. In some instances, they may also improve immune function. For example, studies have shown benefit from hypnosis for cancer pain and nausea from relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage for anxiety and from acupuncture for nausea and pain. Cancer patients most commonly try special dietary regimens, herbs, homeopathy, hypnosis, imagery, meditation, megadoses of vitamins, relaxation, and spiritual healing. Progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, hypnosis, prayer, and meditation are all reasonable to try. They may help reduce stress and pain and have essentially no side effects. Some treatments, such as massage and acupuncture, are usually fine to try, though in rare instances your doctor may not want you to use them. For example, if your immune system has been suppressed by cancer treatment or if you are taking...

Other Cns Depressants

Several other classes of drugs act as depressants on the central nervous system. The profile of impairment with barbiturate intoxication largely resembles the acute effects of alcohol. Because of the relatively high abuse potential and severe withdrawal associated with these drugs, the Benzodiazepines have largely displaced Barbiturates in prescriptions for SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC drugs. Currently the most prescribed class of PSYCHOACTIVE drugs in Western industrialized countries, they are typically used for muscle relaxation, sedation, and reduction of ANXIETY. It has become clear that benzodiazepines (e.g., Valium)

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Few studies exist that examined the effectiveness of SH interventions for people with a diagnosis of PTSD. One recent study (Ehlers et al, 2003) compared an SH booklet, cognitive therapy, and repeated assessments in people with PTSD after a motor vehicle accident. Comparisons based on self-report measures as well as clinician-rating scales were made at 12-weeks posttreatment and 6 months after the conclusion of treatment. Although the SH treatment reduced some symptoms, the therapist-directed cognitive therapy was clearly superior to the SH booklet. In addition, treatment using the SH booklet was only slightly more effective than the assessment group at posttreatment and slightly less effective than the assessment group at follow-up. In contrast to these relatively small therapeutic effects, Hirai and Clum (2005) reported significant improvement on symptoms produced by an online SH treatment. These authors developed an 8-week online SH program for trauma victims that consisted of four...

Management of high dysphagia

Generally, radiology is often more rewarding than endoscopy in clarifying the cause of high dysphagia. Cineradiography with liquid barium and bread soaked in barium may give valuable functional as well as anatomical information about the pharynx and cricopharyngeal segment. Most problems are related to failure of pharyngeal contraction or to cricopharyngeal relaxation, or a combination of both.

What you can do as the labor coach

Once contractions begin, you both may feel some initial butterflies. After all, it's the big moment you've been anticipating for the past nine months. But during labor and delivery, your goal is to keep the expectant mother relaxed. That means staying as calm as possible yourself. Take some deep breaths together. Between contractions, practice those relaxation techniques you learned in childbirth class. For example, suggest that she let her muscles go limp or that she concentrate on relaxing her jaw and hands. Gently massage her back, feet or shoulders. Reassure her with your words and actions that you're both ready to have this baby.

Summary and Conclusions

One reason SH programs for panic are comparable to TDIs, while such is not the case for SPs, may have to do with the type of treatment offered for each disorder. For PDs, treatments have focused on the identification and practice of specific skills e.g., relaxation, challenging cognitions, and exposure. These skills are not actually applied by a therapist so much as taught to the client, with the therapist supervising the client's application. Such skill building may be well suited to an SH format. Early studies that evaluated SH treatments for SPs utilized systematic desen-sitization, whereas later studies used directed exposure. Whereas self-administered systematic desensitization produced outcomes comparable to TDIs, directed exposure did not. Systematic differences between types of individuals treated may account for the difference. Systematic desensitization was typically evaluated in student samples, while directed exposure

What kind of foods can make GERD worse

Is a depressant, meaning it calms and relaxes you. Part of this action is the relaxation of muscles, including the lower esophageal sphincter. Both of these effects can result in increased reflux symptoms. Many foods cause relaxation of the LES, which increases GERD. Avoidance of these foods and drinks can help you control GERD and may eliminate or decrease your need for medications. In addition to those previously discussed, examples are citrus foods such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and limes spicy foods tomato-based foods and sauces chocolate mint onions and garlic. Some of these relax the LES, others increase gastric acid production. Avoid these foods particularly before going to sleep because sleeping slows stomach emptying. Tea or coffee with a chocolate cookie before bed is probably not a good idea for those with nocturnal GERD.

Support groups for children with cancer

Both groups do a lot of art therapy, relaxation therapy, playing, and talking. They meet twice a month, and I will continue to take them until they ask to stop. I think it has really helped all of them. We also have two teen nights out a year All of the teenagers with cancer get together for an activity such as watching a hockey game or basketball game, or going bowling, to the movies, or out for pizza. They also see each other at our local camp for children surviving cancer (Camp Watcha-Wanna-Do) each year.

The Age Trend Is Not A Reflection Of A Generation Trend

Many western researchers ascribed the increase in the prevalence of right handers with age to decreased social pressures against left hand use (i.e., a generation shift of the social pressures). For this to be true, it must be shown that there is some indication of the relaxation of such pressures. Without such evidence, factors directly related to age should be sought as possible causes of the trend. Conversely, without evidence for such a relaxation, a flat age trend would be expected, as previously stated. There are two ways to infer such a relaxation it may be seen as an increase in the prevalence of left handedness when recent studies are compared with older ones (see Spiegler & Yeni-Komshian, 1983, for such a generation shift). In making comparisons of this sort, one must be careful in equating the age of participants of different studies, because this factor may affect the prevalence independently of the generation effect. A second method is to compare the prevalence of...

Cyclopiazonic Acid Origin and Toxicity

Cylopiazonic acid (CPA) was first isolated from culture of Penicillium cyclo-pium but has also been shown to be produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium such as A.flavus, A. tamarii or P. camemberti (Le Bars, 1979 Martins & Martins, 1999). Therefore, CPA has been detected in many foods and especially cheeses (Le Bars, 1990), even though only few cases of intoxication have been described. However, retrospective analysis of Turkey X disease'' performed in 1986 by Cole suggested that clinical signs were not all typical of aflatoxicosis. He thus tried to demonstrate a possible role for cyclopiazonic acid in this affection. For instance, opisthotonos originally described in Turkey X disease'' can be reproduced by administration of a high dose of cyclopiazonic acid but not by ingestion of aflatoxin (Cole, 1986). Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ ATPase pump of endoplasmic reticulum (Seidler, Jona, Vegh, & Martonosi, 1989) that plays a key role in...

Adjunctive treatments

In recent years increasing research has been done on mind-body medicine and its effect on coping with the side effects of illness. Adjunctive therapies are those that can be expected to add something beneficial to the treatment. For example, imagery and hypnosis are widely used to help children and teens prepare for or cope with medical procedures. Other helpful adjunctive therapies are relaxation, biofeedback, massage,

Function of endothelial cells

Owing to the strategic location of the endothelium, it is able to perform many different functions. In addition to acting as a protective barrier, endothelial cells have been shown to play important roles in control of homeostasis, capillary transport, and, more importantly, regulation of the tone of underlying vascular smooth muscle. The endothelium evokes relaxation of these muscle cells, allowing vasodilation via the chemical factor endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), which has been identified as nitric oxide (NO). The EDRF or NO is vital for maintaining the vasodilatory capacity of vascular muscle and also controls levels of platelet function and monocyte adhesion. Any endothelial injury or dysfunction could therefore be an important factor in atherosclerosis.

Genesis of Hand Preference

Many cultures discourage the use of the left hand. Even in the United States and England, countries that are noted for their tolerance of diversity, the scientific term for left-handedness is sinistral, which means evil. In many other languages the terms used for left-handedness also have negative connotations. In the United States, children who write with their left hand are no longer trained to switch hands and to write with their nonpreferred right hand, but only a few generations ago this was a widespread practice. Despite the relaxation of cultural pressure in the United States, the percentage of people who are right handed has remained about 90 . Thus, although cultural factors might influence the overall prevalence of hand preference, cultural influences do not appear to play a critical role.

Actions on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

Been shown, VIP is an important vasodilator. It acts directly on vascular smooth muscle to induce relaxation and increase cerebral blood flow (74). Moreover, VIP may also stimulate adenylate cyclase and increase cAMP level in the brain (75). These potent effects of VIP on cerebral vessels and cerebral oxidative metabolism suggest that VIP may be involved in the maintenance of the interrelation between local blood flow and energy generation (76). During cerebral ischemia, the low VIP level results in significantly decreased ATP production. This depletion of potential energy supply can lead to cell swelling, and hence damage cells and produce capillary compression. SM, on the other hand, has been demonstrated to increase ATP level of the brain and cAMP level in vitro and reduce neuron swelling during ischemia, thus attenuating the deleterious effects of VIP reduction after ischemia (77).

Alteration in the process of differentation and muscle repair

The muscles and the central nervous system (CNS) play a major role in the perception and expression of asthenia (Neuenschwander and Bruera 1998). Muscle function was tested in a study performed with non-cachectic, asthenic breast cancer patients (Bruera et al. 1987a). Compared with the control group, these patients showed decreased strength and relaxation speed, and increased muscle fatigue after sustained stimulation. Muscle energy sources are inadequate in cachectic patients and it has been postulated that there is a decrease in intracellular ATP levels in cells exposed to

Prevention of Transmission of BSE from Cattle to Humans

With indications of a favourable trend in the BSE epidemic, the goal for the coming years is to ensure relaxation of measures while assuring high level of food safety is maintained. Relaxation of measures is risk based and aims to reflect advances in technology and evolving scientific knowledge.

The Self Help Alternative

Most forms of psychosocial treatment, regardless of how they are delivered, share at least three objectives (a) to teach self-management skills to the child and family (e.g., teaching relaxation techniques or cognitive restructuring, modeling behavior modification techniques to parents) (b) to provide information to the child and family about the nature of the condition, including its typical etiology, course, and available treatments and (c) to augment social support networks to enable the child and family to learn from others, cope with their problems, and feel comfort in knowing that their condition is not unique. Self-help can serve all three functions when used either as a complement to face-to-face treatment or as a stand-alone treatment.

Release Mechanisms 731 Hydrophilic Matrices

When a matrix tablet is exposed to GI fluids, the surface of the tablet is wetted and polymer hydrates to form a gel layer, the surface layer polymer transitioning from a glassy solid to a rubbery gelatinous state. The tablet core remains essentially dry at this stage. Drug on the gel surface, if highly soluble and present at high concentration (high dose drug) is likely to pass into solution rapidly, providing an initial pulse of drug. The gel layer (rubbery state) grows progressively as fluid penetrates towards the core, increasing the thickness of the gel layer and diffusion path for drug release. As the outer layer becomes fully hydrated, polymer chain relaxation weakens the gel layer, with loss of integrity, disentanglement, and erosion from the matrix surface. Continuing fluid penetration through the gel layer ultimately leads to complete erosion and drug release. When the exponent n has a value of 1.0, drug release rate is independent of time, viz., zero-order release kinetics...

Identification And Treatment

Treatment may be provided in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Psychoeducation, individual and group therapies, psychodrama, relaxation training, family counseling and RELAPSE PREVENTION training are commonly used treatment techniques, usually combined with an introduction to Gamblers Anonymous. Family treatment and long-term follow-up are important as well. Abstinence from all forms of gambling is one of the treatment goals, along with improved physical and psychological well-being.

Opening Your Eyes to Sleep Remedies

You can choose from many ways to cope with your sleep deficit, such as using relaxation therapy or hypnosis or avoiding certain foods. (Read Chapter 14 for more information on sleep and fibromyalgia, as well as tactics for improving your sleep.) Medications can help, too.

Handedness Aging And Lifeexpectancy

It is commonly found in family studies of handedness that there is a greater proportion of non-right handedness among the filial than the parental generation (e.g., Annett, 1979, 1994 Ashton, 1982). This generation effect has been found not only in recent studies but in earlier ones, too. This implies that a relaxation of social presure against left handedness in recent times cannot be the only mechanism underlying a reduction in left handedness with age. However, if the different manifestations of sidedness are indeed biologically related and if the elimination hypothesis has some credence, then one might also expect to see an age-related effect in footedness, eyedness or earedness, which presumably are not subject to social control. It is therefore of interest that Dargent-Pare, De Agostini, Mesbah, and Dellatolas (1992) reported finding an age effect in eyedness and footedness (see also Gabbard & Iteya, 1996 Porac, 1996) in a large scale study (n 5,199) of individuals from...

Wetting Down Your Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Water can often improve your symptoms from fibromyalgia. Hydrotherapy, or using water exercises in a pool as a form of therapy, is an effective means to relieve fibromyalgia pain. It also often helps considerably in improving your other symptoms such as a lack of sleep. A study of 50 FMS patients reported in Sleep Medicine in 2006 placed patients in two groups, one receiving hydrotherapy and the other receiving conventional physical therapy. The hydrotherapy subjects did warm-ups, stretching, aerobic exercises, and relaxation. Their warm-ups included walking forward, backward, and sideways in the pool. All the patients in the hydrotherapy group increased their total sleep time by at least an hour, a significant improvement compared to the physical-therapy group.

Multidisciplinary Approach

Working in this consistent, paced manner is extremely hard for the young person and their parents. The pain invariably continues at the beginning (if not throughout) and motivation is poor. Parental anxiety is high (72) and there is a fear that damage will be done. Psychological support during this time is key. The young person will need help setting goals, learning how to communicate pain to peers and family, keeping up motivation on bad days, managing low mood, dealing with anger and frustration and overcoming fears. Often they have not been at school for a long period of time and need help in preparing again for this difficult environment. In some cases there may be other mental health needs that can be identified and appropriately treated. Relaxation, advice on sleep and eating and advice on how to pace other areas of life can all be given by members of the team.

Use of heat prior to massage

Heating the tissues prior to massage enhances the effect of the massage. The application of heat will dilate the superficial blood vessels, and increase the circulation and metabolic rate. The warmth will relieve pain and tension, thus promoting relaxation. These factors will increase the effect of the massage that follows.

Sleep Apnea Syndromes and neuropsychological disorders

Suppression, resulting in increased nocturnal arousal responses, or constantly occurring waking or a reduced relaxation function (Wee et al. 1998a b) and cognitive damage caused by intermittent hypoxia (Montplaisir et al. 1992). As the main symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is considered.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

The fine line to be negotiated when selecting CAM therapies is protection for finances when recommended therapies include benign but costly ineffective or untested treatments. Alternately, persons who have tried CAM therapies with no relief may feel guilty for not improving. A stellar CAM provider, like a stellar allopathic (standard Western medicine) provider, will reassure patients that if therapies are not effective it is not the patient's fault. Continuing to use and promote an unproven therapy that shows no ongoing health advantage to the patient is always unacceptable in any practice of medicine. Well-tested CAM therapies for FM include acupuncture, chiropractic, electrical therapies, and various vitamins, herbs, and nutraceuticals. Although their mechanisms of action have yet to be fully elucidated, they may be due in some part to stress reduction and their ability to elicit the relaxation response. Patients also might learn to elicit the relaxation response without...

Other Sensory Input in the Environment

Certain aromas are sometimes used that have various effects. There has been research in aromatherapy regarding the use of scent to create or change behavior. The following are scents that apparently are good for alertness or attention peppermint, wintergreen, pine, lemon, eucalyptus, and spearmint. Aromatherapists say the fragrances of chamomile, jasmine, lavender, sandalwood, marjoram, and honeysuckle have positive effects on relaxation or reflection (Karges-Bone, 1996). Colors are known to have various effects on behavior. Teachers may want to consider use of certain colors for specific purposes. For example, orange, purple, and red raise levels of alertness. For relaxation, pale blue or green, light pink, lavender, peach, or rose are recommended. In general, cool hues such as blue are relaxing (Karges-Bone, 1996).

The Retarded Elastic Body

In bodies showing retarded elasticity, the deformation is a function of time as well as stress. Such a stress-strain curve is shown in Figure 8-10. The upward part of the curve represents increasing values of stress when the stress is reduced, the corresponding strains are greater on the downward part of the curve. When the stress reaches 0, the strain has a finite value, which will slowly return to zero. There is no permanent deformation. The corresponding relaxation (stress-time) and creep (strain-time) curves

The Viscoelastic Body

Tic component can be partially retarded elasticity. Viscoelastic bodies may flow slowly and nonreversibly under the influence of a small stress. Under larger stresses the elastic component becomes apparent. The relaxation curve of viscoelastic materials has the shape indicated in Figure 8-12A. The curve has the tendency to approach the time axis. The creep curve indicates that the strain increases for as long as the stress is applied (Figure 8-12B). The magnitude of the permanent deformation of the body increases with the applied stress and with the length of application. Mechanical models can be used to visualize the behavior of different bodies. Thus, a spring denotes a Hookean body, and a dash-pot denotes a purely viscous body or Newtonian fluid. These elements can be combined in a variety of ways to represent the Theological behavior of complex substances. Two basic viscoelastic models are the VoigtKelvin and the Maxwell bodies. The VoigtKelvin model employs a spring and dashpot...

Choices in pain management

Natural childbirth means labor and delivery without the use of pain medications. Natural (nonpharmaceutical or nonmedicinal) methods of pain relief take many forms, some dating back centuries. Relaxation and massage are two examples of pain relief options of natural childbirth.

Improved Concentration

In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted in significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest in a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate mathematical computations (Field et al 2005). In a RCT, lavender aromatherapy tended to enhance calculating speed and calculating accuracy in female but not male subjects (Liu et al 2004), but results from another study suggest 2007 Elsevier Australia

Understanding what happens

When it works, biofeedback enables a person to learn to decrease these various measures of stress. By doing so, that person can achieve a better state of relaxation, which she can duplicate when she's not hooked up to monitors and machines. That's the theory, anyway. It doesn't always work, particularly with Type A achievers who are more likely to see the graph take a downturn and automatically become excited, causing stress levels to rise. For some people, equating relaxation with success is very difficult.

Knowing exactly what goes on during hypnotherapy

Hypnosis creates a passive, relaxed state. During that state, the person being hypnotized is receptive to suggestions that can benefit her needs or goals. During a hypnotherapy session, the hypnotist has the patient sit back or lie down. Often, the individual closes her eyes. The hypnotist uses some relaxation-therapy techniques, such as telling the person that her feet are very tired, then her knees, and so on. The hypnotist may tell the person that on the count of ten, she will be extremely relaxed.

Mastering selfhypnosis

One possibility is to use a tape recording of your voice with the suggestions that you want to reinforce in your mind. Another possibility is to sort of preprogram your mind with the ideas and concepts that you want to concentrate upon, such as imagining your body as healthy, strong, and with little or no pain. Use your relaxation therapy techniques to achieve a state of relaxation, and then introduce the positive goals that you want to achieve.

Facts And Fancies About Obesity

The hypnotist works first by obtaining relaxation in his patient. He then ensures by some device-a light above eye level, for example-that he has the subject's undivided attention. Next he suggests that sleep is coming and as the patient's conscious mind dozes off, he suggests firmly to the impressionable unconscious or dreaming mind that on waking, sugar, cakes, biscuits, pastry or whatever foods the hypnotist thinks are fattening, will no longer be of interest.

Psychosocial Interventions For Survivors With Advanced Cancer

To date, a limited number of psychosocial interventions for AC patients have been rigorously tested. These include supportive-expressive therapy (SET67-70), group cognitive-behavioral therapy,71-73 and written emotional expression.74 SET involves weekly 90-minute therapy groups led by experienced mental health practitioners, and the goal is to create a supportive environment and encourage the expression of cancer-related emotions and difficulties. Therapy sessions are relatively unstructured, with discussion organized around themes such as fears of death and dying, reordering life priorities, improving support from friends and family, and integrating a changed self.68 SET may also include a hypnosis or relaxation component.69,70 This therapeutic approach garnered considerable scientific scrutiny and media attention after a randomized controlled trial conducted by Spiegel and colleagues The other psychotherapeutic approach that has been investigated in the context of AC is...

The use of erbium lasers for caries therapy

Operate in free running mode, with pulse duration of 150-400 s. This pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of dental hard tissues (< 1ms) (Niemz, 2004), which provide heat dissipation during ablation and avoid excessive heat transmission to the pulp, for instance. However, at higher energy per pulses, erbium lasers can induce thermal injuries to dental hard tissue, such as the presence of microcracks, melting or even carbonization. In this way, during the clinical application, it is essential to use the correct set up of laser parameters and the use of an adequate air-water spray to provide proper refrigeration and avoid these side effects. However, although the presence of a thin layer of water can increase the ablation process (Fried at al., 2002), an excessive water layer can decrease erbium interaction with dental hard tissues (Niemz, 2004) in this way, the use of

Influence of pulse width on tissue removal

Although the pulse duration of most commercial lasers (range of s) is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of dental hard tissues, laser ablation promotes irregular cavities (depending on composition of target tissue), desiccation of the surface (due to the removal of underlying water) and the presence of few microcracks (related to the energy density), the amount of water coolant and the repetition rate must be adjusted during the clinical procedure. The adjustment of repetition rate is important to assure that the inter-pulse period is longer than the thermal relaxation time of tissues in this way, it is possible that the temperature of the irradiated tissues decrease between laser pulses (McDonald et al., 2001). Another strategy for cooling the tissue during laser irradiation is reducing the pulse duration (Seka et al., 1995). Depending on the pulse duration (< 1 ps), the process of ablation is changed and the non-linear processes (or non-thermal ones) take place (Ana et al.,...

Fitness and Recreation

There is a belief among many experts in fitness and recreation that participating in physical activity is a close second in terms of its importance to eating and breathing. What would your life be like if you weren't able to participate in all sorts of leisure, fitness, and recreational activities In a society filled with many stressful events, the need to release by moving in any way, shape, or form that is comfortable and enjoyable to you is critical for maintaining overall balance in your daily life. For some people, yoga, meditation, and relaxation exercises fit the bill. Others must hop on a stationary bike or go for a jog to feel invigorated. No matter what type of multiple sclerosis (MS) you have or how much you're able to move, exercise, recreation, and physical activity can be adapted to meet your needs. Don't ever underestimate what you're capable of doing. Many experts in engineering, technology, and exercise have found ways to adapt all kinds of physical activity to meet...

Recreation And Leisure

Yoga is an ancient Indian discipline designed to integrate the body and mind. The word yoga literally means to yoke or union. The basic components of yoga include breathing techniques (pranayama), relaxation, and performing the different postures or movements called asanas. Movements can be performed while seated, standing, or in a reclined position, and at a slower pace if you have trouble performing certain movements. The benefits of yoga include increased flexibility, balance, muscle strength, and endurance. There are many different styles of yoga, so find the appropriate style that matches your needs.

Respiratory Mucosal Immunity Neuronal Innervation and Its Stress Related Perturbations

The connection between psychological status and airway health has long been recognized, and over the centuries realization of the need to reduce stress has incorporated in the treatment regime of both infectious and inflammatory respiratory disease, though usually without understanding the underlying biological mechanisms. For instance, in the pre-antibiotic era sanatoria practice, among others, environmental approaches to controlling tuberculosis (TB) involved low stress and emphasis on rest and relaxation techniques. Now, TB is less of a problem to the developed world due to usage of generally effective antibiotics. But, stress is still widely recognized as a predisposing factor to exacerbation of the disease, and re-activation of latent TB infections. In the modern context, asthma is a much more common human respiratory condition, and asthma sufferers worldwide are offered a multitude of supportive treatment methods beyond drugs only, aimed at influencing positively the feedback...

Too many wakeup calls Youre constantly waking

What can help A white-noise generator that makes a kind of sshhhh sound can help you tune out that noisy world and fall deeply asleep. Soft music on the radio may help lull you to sleep. Some people can benefit from deep-breathing exercises, meditation, or relaxation therapy. (Read Chapter 13 for more information on these techniques.)

Functions of the gall bladder

During their passage through the duodenal wall, the common bile duct, the pancreatic duct and the ampulla of Vater are surrounded by an arrangement of smooth muscles, the spincter of Oddi. The closure of this sphincter prevents bile from entering the duodenum. This closure results in formed bile being diverted into the gall bladder. The main stimulus for the relaxation of the sphincter muscle is cholecystokinin (CCK). Thus when levels of CCK increase in the blood during a meal, the gall bladder contracts, the sphincter of Oddi Vasoactive inhibitory peptide (VIP), pancreatic polypeptide and stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the gall bladder, all cause gall bladder relaxation. Bile acids, by means of feedback control, also inhibit gall bladder contraction.

Enhance Cognitive Performance

A combination of peppermint oil, eucalyptus oil and ethanol was shown in a crossover double-blind study to increase cognitive performance, and promote relaxation in 32 healthy subjects (Gobel et al 1994). Peppermint odour has also been shown to reduce daytime sleepiness (Norrish & Dwyer 2005) and fatigue, and to improve mood (Goel & Lao 2006), as well as significantly improve performance in difficult tactile tasks (Ho & Spence 2005) and promote a general arousal of attention with improved typing speed and accuracy (Barker et al 2003).

Smoking as a Physiological and Psychological Addiction

Within a learning-based model, smoking is viewed as a behavior where nicotine itself serves as a positive reinforcer (via sensations such as euphoria, relaxation, warmth, etc.), in that the drug strengthens behavior leading to its own presentation (Goldberg, Spealman, & Goldberg, 1981). Nicotine may also serve as a negative reinforcer (via escape from negative states such as anxiety, anger, fatigue, etc.), leading to an increase in smoking behavior. In addition, there are a vast number of discriminative stimuli present in the environment (i.e., cues) that trigger the behavior of smoking, whether it be an experience of a particular emotion (e.g., boredom, anxiety, excitement), a particular time (e.g., between classes), a particular place (e.g., bar), or the presence of a particular person (e.g., fellow coworker who smokes). Conceptualizing smoking within a behavioral model becomes important, as most smoking cessation programs are based on such principles. It is the combination of...

Effects Of Shosaikoto On Hepatic Fibrosis

Because of their anatomical location, their ultrastructural features, and similarities with pericytes that regulate blood flow in other organs, it has been proposed that HSCs function as liver-specific pericytes (57). Previous studies have shown that the contraction and relaxation of HSCs regulate hepatic sinusoidal blood flow (57,58). Two vasoregulatory compounds with obvious effects on HSCs include endothelin (ET)-1 and nitric oxide (NO) (59-61). Experimental evidence suggests that ET-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor in the liver microcirculation in vivo, acting at both the sinusoidal and extrasinusoi-

Duane C McBride Revised by Jonathan Caulkins

Safer Use of Drugs People commonly use drugs in safe ways, that is, nonabusively. Safe use means that drug use does not significantly impair health or interfere with social or economic functioning. For example, most users of alcohol consume that drug in moderation, not to the point of extreme intoxication, during specified hours, and for specified purposes, such as relaxation after daily work or promotion of social interchange.

Treating anxiety disorders

Tina has fibromyalgia, and has suffered from frequent occurrences of her heart racing uncontrollably and feeling faint. But the doctor said that her heart was fine. Tina consulted a therapist and learned to avoid panicking over minor problems. She became more proactive about resolving her FMS with relaxation therapy. (Read about relaxation therapy in Chapter 13.)

Combating mental and physical fatigue

During consultation the client should be encouraged to discuss any problems and to establish reasons for the lethargy or tiredness. There are many factors that may cause the condition stress at work or in the home feeling overburdened or overworked insufficient time for rest, relaxation or enjoyment feeling unwell, suffering with headaches, migraine, insomnia or heavy and prolonged periods. There may also be psychological problems such as unhappiness, depression, feelings of low esteem or lack of achievement etc.

Types of Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic This is the most common adult form of MD, although half of all cases are still diagnosed in patients younger than 20. Primary symptoms involve facial weakness, a very slow relaxation of muscles after contraction, and weak hand muscles. The disease may be mild or severe, but because the defective gene is dominant, even someone with mild symptoms can transmit a more serious case of it to offspring. A less common congenital form affects only a small number of infants born to mothers with myotonic dystrophy, but it has a worse prognosis.

Cognitive Behavioral Interventions

Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) embraces an empirical foundation that focuses on the inter-relationships among behavior, thoughts, emotions, and biological events regarding mental health problems and medical symptom development and persistence. CBT, in this context, incorporates a wide array of intervention strategies that attempt to change those behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables that mediate the negative effects of cancer and its treatment. Many strategies under the CBT umbrella are theoretically based on principles of respondent and operant conditioning, such as contingency management (e.g., changing the consequences of behavior to change the behavior), biofeedback, relaxation training, and systematic desensitiza-tion, whereas other strategies are more cognitive in nature and include techniques such as cognitive distraction, cognitive restructuring, guided imagery, and problemsolving training. Applications of CBT for cancer patients have addressed both specific...

Measuring Effects of Drugs on Behavior

People throughout world take drugs such as HEROIN, Cocaine, and ALCOHOL because these drugs alter behavior. For example, cocaine alters general activity levels it increases wakefulness and decreases the amount of food an individual eats. Heroin produces drowsiness, relief from pain, and a general feeling of pleasure. Alcohol's effects include relaxation, increased social interactions, marked sedation, and impaired motor function. For the most part, the scientific investigations of the ways drugs alter behavior began in the 1950s, when chlorpromazine was introduced as a treatment for Schizophrenia. As a result of this discovery, scientists became interested in the development of new medications to treat behavioral disorders as well as in the development of procedures for studying behavior in the laboratory.

Table 117 Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although some psychiatrists continue to counsel patients, the current trend in medicine is for them to focus on starting and adjusting medications that treat symptoms of anxiety and depression. Psychologists and clinical social workers, who are not licensed to prescribe medications, perform counseling. These professionals can also be extremely skilled at teaching patients cognitive strategies to help with relaxation and stress reduction, such as meditation, biofeedback, and imagery. Some counselors, especially those who work closely with oncologists, can also provide information about a particular medical condition in order to help put things in perspective.