Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Organic Health Protocol

This eBook from professional trainer and nutritionist Thomas DeLauer and Dr. Mike Brookins shows you all of the secrets to reducing inflammation all through your body. These body hacks are secrets to the way that your body works that you would never have thought of. You will learn the foods that you will need to avoid in order to have a really healthy life. You will learn to reset your body in 7 days or less just by eating organic, really healthy foods. Food affects they way that your body works so much more than people tend to believe. You will learn how to cut through all the nonsense that you will read on the internet and get right to the part that heals your inflammation and other health problems. Inflammation is only a symptom If you are not healthy and eating well, your whole body will suffer. We give you a way to reverse that! Continue reading...

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Use of Long Term Antiinflammatory Agents

When the NHLBI guidelines were constructed and released in 1991, it was widely assumed that anti-inflammatory controller agents must be initiated early (even in mild persistent asthma) to prevent progressive decline in lung function that would ensue due to unmitigated airways inflammation and subsequent remodeling. This theory was based on retrospective evidence in childhood asthma studies showing that more severe and irreversible airway obstruction was significantly associated with a delay in initiation of an ICS. More recent long-term prospective data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) study collected in asthmatic children treated for five years have failed to show significant differences between placebo, cromolyn, and ICS treated patients in changes in FEV1 (30). However, the ICS (budesonide) treated group had fewer hospitalizations, urgent visits for asthma, and reduced airway responsiveness compared to nedocromil. Accelerated decline in lung function was...

Antiinflammatory Effects

An ethanolic extract of B. monniera exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice and rats (Channa et al 2005). The effect was mediated via PGE2 inhibition and found to be comparable to aspirin. Bacopa has also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity comparable to indomethacin without causing an associated gastric irritation (Jain et al 1994). Several constituents are thought to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action, chiefly the triterpene, betulinic acid but also saponins and flavonoids.

Indigestion and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are usually thought to pose a dilemma for doctors wishing to prescribe them. Their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties have led to their widespread use for rheumatoid and (much more commonly) other conditions often regarded as more trivial. However they are ulcerogenic to the stomach and duodenum and lead to a threefold to 10-fold increase in ulcer complications, hospitalisation, and death from ulcer disease.1

Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases as Antiinflammatory Drugs

3.3.1 Low Concentrations of HDAC Inhibitors are Anti-inflammatory Whereas High Concentrations Are Needed for Anti-tumor Effects . 51 in Reducing Inflammation 55 tion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although the reduction in cytokines appears paradoxical at first, upon examination, some genes that are anti-inflammatory are upregulated by inhibition of HDAC. Whether skin diseases will be affected by inhibitors of HDAC remains to be tested.

Antiinflammatory And Analgesic

The high salicylate content of the herb suggests it may have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Clinical studies using another salicylate-containing herb, willowbark, has shown that doses of 120-240 mg salicin daily has analgesic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity (Marz & Kemper 2002). Whether the 2007 Elsevier Australia

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs NSAIDs

A type of painkiller and fever reducer that reduces inflammation in the body. Examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include ibuprofen (such as Motrin or Advil) and naproxen (Aleve). Ibuprofen is available without prescription to treat fever in children over a year old. Nonaspirin NSAIDs are given to children to lower fever and treat pain instead of aspirin, which has been associated with the development of reye's syndrome.

Reducing Inflammation with Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs

Some individuals with fibromyalgia get significant pain relief by taking prescribed or over-the-counter doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The most commonly used drugs in this category are Naprosyn (generic name naproxen sodium), Feldene (generic name piroxicam), Motrin (ibuprofen), and Relafen (generic name nabumetone).

Antiinflammatory Aspects of n3 Fatty Acids

Many experimental studies have provided evidence that incorporation of alternative fatty acids into tissues may modify inflammatory and immune reactions and that n-3 fatty acids in particular are potent therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases. Supplementing the diet with n-3 fatty acids (3.2 g EPA and 2.2 g DHA) in normal subjects increased the EPA content in neutrophils and mono-cytes more than sevenfold without changing the quantities of AA and DHA. The anti-inflammatory effects of fish oils are partly mediated by inhibiting the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in neutrophils and monocytes and inhibiting the leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-mediated function of LTB5 (Figure 5). Studies show that n-3 fatty acids influence interleukin metabolism by decreasing IL-1,3 and IL-6. Inflammation plays an important role in both the initiation of atherosclerosis and the development of athero-thrombotic events. An early step in the atherosclerotic process is the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells....

Antiinflammatory Activity

Celery has been found to have anti-inflammatory activity, with suppression of carrageenan-induced paw oedema observed in rats (Al-Hindawi et al 1989). Several constituents show anti-inflammatory activity, such as apigenin, eugenol, ferulic acid, luteolin and bergapton (Duke 2003). Studies in rats suggest that some celery seed extracts are highly effective in suppressing experimental arthritis without exhibiting any gastrotoxicity (Whitehouse et al 1999). Further in vivo studies suggest that celery seed extracts were gastroprotective for NSAID gastropathy and that this effect is mediated through non-prostaglandin mechanisms (Whitehouse et al 2001).

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the mainstay of therapy for most children with rheumatic disease. All of them interfere to varying degrees with the cyclooxygenase pathway, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, important inflammatory mediators (chemicals that cause fever, pain, and irritation). By blocking the production of these inflammatory mediators, NSAIDs serve to reduce the amount of pain, fever, and irritation that the child experiences. Most of the NSAIDs interfere with the chemicals cyclooxyge-nase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Choosing the proper NSAID for a given child involves balancing convenience, cost, effectiveness, and probability of side effects.

Antiinflammatory Actions of Omalizumab

Clinical studies have provided some indirect evidence of the antiinflammatory actions of omalizumab, as patients have been able to reduce their dose of inhaled corticosteroids or withdraw completely from inhaled corticosteroid treatment. To further explore the mechanisms involved, a number of studies have been conducted with the aim of defining the markers, factors, and mediators affected by omalizumab in the immunological and cellular reactions of the inflammatory cascade. Together the data suggest that omalizumab may act on multiple components of the inflammatory cascade.

Antispasmodic And Antiinflammatory

High doses of a commercial preparation of 5. gigantea extract (Urol mono) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in an animal model, comparable to those of the pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory medicine diclofenac (Leuschner 1995). Other tests with an extract of 5. virgaurea have also produced similar results (el Ghazaly et al 1992). The herbal combination consisting of Populus tremula, Solidago virgaurea and Fraxinus excelsior has demonstrated dose-dependent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects comparable to those of NSAIDs in several animal models (Okpanyi et al 1989). Although encouraging, the role of Solidago in this study is uncertain.

Antiinflammatory And Antioxidant Activity

Dandelion extract was shown to exhibit a mild analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in mice (Tito et al 1993), and an aqueous dandelion extract was found to prevent diabetic complications due to lipid peroxidation and free radicals in diabetic rats (Cho et al 2002). Dandelion extract has also been found to have a protective effect against CCK octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats (Seo et al 2005) and dandelion flower extract demonstrated marked antioxidant activity that has been attributed to its phenolic content, with suppression of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (Hu & Kitts 2003, 2005, Kery et al 2004). Extracts of dandelion flowers, roots and stem have been found to have significant OH-radical scavenging activity (Kaurinovic et al

Screening experiments for antiinflammatory properties

This chapter describes some examples of screening experiments aimed at identifying antiinflammatory constituents of plants. A large number of plants and herbs are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. Well-known examples are willow bark (contains salicin, from which aspirin is derived), Boswellia serrata (boswellic acids) and turmeric (curcumin). In addition to these, many other herbs have been suggested to be anti-inflammatory. Inflammation plays a role in many different clinical disorders. In addition to the obvious inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, asthma, Crohn's disease, psoriasis and so on, inflammation also plays an important role in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer's and many other diseases. In many of these, a disordered immune system contributes to the onset and or progression of the disease. What are important targets for anti-inflammatory therapies A key regulatory factor in the inflammatory response is the transcription factor family...


The anti-inflammatory activity of baical skullcap has been well documented by in vitro and in vivo studies. The main constituents responsible are baicalein and wogonin (Chang et al 2001, Chi et al 2001, Chung et al 1995, Krakauer et al 2001, Li et al 2000, Park et al 2001, Wakabayashi 1999). In a study using mice, baicalein 50 mg kg has been shown to ameliorate the inflammatory symptoms of induced colitis, including body weight loss, blood haemoglobin content, rectal bleeding and other histological and biochemical parameters (Hong et al 2002). Pretreatment with wogonin also significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage in vivo (Park et al 2004) and reduced immunoglobulin E, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 secretion in a colitis-induced mouse model (Lim 2004). The methanolic extract of the baical skullcap root and its flavonoids wogonin, baicalein and baicalin have been shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in vivo. The three flavonoids exerted an...

Phytochemicals of Interest

Reduces pain, anti-inflammatory Antioxidants that block carcinogens, anti-inflammatory Induces protective enzymes, deters lung and other tumors Anti-inflammatory protective against colon cancer and heart disease Antioxidant anti-inflammatory inhibits carcinogen-induced cell proliferation flavonoid antihistamine and anti-inflammatory activity

Pallida Echinacea Purpurea

Echinacea has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent and for the treatment of a number of infections caused by viruses and fungi. Traditionally, topical echinacea has been used for a number of skin conditions including boils, abscesses, skin wounds and ulcers, eczema, and psoriasis. Recently, focus has centered around its oral use for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections. Although the plant genus Echinacea consists of a number of different species, medicinal use has predominantly centered around three of them (E. purpurea, E. augustifolia, and E. pallida).

Clinical Use in Adults

Inhaled corticosteroids are established as the most effective initial antiinflammatory treatment for asthmatics with persistent symptoms. The use of LABA monotherapy instead in such patients leads to a loss of asthma control, e.g., there is increased airway inflammation and exacerbation rates for patients treated with salmeterol monotherapy compared to ICS mono-therapy (100). An alternative strategy is to use LABA as an additional therapy in patients who are symptomatic despite taking ICS. Additional LABA therapy in this context has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbations (58,101,102). Before the introduction of LABA, it was common for the dose of ICS to be increased in such patients. However, this can have disappointing results as the dose-response curve for these drugs is relatively flat for the linear segment (103). Using LABA as additional therapy offers advantages over increasing the dose of ICS LABA provide an alternative mechanism of action (sustained...

Alternative Medicine Complementary Medicine and Integrative Medicine

The terms alternative medicine and alternative therapies refer to those medical practices that are not considered to be conventional medicine, as practiced in the United States. Other cultures, however, may use one or more of these approaches regularly, and, in fact, many have done so for thousands of years. Most people in the United States who use alternative medicine do so to complement conventional approaches. For example, in addition to using anti-inflammatory drugs to ease muscle pain, they may also use massage, chiropractic, and or osteopathic manipulation. This practice of complementing conventional medicine with alternative approaches has given rise to the term complementary medicine. Presently, alternative medicine is most commonly referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). As conventional medical practitioners become familiar with alternative approaches, these approaches are being integrated into conventional medicine, which is giving rise to integrative...

New Indications for Established Drugs

In concept an active drug has no single biological effect. Receptor occupancy or modulation of a mediator cascade can have consequences for other biological processes. Aspirin is widely used as an anti inflammatory and platelet inhibitor. Recently there have been reports that, when dosed chronically it may be beneficial in colorectal cancer. Gastric bleeding is a known consequence of aspirin dosage. Gastro-protective coats have been used for many years to mitigate such gastric irritancy but with limited benefit. Studies to determine the effect of time of and frequency of dosing, as well as frequency and amplitude of plasma profiles on gastric bleeding would seem warranted in the light of known circadian rhythms of inflammatory cytokines.

Damage to the Basement Membrane

Tumor cells adhere more efficiently to the exposed collagen of a damaged blood vessel than to normal vessel walls, and so damaged areas provide prime targets for cell arrest. Vessels can be damaged by trauma or inflammation in fact, evidence is mounting that surgical removal of some tumors can promote tumor metastasis to existing wounds.13'14 This effect may also be facilitated by the growth factors present in wound fluid. Therefore, natural compounds that protect the vascula-ture or reduce inflammation may limit cell arrest. A host of anti-inflammatory and anticollagenase compounds have already been discussed (see Chapters 8 and 9). Some natural compounds like proanthocyanidins appear to have a specific affinity for vascular tissue and may be particularly useful.

Aav Vector Applications

A follow-up, double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled phase II study was performed in 23 CF patients in whom vector was administered to one maxillary sinus, while the contralateral sinus received a placebo treatment (10). This study confirmed the safety of the AAV-CFTR vector delivered to the sinus. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine in-terleukin-10 showed a significant difference between vector-and placebo-treated sinuses over a 90-day period. This suggested that gene transfer could modulate levels of cytokines that may provide a useful surrogate marker for additional trials. Because several patients had participated in the previous phase I trial, the phase II study further suggested that the vector remains safe after multiple administrations to the sinus without induction of serum-neutralizing antibodies (10).

Effects of Ectodomain Shedding

The ectodomain can be a soluble competitor of the membrane-bound receptor for its ligand. This mechanism has been demonstrated for growth factors and cytokine receptors and for adhesion molecules. The ectodomains of syndecans and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) bind fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibit FGF activity by diminishing the availability for the membrane-associated receptor (184, 185). The soluble platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) competes with cell-associated PDGFR for ligand binding and is antagonist of PDGF stimulated effects on full length PDGFR expressing cells (186, 187). The c-kit receptor ectodomain retains the ability to bind to the ligand and blocks c-kit induced proliferation of M-07e myeloid cells (188). The mechanism of competition for ligand binding between the soluble and the transmembrane receptor was also described for interleukin-1 receptor II (IL-1RII). The soluble E-selectin fragment has an anti-inflammatory function because it...

Reduction in Airways Inflammation

Corticosteroids not only have a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, but also cause a reduction in airways inflammation when inhaled by asthmatic patients (1,2). This evidence comes primarily from bronchial biopsy studies demonstrating that regular treatment with ICS such as beclo-methasone dipropionate (BDP), budesonide, and fluticasone propionate (FP) cause a marked reduction in the number of mast cells, T lymphocytes, and eosinophils in the epithelium and submucosa (3-8). There is also a reduction in inflammatory cell activation, as reflected by decreased concentrations of cell-derived mediators in bronchial lavage fluid (9-11). Figure 1 Schematic representation of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Source From Ref. 1. Figure 1 Schematic representation of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Source From Ref. 1.

Natural Compounds That Suppress The Immune System

Many natural compounds I discuss have the potential to inhibit aspects of the immune system. Although none of these is generally considered a primary immunosup-pressive agent, each can produce immunosuppression as a secondary effect, at least under some circumstances. Natural compounds can induce immunosuppression in many ways, such as by reducing signal transduction (immune cells need signal transduction to function), reducing NF-sB activity, histamine release, vascular permeability, and immune cell migration, as well as by causing anti-inflammatory effects. The most potent anti-inflammatory compounds tend to be those that reduce production of PGE2 or other inflammatory pros-taglandins or leukotrienes. Taking all of these actions into account, we can see that most compounds included in this book have the potential to contribute to an immu-nosuppressive effect however, earlier in this chapter we also saw that most could also contribute to a stimulatory effect. What is the overall...

General Treatment of Dementia

And medications with CNS effects (sedatives, narcotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, and antihistamines) should be discontinued, or used sparingly. The clinician should also be aware that other commonly prescribed medications, including antiemetics, antispasmodics for the bladder, H2 receptor antagonists, antiarrhythmic agents, antihypertensive agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, may also cause cognitive impairment.

Management of peptic stricture

Peptic stricture is usually due to gastro-oesophageal reflux, but drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, potassium supplements, or alendronic acid are occasional causes. The differential diagnosis also includes caustic strictures after ingestion of corrosive chemicals, fungal strictures, and postoperative strictures.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of methanol extract of the seeds of A. pavonina were evaluated in animal models by Olajide and colleagues (2004). As observed by the authors, the extract (50 200 mg kg) produced statistically significant (P 0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in the rat (Table 46.1), as well as acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. At doses of 100 and 200 mg kg, inhibition of pleurisy induced with carrageenan was also detected. Moreover, the extract (50 200 mg kg) exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P 0.05) analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice (Table 46.2). Both early and late phases of formalin-induced paw-licking in mice were inhibited by the extract. All the obtained observations suggest that this seed extract has an analgesic effect through both inflammatory mechanisms, and a direct effect on nociceptors (Olajide et al., 2004). A recent report by Oni and colleagues (2009) provides information about...

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

The safety and effectiveness of the traditional uses of Abrus precatorious-derived products have not yet been well explored scientifically. Investigations are ongoing to fully characterize the anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, immunomodulatory, and anticancer properties of Abrus seed derived products.

Alternative AddOn Therapy

Low-dose theophylline represents one option resulting in additional efficacy when used as add-on therapy with low to high doses of ICS (119-121). When used in this way it is likely to result in both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. However, a recent systematic review suggests that the efficacy of this approach is relatively less than the addition of a LABA, while being associated with greater side effects (122).

A look at nonspecific host defenses 821 Physical barriers

Recent evidence also shows that IEC respond differentially to nonpathogenic and pathogenic enteric bacteria, and this has been linked to different patterns of intracellular signaling, providing a potential mechanism for some of the beneficial effects of the normal gut microflora on the gut epithelium (Neish et al., 2000). Commensal enteric microbes, including certain Salmonella strains (S. Typhimurium PhoPc and S. Pulloram), are able to attenuate inflammatory responses through their ability to inhibit, rather than activate, the DNA-binding protein NFkB (Neish et al., 2000). An outcome of this is that these commensal Salmonella strains are able to block epithelial IL-8 secretion in response to various pro-inflammatory stimuli, reflecting their ability to interfere with the intracellular activities that normally lead to NFkB activation, and so inhibiting acute inflammatory responses. This anti-inflammatory effect of the resident gut microflora is believed to be crucial in maintaining...

Laboratory Induced Asthma

Urinary leukotrienes at baseline and even higher levels following aspirin challenge (18). An increase in the number of cells that are immunopositive for LTC4 synthase in bronchial biopsies suggests that this enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of this syndrome (96). The physiological effects of aspirin challenge in aspirin-sensitive patients pretreated with zileuton is almost completely blocked, as such patients failed to develop any clinically significant adverse effects and urinary LTE4 levels were reduced by 68 (19). Dahlen et al. (97) subsequently demonstrated that administration of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast to subjects with aspirin-sensitive asthma resulted in improved lung function even in the absence of aspirin provocation the magnitude of FEV1 improvement increased while urinary leukotriene levels decreased. These data suggest that the bronchospasm related to aspirin-sensitive asthma is mediated by leukotrienes and that leukotriene modifiers...

Cardioprotective Effects

Considering that GSE demonstrates antioxidant, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory actions, it may have a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A number of researchers have investigated this issue further, mainly using animal models. One series of studies was conducted by Bagchi et al (2003) using a natural, standardised, water-ethanol extract made from California red grapeseeds, which contained Grapeseed extract 646

Duodenal ulcer disease

In patients who are not taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) duodenal ulcer will be due to Hpylori infection in 95 of cases, and eradication treatment can be prescribed without testing for Hpylori. If there is any doubt about the diagnosis, such as a possible ulcer crater on a barium meal, endoscopic confirmation of duodenal ulcer and H pylori infection should be sought before prescribing treatment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Rare causes

Molecular Mechanisms

Although several molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the actions of theophylline, nonspecific inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes and non-selective antagonism of specific cell-surface receptors for adenosine are the only ones known to occur at clinically relevant drug concentrations. Theophylline increases the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides in airway smooth muscle and inflammatory cells by inhibiting PDE-mediated hydrolysis. Several distinct isoenzyme families have now been distinguished, based on substrate specificity and the development of selective inhibitors (46). Theophylline is a nonspecific PDE inhibitor that inhibits activation of inflammatory cell types, including T lymphocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, in vitro (47). Inhibition of PDE types 3 and 4 have been reported to relax smooth muscles in pulmonary arteries and in airways (48), while anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions appear to result largely from...

Treatment Of Dermatomyositis

For children without evidence of vasculitis who are not profoundly weak, a low or moderate dose of corticosteroids is often sufficient. Some children with dermatomyositis have mild arthritis when they first come to a doctor's attention. This usually responds well to treatment with corticosteroids, but a brief course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be beneficial. Hydroxychloroquine is another drug that is often useful as a steroid-sparing agent in children with mild disease, especially where rash predominates.

Timespecific Drug Delivery

Influenced by, among other factors circadian rhythms. Varying drug concentrations in the biosystem may be more effective if coinciding with and being capable of managing peak manifestations of the clinical condition. This is the case with anti-inflammatory conditions and antiasthma therapy among others 4 . Pulse, rather than persistent delivery may also alleviate or eliminate side effects 5 . Targeting a specific rhythm of a disease could reduce dosage, thereby reducing drug exposure and unwanted effects. Targeting rhythms may also prevent drug interactions, providing wider treatment options for patients suffering from multiple ailments.

C RSV and Transcription Factors Regulation of Gene Expression

Tion factors vary depending on the stimulus, the cell type, and the intended response. One of the most striking biological activities of polyphenolics such as RSV is their remarkable anti-inflammatory potential (as described in the preceding section). Owing to this association, there has been a lot of interest in investigating the effect(s) of RSV and its derivatives on transcription factors that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-a), interleukin 1(IL-1), IL-6, and iNOS (Manna et al., 2000 Wadsworth and Koop, 1999). These include C EBP, fos jun, AP-1, and the Rel family of transcription factors, in particular NF-kB. The proinflammatory, carcinogenic, and growth-modulating effects of many compounds are mediated by NF-kB (Miagkov et al., 1998 Suganuma et al., 1999), and therefore, considering the anti-inflammatory and growth-inhibitory properties of RSV, a significant amount of work is underway to elucidate the effect of RSV on NF-kB...

Respiratory Tract Infections

Licorice increases mucous production within the respiratory tract and exerts an expectorant action. When combined with its anti-inflammatory, antiviral and possible immune-enhancing effects, it is a popular treatment for upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In practice, it is often used to treat coughs (especially productive types) and bronchitis (Bradley 1992).

Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Although hospital mortality has not improved over 50 years and remains at about 10 , older patients who have advanced cardiovascular, respiratory, or cerebrovascular disease that puts them at increased risk of death now comprise a much higher proportion of cases. Many patients' bleeding is associated with use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but there is no evidence that prognosis is worse in patients who are taking these drugs than in those who are not.

Estimated Therapeutic and Loael Doses of Curcumin

The estimated required dose of curcumin scaled from animal antitumor studies is different than the estimated dose as calculated from pharmacokinetic and in-vitro data' thus the target human dose is still uncertain and can be estimated only within a large range. The required dose as scaled from animal antitumor experiments is 360 milligrams to 3.2 grams per day similar doses were effective in animal anti-inflammatory experiments. The anticancer dose based on pharmacokinetic calculations is larger. Using a target in-vivo concentration of 15 pM (30 mM after adjustment for conjugates), the required curcumin dose is about 8.7 grams daily. The reasons for this large difference are not clear, and lacking additional data, we can only estimate a target human dose of between 360 milligrams and 8.7 grams per day.

Inflammatory Conditions

Olive leaf extract is used to promote symptomatic relief in various inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis and asthma, and as a gargle in tonsillitis and pharyngitis. The anti-inflammatory effects demonstrated by several major components in olive leaf provide a theoretical basis for its use however, clinical trials are not yet available to determine whether effects are significant and efficacy remains speculative.

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Ricin is a potent toxin extracted from castor beans (Ricinus communis). This protein is the better understood lectin with RIP (ribosome inactivating protein) activity (Spivak et al., 2005). Several lectins have been described as being potential inflammatory proteins, because these molecules stimulate and bind to cells of the immune system (Assreuy et al., 2003 Alencar et al., 2007 Lee et al., 2007), specifically mast cells (Alencar et al., 2005 Lopes et al., 2005) including histamine induction release (Gomes et al., 1994 Ferreira et al., 1996). Recently, our group has published results about the use of plant lectins as potential immunomodulatory agents (Reis et al., 2008 Nunes et al., 2009). Despite these findings, the utilization of plant lectins as anti-inflammatory agents is an important research field, and a number of publications about this theme can easily be found. Some lectins, like Vatairea macrocarpa lectin, when injected peritoneally (Alencar et al., 2003) or intraplantarly...

History And Physical Examination

A history of coagulopathy, collagen disorder, vascular or inflammatory disorder, any history of malignancy, alcohol abuse, steroid therapy, or use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may help to guide the clinician's evaluation. Patients with a history of developmental dysplasia of the hip or brace use as a child, may have an arthritic process resulting from dysplastic changes. A history of trauma and any subsequent treatment should also be sought. A history of sports participation often yields helpful information. Athletes competing at a higher level of sport have a greater propensity to develop both labral tears and chondral injuries. Any history of prior hip surgery should also be elicited 12,13 .

Therapeutic Interventions

Pharmacotherapies have obviously been used in disease states such as IBD to reduce inflammation and induce mucosal repair. Nonpharmacological therapies such as enteral nutrition with modular or polymeric formulas have also been shown to be effective in inducing remission and gut repair in IBD.

Gastrointestinal Conditions

It is widely accepted that the mucilage acts as a barrier against the damaging effects of stomach acid on the oesophagus and may also exert mild anti-inflammatory activity locally. Currently, clinical research is not available to determine the effectiveness of slippery elm in these conditions however, anecdotally the treatment appears 2007 Elsevier Australia

Aetiology of mental fatigue

Elevated cytokine levels are observed in other illnesses characterized by mental fatigue. For example, individuals who contract Q fever often develop a syndrome that persists after the illness remits, characterized by fatigue, pain, mood disturbance, and sleep disturbance (Pentilla et al. 1998). It is thought that this syndrome may be related to upregulation of certain proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6. Increased IL-6 secretion has also been found in patients with CFS, although the IL-6 changes are not sufficient to explain the entire constellation of symptoms (Cannon et al. 1999), as well as in patients with chronic daytime sleepiness (Vgontzas et al. 1999). TNF is another cytokine that has been associated with CFS (Moss et al. 1999). These studies suggest that potential avenues for treatment may be in the development of cytokine blockers or anti-inflammatory agents.

Chemical Name Prednisone prednisone

Description Prednisone is one of a group of corticosteroids (cortisone-like medicines) that are used to relieve inflammation in different parts of the body. Corticosteroids are used in MS for the management of acute exacerbations because they have the capacity to close the damaged blood-brain barrier and reduce inflammation in the central nervous system. Although prednisone is among the most commonly used corticos-teroids in MS, it is only one of several different possibilities. Other commonly used cor-ticosteroids include dexamethasone pred-nisone betamethasone and prednisolone. The following information pertains to all of the various corticosteroids.

Food and Drug Administration FDA

Glucocorticoid hormones Steroid hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. These hormones, which can also be manufactured synthetically (pred-nisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone), serve both an immunosuppressive and an anti-inflammatory role in the treatment of MS exacerbations they damage or destroy certain types of T-lymphocytes that are involved in the overactive immune response, and interfere with the release of certain inflammation-producing enzymes.

Chemoprotective Properties of Rosemary

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small, short-lived molecule that is synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS) and released from cells in response to a number of homeostatic and pathological stimuli (57). NO is involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes such as vasodilation, neurotransmission, inflammation and the immune response, platelet inhibition, cellular signalling, and free radical (peroxynitrite)-induced cytotoxicity and can be regulated by dietary factors (58,59). The inducible form of NOS (iNOS) is upregulated under inflammatory conditions and in response to cytokines, resulting in a relatively high and sustained level of NO production. Overproduction of NO may lead to production of damaging reactive nitrogen species such as nitrate, nitrite, peroxynitrite, and 3-nitrotyrosine with cytotoxic and genotoxic consequences (60,61). Carnosol has been shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma induced NO production in activated mouse macrophages in a...

Crinum asiaticum L Amaryllidaceae Crinum Lily Spider Lily Bawang Tanah

Lantern Flies Pennsylvania 2019

Pharmacological Activities Analgesic and Antibacterial, 19 Antiinflammatory 18 Antiviral, 18,23 Anticancer 13,24 Antitumour, 15 Mast cells degranulation, 10 Antimitotic and Membrane stabilising. 8 Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, 13 Anticancer Antineoplastic, 1415 Anti-inflammatory, 16 Antiviral 17 and Hepatoprotective. 1819

Terebinth pistacia terebinthus l anacardiaceae

Gardens Pistacia Vera California

Antidote (f HJP) Antiinflammatory (f X11988853) Antiseptic (1 X126288418) Antitussive (f HJP) Aphrodisiac (f DEP HJP) Astringent (f HJP SKJ) Deodorant (f HJP) Digestive (f HJP) Diuretic (f HJP) Emmenagogue (f BIB) Expectorant (f HJP) Febrifuge (f HJP) Fungicide (1 X126288418) Hemostat (f DEP) Sedative (f DEP) Stimulant (f DEP HJP) Stomachic (f DEP) Vulnerary (f DEP).

Antioxidant Properties

Total anthocyanin content in PWB was 78 mg kg (Table 6.3). Anthocyanin was not detectable in WWB and WFB. Anthocyanins are members of the bioflavonoid phyto-chemicals, which have been recognized to have health-enhancing benefits due to their antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects (Abdel-Aal et al., 2006). The total anthocyanin content of bran, wholemeal, and flour ranged between 415.9 479.7, 139.3-163.9, and 18.5 23.1 mg kg in blue-grained wheat 156.7 383.2, 61.3 153.3, and 3.1 14.3 mg kg in purple-grained wheat and 9.9 10.3, 4.9 5.3, and 1.5 1.7 mg kg in red-grained wheat, respectively (Abdel-Aal and Hucl, 2003). Siebenhandl et al. (2007) reported total anthocyanin contents of 225.8 and 17.0 mg kg in the bran and flour of blue-grained wheat and 34.0 and 8.2 mg kg in the wholemeal and flour of purple-grained wheat, respectively. Hosseinian et al. (2008) reported total anthocyanin contents of 500.6 mg kg in normal purple-grained wheat and 526.0 mg kg in...

Anticarcinogenic Effects Of Ginger

Several aspects of the chemopreventive effects of various phytochemical dietary and medicinal substances, including ginger, have been reviewed (3,28,29). Possibly because of our general failure to find a ''magic cure'' for cancer, the identification of plant-derived compounds or phytochemicals having the capacity to interfere with carcinogenic processes has been receiving increased interest. Many herbs and spices are known to possess an array of biochemical and pharmacological activities including antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties that are believed to contribute to their anticarcino-genic and antimutagenic activities.

Barringtonia racemosa L K Spreng

Barringtonia Racemosa

Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, 911 Antifungal, Antimalarial, Cytotoxic, 9 Anticancer, 8 Anti-inflammatory 912 Antinociceptive, Antipyretic 12 and Thyroid hormone regulating. 13 Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, 121518 Anticancer, 19 Anticonvulsant, 16 Antidiarrhoeal, 16 Anti-inflammatory, 1920 Antioxidant, 316 Antiplatelet, Hypoglycaemic, 322 Immunostimulatory, 3 Sedative, 16 Antigenotoxic and Antimutagenic, 23 Antifungal, Antileishmanial 24 and Radioprotective. Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial,131'321 Anticancer Antineoplastic, 19 Anti-inflammatory, 33 Antiplatelet 34,351 Antipsychotic 331 Antiviral, 1518'36-38 Photoprotective, 39 Molluscicidal 40 and Piscicidal. 5 Pharmacological Activities Antimicrobial, 1114 Anticholinergic, 15 Antifertility, 16 Anti-inflammatory, 17 Antineoplastic, 18 Antioxidant, 19-22 Depressant, 23 Hepatoprotective, 24-26 Hypocholesterolaemic, 27 Anti-leishmanial, 28 Larvicidal 29 and Wound healing. 3031

Anticyclooxygenase Antilipoxygenase Activities and Regulation of Cytokine Secretion Immunomodulatory Effect

The anti-inflammatory activity of RSV has also been demonstrated in a rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema (Gentilli et al., 2001). RSV inhibited both acute and chronic phases of this inflammatory process, with an activity greater than that of indomethacin or phenylbutazone. This effect was also attributed to the impairment of PG synthesis via selective inhibition of COX-1. Similarly, preincubation with RSV decreased arachidonic acid release and COX-2 induction in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with tumor promoter PMA, ROI, or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Tsai et al., 1999). Gene transfer experiments using a reporter construct containing COX-2-luciferase confirmed that RSV-mediated decrease in COX-2 activity was indeed due to its inhibitory effect on protein kinase C (PKC)-driven activation of COX-2 transcription (Subbaramaiah et al., 1998). A more detailed account of the effect of RSV on gene transcription and transcriptional factors will be presented in a later section....

Apigenin Luteolin Quercetin Genistein and Daidzein

In addition, the calculated doses for apigenin, luteolin, and quercetin are similar to those scaled from animal anti-inflammatory experiments. Intraperitoneal administration of apigenin and luteolin (at 8 to 50 mg kg) produced anti-inflammatory effects in rats the equivalent Required dose as scaled from animal antiinflammatory studies human oral dose is about 0.66 to 4.1 grams.94 95 Quercetin produced anti-inflammatory effects within the range of 1 to 4 grams, as scaled to humans, after oral administration in mice, rats, and guinea pigs. Anti-inflammatory effects were also produced at a dose of 2.6 grams, scaled to humans (oral equivalent), after intra-peritoneal administration in rats.96,97

Scarlet Wisteria Tree Red Wisteria Daun Turi

Daun Solanum Nigrum

Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, 13 Anticonvulsant, 14 Antiinflammatory, Anxiolytic, 14 Depressant, Diuretic, 15 Hepatoprotective, 11 Hypoglycaemic, 16 Hypotensive 15 and Haemolytic. 1718 Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, 13 Anticancer antineoplastic 814 Antiulcerogenic, 36 37 Antinociceptive, Anti-inflammatory, 15 Antioxidant 34 Antiviral, 38 Depressant, 39 Hepatoprotective, 40-43 Hypolipidaemic, 44 Antimutagenic, 45 Enzyme modulation, Larvicidal, 47 Molluscicidal 47-49 and Parasiticidal. 50 Pharmacological Activities Antimicrobial, 1719 Anticancer Antineoplastic, 2021 Anti-inflammatory, 522 Hypoglycaemic, 8 Anti-oxidant, 6'10'n'23'24 Hepatoprotective, 711'25-29 Antiviral, 30 Chemopreventive, 31 Aphrodisiac 32 and Antimutagenic. 33

Plantago major L Plantaginaceae Common Plantain Whitemans Foot Daun Sejumbok

Nica Granatum

Pharmacological Activities Analgesic, 9 Antibacterial, 1011 Anti-diarrhoeal, 12 Anti-inflammatory, 413-15 Anticancer, 1016-18 Antioxidant, 19 Antiprotozoal, 20,21 Antiviral, 22 Immunomodulatory, 23,24 Immuno-stimulatory, 25,26 Proliferative, 10 Antiulcerogenic, 6 Antimutagenic, 27,28 Pharmacological Activities Anthelmintic 39101 Antibacterial, 11-21 Anticancer Antineoplastic 22-361 Antidiabetic Hypoglycaemic, 37-411 Antidiarrhoeal, 421 Antifertility, 431 Antifungal 44451 Anti-inflammatory 46471 Antimalarial, 481 Antioxidant, 34,48-62 Antiviral, 63-651 Gastroprotective, 66671 Hepatoprotective, 681 Hypolipidaemic, 41691 Immunomodulatory 70711 Neuroprotective, 72-751 Antiatherogenic, 76-781 Wound healing, 79801 Larvicidal 811 and Molluscicidal. 82831

Seed Components And Their Role In Cancer Prevention

Vitis vinifera, known as the grapevine, is indigenous to southern Europe and western Asia, and is today cultivated worldwide. Grape seeds are byproducts of grapes separated during the industrial production of grape juice and wine. They are a potent source of proanthocyanidins, which are also found in almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, pecans, pistachios, peanuts, and walnuts. The in vitro and in vivo experimental data support the concept that proanthocyanidins exert chemoprotective properties against free radicals and oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticarcinogenic properties. Potential cancer chemopreventive activities include cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction, and cell-cycle arrest in tumor cells. They also modulate the expression and activity of NF-kB and its targeted genes, including the invasion and metastasis-specific molecular targets (Nandakumar et al., 2008). Resveratrol is the most abundant member of the stilbenes family in grapes and wines. It...

Phyllanthus amarus Schum Thonn

Phyllanthus Amarus

Pharmacological Activities Analgesic, 14 Antibacterial, 1516 Antidiarrhoeal, 17 Antifertility, 18 Antifungal,1 19 Anti-inflammatory, 20-24 Antineoplastic, 25-29 Antioxidant, 30-32 Antiplasmodial, 13,33 Antiviral, 34-39 Diuretics, 40 Hepatoprotective, 41-43 Hypoglycaemic, 11'30'44 Inhibition of gastric lesion, 22 Antimutagenic, 2745 Insecticidal 46 and Radioprotective. 47

Cucumber cucumis sativus l cucurbitaceae

Cucumis Sativus

Anthelmintic (f KAB UPW) Antiinflammatory (f EGG KAB) Antiseptic (1 X15151242) Bactericide (1 X15151242) Demulcent (f GHA NAD SUW) Diuretic (f DEP GHA NAD SUW) Emetic (f DAA GHA) Febrifuge (f NAD) Insectifuge (f DAA UPW) Insecticide (f UPW) Proteolytic (1 KAB) Purgative (f DAA GHA) Tonic (f SUW) Vermifuge (f EFS GHA).

Nuclear Factorkappa B and Activator Protein1

As stated above, NF-kB activity plays a central role in inflammation. Indeed, it may be one of the key regulators of inflammation. Not surprisingly then, a variety of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, produce their effects in part by inhibiting NF-kB activity. This can occur in at least two ways. First, NF-kB can be stimulated by redox signals, and some anti-inflammatory drugs may act through attenuation of these signals. For example, gold thiolate, an anti-inflammatory drug used in treating arthritis, may inhibit NF-kB partly through its antioxidant capabilities. Second, some anti-inflammatory drugs may inhibit NF-kB by preventing its disassociation with NF-kB inhibitor, a compound referred to as I-kB. NF-kB normally resides inactive within the cell, bound to I-kB. Upon activation (by protein phosphorylation), the two proteins are dissociated and NF-kB travels to the nucleus, where it controls gene expression. The anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids (for example, cortisone) may...

Justification for Recommendation of Specific Agents

These are widely recognized as the most effective controller medications and the most effective anti-inflammatory agents. There is excellent evidence (Level A) that these reduce asthma symptoms, improve lung function, reduce airway hyperresponsiveness, decrease frequency of exacerbations, and improve quality of live (2,5). Thus, these are preferred treatments for all levels of persistent asthma. The GINA guidelines point out that the relative potencies of the various agents are difficult to elucidate due primarily to relatively flat dose-response relationships. In other words, there is little additional benefit in asthma outcomes derived from increasing doses beyond 500 mg of beclamethasone diproprionate or an equivalent dose of another ICS agent. At the same time, increasing the ICS dose increases risk of adverse effects. There is excellent evidence (Level A), however, that adding a LABA is more effective than increasing the dose of the ICS. However, there is evidence that the use of...

Estimated Therapeutic and Loael Doses of Isoflavones Flavones and Flavonols

The estimated required doses as scaled from animal antitumor studies (and anti-inflammatory studies) reasonably agree with estimated doses calculated from pharmacokinetic and in-vitro data. The required dose scaled from animal antitumor studies ranges from 250 milligrams to 9.9 grams, and that based on pharmacoki-netic calculations is similar. Using a target in-vivo concentration of 15 mM for each compound (30 pM after adjustment for conjugates see Appendix J), the required dose ranges from 720 milligrams to 5.2 grams. We can estimate target human doses by using an average of the doses scaled from animal studies and those calculated from pharmacokinetic and in-vitro data. For all compounds, the target doses are below the LOAEL doses.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids on energy metabolism and other factors connected to weight control

The link between fatty acids and inflammation lies in the fact that the inflammatory mediators termed eicosanoids are generated from long-chain fatty acids. The role of PUFAs in inflammation has recently been thoroughly reviewed (Browning, 2003 Wu, 2004 Calder, 2005). Inflammatory cells contain high levels of the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid and low levels of the omega-3 PUFA EPA. The eicosanoids include prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, and these are typically produced from arachidonic acid. The eicosanoids in turn enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species and production of inflammatory cytokines like tumour necrosis factor-1a (TNF-1), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 (Calder, 2005). Increased consumption of the omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA results in elevated levels of these fatty acids in the inflammatory cells, resulting in reduced production of eicosanoids with arachidonic acid as precursor. The eicosanoids produced from EPA are believed to be less potent in their...

Introductory Remarks and Historical Development

Traditionally, the clinical applications of oral colonic drug delivery have been limited to the local treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Enteric coatings, sustained release systems, and bacterially triggered treatments have all been used to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the colon to treat this debilitating condition. However, for many years the treatment of colonic cancer has been postulated as an ideal candidate for colonic drug delivery but little has been delivered in this field although there are some potential avenues which are starting to be explored. Also, there are other local diseases of the large intestine which could benefit from topical delivery to the colonic mucosa, and the potential of the colon for systemic Apriso is another delayed extended release formulation based on pH-triggered release. The recent shift in clinical prescribing towards higher doses of anti-inflammatory medications has fuelled the development of high dose products, such as...

Antibacterial and Antiviral Activities

As noted, extracts of H. perforatum have been used for millennia to treat cuts, abrasions, and other wounds. Its usefulness in reducing inflammation is well known, and appears related, at least in part, to its ability to serve as an antibacterial agent. Recent research also suggests that it is useful in combating viruses.

Fenugreek trigonella foenumgraecum l fabaceae

Analeptic (f BOU) Analgesic (f1 MAD X15374601) Anthelmintic (f HHB) Antiadhesion (1 FNF YAH) Antiaggregant (f X11310527) Antianemic (f1 VAD) Antiatherosclerotic (1 BGB) Anticystitic (1 FNF YAH) Antidiabetic (f1 BGB PNC) Antidiuretic (1 CAN) Antihyperlipe-demic (1 BGB) Antihypertensive (1 CAN) Antiinflammatory (f12 KOM X15374601) Antiisch-emic (1 X16205934) Antineoplastic (f1 PR15 257) Antinociceptive (1 TAD X15374601) Antioxidant (1 X15678722) Antiseptic (12 KOM VAD) Antispasmodic (f1 PED PNC) Antitumor (f1 PNC) Antiviral (f DAA) Aperient (f NAD) Aphrodisiac (f BOU CRC HHB KAB SPI SUW) Astringent (f CRC PED) Cardiotonic (1 APA CAN) Carminative (f APA CRC GHA SUW WOI) Caspase-3 Inhibitor (1 X16205934) Chemopreventive (1 X15936223) Chola-gogue (f BGB) Contraceptive (f BOW) Demulcent (f12 CAN PNC) Digestive (f APA VAD) Diuretic (f1 APA CAN CRC) Ecbolic (f CRC) Emmenagogue (f1 CRC FNF KAB) Emollient (f12 APA BOU CAN PH2 PNC) Estrogenic (1 JAD) Expectorant (f CAN CRC SPI) Febrifuge (1...

Chitosan plus herbal extracts

Polymer also possessing medicinal activities, such as antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, antiplaque, ant tartar, hemostatic, wound healing, and potentiates anti-inflammatory response, inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria, immunopotentiation, antihypertensive, serum cholesterol lowering, increases salivary secretion (anti-xerostomia), and helps in the formation of bone substitute materials. The adherence of oral bacteria on the tooth surface leads to plaque formation. It is believed that the adhesion between the bacteria and the tooth surface is due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions are disrupted by chitosan derivatives because of competition by the positively charged amine group. The antibacterial activity of chitosan could be due to the electrostatic interactions between the amine groups of chitosan and the anionic sites on bacterial cell wall because of the presence of carboxylic acid residues and phospholipids. Use of most of...

Estimated Therapeutic and Loael Doses of Propolis

Periment is about 1.3 grams daily, similar to the 0.96 to 11 grams scaled from animal anti-inflammatory experiments. The dose based on pharmacokinetic calculations is much higher, however. Using a target in-vivo concentration of 15 M (30 M after adjustment for conjugates), the required propolis dose is about 72 grams per day. The reasons for this large difference are not clear, but a number of questions exist regarding the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of CAPE and other active propolis compounds. It seems likely, however, that the 72-gram dose is overestimated. Lacking additional data, we can only estimate that the target human dose is between 1.3 and 72 grams per day. Since the target dose is uncertain, it is also unclear whether synergistic interactions will be required to produce an anticancer effect in humans. At the low end of this target range, synergism would not be needed, but it would be at the high end. The commonly prescribed human dose in noncancerous conditions is from...

Evidence for Synergism Against Cancer Cells

Numerous studies were conducted using 1,25-D3 and or ATRA in combination with other compounds. One study on 1,25-D3 reported that when it was combined with curcumin, vitamin E, other antioxidants, or a variety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, the differentiation of human leukemia cells was en-hanced.6 Another reported that curcumin (at 10 pM) enhanced the differentiation of human leukemia cells induced by 1,25-D3 (at 5 nM).7

What is the relationship between ulcers and GERD

An ulcer is a break in the lining of the gut generally defined as greater than 5 millimeters, which is about a quarter of an inch. Ulcers can occur anywhere in the gut from the mouth to the anus. The causes of ulcers vary depending on their location. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen (Naprosyn) can cause ulcers anywhere in the gut. Classically, ulcers are located in the stomach and first part of the small intestine (called the duodenum). Aspirin, NSAIDs, infection of the stomach with the bacterium H. pylori, or the production of too much acid can cause these ulcers. Cigarette smoking can also play a role in ulcers and impair their healing.

Corticosteroids Cortisone and Relatives

One of the dramatic effects of corticosteroids is to reduce inflammation and certain allergic reactions, such as skin rashes. Pharmacologists have maximized this action in some of the new steroids they have created in laboratories. When these drugs are applied topically that is, when they are put on the skin they are reasonably safe and sometimes miraculously effective. Doctors also frequently prescribe steroids for systemic use that is, to be taken internally. There are clear indications for such use, but because steroids seem almost to have magic powers, doctors tend to overprescribe them, sometimes dispensing them for mild cases of poison ivy, diaper rash, back pain, and other conditions not severe enough to warrant their use. The trouble is that the desirable anti-inflammatory properties of steroids are just one of many actions of these powerful hor

Nerium oleander L Apocynaceae Oleander

Branch Point Helix

Pharmacological Activities Analgesic, 15 Anti-inflammatory, 8'915 Antibacterial, 16 Anticancer Antineoplastic, 8917-22 Antifungal, 23 Depressant, 2425 Antimitotic, 26 Insecticidal, 27 Larvicidal, 28 Muscle stimula-tory 29-30 and inhibits Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. 31 Pharmacological Activities Antiarrhythmic, 11 Anti-inflammatory, 1213 Antithrombotic, 1415 Immunomodulatory, 16 Immunostimulatory, 1718 Cardioprotective 19'20 and Chemoprotective. 21

Cardiovascular Disease

Epidemiologic studies have shown inverse associations between dietary polyphenols and mortality from coronary heart disease. Small, short-term, intervention studies have indicated that cocoa-containing foods may provide many cardiovascular benefits including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet function, preventing lipid oxidation, reducing LDL, increasing HDL, improving endothelial function, increasing insulin sensitivity, reducing insulin resistance and reducing inflammation.

Applications To Heath Promotion And Disease Prevention

Commerce Durable

Garcinia kola seeds and seed extracts have shown to be of benefit to health, and relevant in the management and chemoprevention of life-threatening diseases. The effects range from antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities to strong hepatoprotective properties. In this section, the focus will be on the experimental evidence and biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective properties of Garcinia kola, and especially the bioflavonoid kolaviron isolated from it. Kola-viron has been demonstrated by many researchers to have protective effects against several hepatocarcinogens in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Figure 26.3 shows the wide array of chemical compounds affected by kolaviron. Transcription factors are nuclear proteins activated by the cell transduction pathways in response to a variety of stimuli. They bind to specific DNA sequences on the promoter of target genes, and translate short-term...

An Update on Endoscopic Thoracic Spinal Surgery Thoracic Microendoscopic Discectomy

Branch Point Helix

The clear indication to perform the TMED procedure is in patients with thoracic disc herniation causing myelopathy in order to improve neurological function and prevent further injury to the spinal cord. However, the longer the myelopathy has been present the less likely is restoration of normal neurological function. Severe and refractory radiculopathy is another indication for surgery. Thoracic radicular pain from disc herniation is typically sharp, lancinating pain that radiates unilaterally from posterior to anterior around the chest wall in its dermatomal distribution correlating to the herniated thoracic disc. Radiculopathy can develop without loss of neurological function because of the overlap of innervation of adjacent intercostal nerves. Radiculopathy may be present without myelopathic manifestations. Isolated thoracic radiculopathy often responds to conservative management such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, oral steroids, epidural injection, intercostal...

Guidelines For Management Of Gallstone Disease

Gall Bladder

Current therapies of gallstone disease, including cholesterol gallstones. Novel and potentially effective medical therapies are denoted by the symbol ( ). See text for details. Results from meta-analyses indicate surgery as the gold standard for treating symptomatic gallstones.164-166 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and small-incision cholecystectomy166 are safe and have similar mortality (from 0.1 to 0.7 ).122,165 Both approaches are cost-effective compared with open cholecystectomy.165 Compared with open cholecystectomy, convalescence and hospital stay are shorter and total cost is lower for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.122 Complication rates (including bile duct injuries) are similar for laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy.122,165 When looking at surgical options, a prophylactic cholecystectomy can be taken into account in a subgroup of asymptomatic patients bearing a high risk of becoming symptomatic children (who are exposed to long-term physical presence of stones167),...

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

It is now widely accepted that the use of naturally occurring antioxidants or antimutagens in everyday life will be the most effective procedure for promoting human health. Such compounds include vitamins, trace elements, and a variety of other substances with antioxidant properties. Polyphenols, isoflavones, catechins, and several other components found in higher plants are known to protect against the deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species (4). Hertog and Hollman (5) have suggested that diets rich in phenolic compounds are associated with longer life expectancy. These compounds have also been found to have various health-related properties because of their antioxidant activities. These properties include anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities, effects on capillary fragility, and an ability to inhibit human platelet aggregation (6).

Enhance Wound Healing

Topical use Bepanthen is a well-known dermatological preparation containing dexpanthenol, an alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It has been investigated in numerous studies and found to act like a moisturiser, activate fibroblast proliferation, accelerate re-epithelialisation in wound healing, have anti-inflammatory activity against UV-induced erythema and reduce itch (Ebner et al 2002). Under double-blind study conditions, epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Another randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in 2003 investigated the efficacy of topical dexpanthenol as a skin protectant against irritation. The study involved 25 healthy volunteers who were treated with a topical preparation containing 5 dexpanthenol or placebo and then exposed to sodium lauryl sulphate 2 twice daily over 26 days. Treatment with topical dexpanthenol provided protection...

Functional properties and toxicity

Nigella seed and oil are known to possess several pharmacological properties such as detergent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and expectorant. From ancient times, Nigella, because of its insect repellent properties, has been used as a seed spread in woollens and silk clothes to protect them from insects and used like moth balls. The presence of the carboxyl compound nigellone and non-carboxyl fractions are reported to protect guinea pigs against histamine-induced broncho-spasm and phenolic fractions obtained from seeds have been reported to be antibacterial. In Vitilago, Nigella powder is used as vinegar and applied on spots followed by exposure to sunlight. A decoction of seeds mixed with sesame oil is used externally in various skin eruptions. They are also used against scorpion sting. Preliminary clinical trials indicate Nigella's possible therapeutic use in some conditions of cough and bronchial-asthma. Alcoholic extracts of the seeds show antibacterial activity against Micrococcus...

Irans Rich Foods In Vegetables

Reduction of high sugar or a low glycemic diet is something to consider. Many holistic practitioners believe a diet that avoids high levels of blood sugar is critical to reduce inflammation and balance the endocrine system for optimal health and disease prevention. Foods rich in carbohydrates can be evaluated by their glycemic index. A low glycemic index is preferred as it is less likely to cause a high blood sugar level. White rice, pasta and breads, desserts, and candy are some foods known to have high glycemic indexes. Eating carbohydrates in combination with equal amounts of fiber and good fat is also recommended.

Clinical Use of SABA

Increases AHR and so increases exacerbation rates (39). It is now generally accepted that the increase in asthma deaths in New Zealand were due to the inappropriate use of regular SABA, leading to increased AHR, coupled with the under-prescribing of anti-inflammatory medications such as corticosteroids (40). The combination of these factors meant that some patients were at high risk of severe exacerbations. It is also possible that there were cardiac side effects due to fenoterol overuse during these exacerbations. Consequently, fenoterol was withdrawn from the market in New Zealand and there was a subsequent decrease in asthma mortality. This improvement was due to (i) more appropriate use of SABA ''as needed'' rather than on a regular basis and (ii) increased prescribing of corticosteroids for anti-inflammatory control. SABA are used for the initial occasional treatment of mild asthma. Persistent symptoms that require regular SABA use indicate the need for the use of regular...

In Vitro Ex Vivo and Animal Tests

Early pharmacological tests of echinacea preparations are not particularly relevant to the question of immune stimulation as this activity was not suspected before about 1960. Suitable pharmacological assays are asserted to have been underdeveloped at that time and there is considerable doubt about the specific plant material used. This work primarily focused on wound healing, anti-inflammatory activity, and direct antimicrobial and antiviral shown that the macrophages stimulated by the polysaccharides from tissue culture release TNF-a, interleukins-1, -6, -10, and interferon- 32 (117,118). Stimulation of the T cells is said to be nonspecific and result in transformation, production of interferon, and secretion of lymphokines leading to enhanced T-cell mitogenesis, macrophage phagocytosis, antibody binding, natural killer cell activity, and increased numbers of circulating PMS cells (3,36). There seems to be no toxicity to macrophages even at comparatively high doses of polysaccharide...

Mangifera indica L Anacardiaceae Mango Mangga

Anacardiaceae Roots And Bark

Pharmacological Activities Analgesic, 10 Anthelmintic, 11 Antibacterial, 12-14 Anticonvulsant 15 Antidiarrhoeal, 13 Antifungal, 16 Anti-inflammatory, 10111719 Anticancer, 20-23 Antioxidant, 24-38 Antiviral, 39-40 Gastroprotective, 4142 Hepatoprotective, 4344 Antiprotozoal, 15 Hypoglycaemic, 45-47 Hypolipidae-mic, 4648 Immunomodulatory, 49 Larvicidal 50 and Radioprotective 51'52

HDAC Inhibitors in Models of Inflammatory Diseases 321 Models of Lupus Erythematosus

Are Anti-inflammatory Whereas High Concentrations are Needed for Anti-tumor Effects secretion of TNFa, IL-1p, IFNy, and IL-12 in freshly isolated human PBMCs was reported (Leoni et al. 2002). Similar to the reduction in protein levels of TNFa and IFNy, the steady state mRNA levels for these two cytokines were reduced, particularly those of IFNy. In addition, the in vitro production of nitric oxide in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with the combination of TNFa and IFNy was suppressed by SAHA at 200-400 nM (Leoni et al. 2002). Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effect of SAHA is evident at concentrations lower than those needed to suppress tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. IFNy production triggered by the T-cell receptor using anti-CD3 was unaffected by SAHA (Leoni et al. 2002). In contrast, when stimulated by either LPS or the combination of IL-18 plus IL-12, IFNy production was markedly reduced by SAHA. The intracellular and extracellular levels of the...

Historical Background

Khellin Structure

Cromolyn and nedocromil are members of the chromone group of chemical compounds. The chemical formula for chromone is 5 6 benz-1 4 pyrone (2) (Fig. 1). In 1968, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or CS combined with isoproterenol was introduced in the United Kingdom as the first antiinflammatory medication used in asthma (3-5). The addition of the bronchodilator was done to prevent bronchoconstriction that can occur with inhalation of a sodium salt (4). By 1973, cromolyn was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of asthma and in 1983 for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (5). Khellin (2) was the first identified chromone, which was extracted from seeds of the plant Amni visnaga, the same plant from which cromolyn was derived. It was used as a diuretic and smooth muscle relaxant, especially for the relief of ureteric colic. In 1947, Anrep et al. (6) reported the clinical utility of khellin for the treatment of asthma. Multiple compounds were synthesized using...

Traditional Chinese Tibetan And Ayurvedic Medicine

Specific mention should also be made here of Tibetan medicine, a healing system that combines knowledge and traditions of Chinese and Indian medicine with a strong spiritual component derived from Buddhism.4 Though the Tibetan materia medica includes animal and mineral ingredients, it is mainly herbal, relying on some 1,000 plants. Tibetan medical plants include pomegranate (Punica granatum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and white sandalwood (Santalum album). Several traditional Tibetan herbal preparations show great promise as therapeutic agents, such as Padma-28, currently being studied by several groups for its anti-inflammatory activities.6,7 This is a mixture of twenty-two herbs, including spiral flag, Iceland moss, china-berry, myrobalan, cardamom, red saunders, sorrel, camphor, hardy orange, columbine, licorice, ribwort, knotgrass, golden cinquefoil, clove, gingerlily, heart-leaved sida, lettuce, valerian, and marigold.7

MUFA and inflammation

Oxidative damage by ROS to DNA and lipids contributes significantly to the etiology of cancer and atherosclerosis. A decrease in production of pro-inflammatory mediators would, therefore, be beneficial by decreasing the release of ROS. Diminishing the production of cytokines is also believed to improve the symptoms of RA. It has been suggested that olive oil may have anti-inflammatory properties as it can reduce the production of these proinflam-matory mediators. Although few studies have been carried out on the benefits of olive oil on symptoms of inflammation, it is possible that olive oil produces a similar effect to fish oil. Fish oils and butter have both been shown to reverse the proinflammatory effects of one cytokine, TNF. Further research, where C18 1 was added to a diet containing coconut oil, resulted in responses to TNF that were similar to those seen in animals fed butter. It was assumed that, as the anti-inflammatory effects of butter appeared to be due to its oleic acid...

Inflammatory Disorders

The development of an inflammatory response is an important defensive mechanism. The inflammatory response is characterized by the movement of fluid, plasma proteins, cytokines, and other factors to the site of injury. However, this normal protective mechanism can cause problems if it is inadequate, uncontrolled, or inappropriate. Many chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, involve chronic inflammation, and long-term anti-inflammatory treatment is required. These treatments, which include steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and specific inhibitors of cycloxygenase, often bring their own problems (156,157). G. lucidum reportedly has anti-inflammatory properties, but we have been unable to find any reports of clinical trials investigating this aspect of G. lucidum and its potential health benefits. A family of triterpenoids from the mushroom was reported to reduce inflammation induced by carageenan and croton oil, and a therapuetic...

Fasting and Vegetarian Diets

Other potential mechanisms include the possible effect of a vegetarian diet on antioxidant status, or on other dietary practices frequently associated with vegetarianism. Plant-based foods are naturally high in antioxidant nutrients (vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene) and low serum antioxidant levels have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA, although the specific mechanism involved remains unknown. Certainly, RA is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species these compounds seem to contribute to the inflammatory process, so a diet high in antioxidants could limit damage via their anti-inflammatory properties. While changes in fatty acid composition or antiox-idant status seem to be the most plausible explanations for the potential benefit of adhering to a vegetarian diet, there are other possible mechanisms as well. Fasting, for example, suppresses inflammation and frequently a period of fasting is recommended prior to initiating an...

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

A wide variety of prescribed drugs can cause anorexia, nausea, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal distress in older persons, rendering medication review an important component of nutritional management. Digoxin, theophylline, and nonstero-idal anti-inflammatory agents are frequent culprits in this regard. Enquiry must also be made into the use and tolerance of self-prescribed medication. Offending drugs, once identified, must be discontinued. Iatrogenesis also contributes to undernutrition by way of therapeutic diets. Low-cholesterol and low-salt diets are often prescribed to older persons on the basis of data extrapolated from younger persons. There is currently little evidence to suggest that these diets are of any benefit to older persons when used as primary prevention strategies. Available data actually indicate increased mortality in older adults with low-cholesterol levels. Evidence suggests that hypocholesterolemia may reflect increased cytokine expression in acutely ill...

Pharmacological Activities Potentially Relevant for Asthma

Although traditionally classified as a bronchodilator and initially used primarily for acute bronchodilatation, the ability of theophylline as maintenance therapy to control chronic asthma has always appeared disproportionately greater than was explainable by its modest degree of bronchodilator activity alone (14-22). In addition to bronchodilatation, theophylline has broncho-protective (23-26), anti-inflammatory (27-30), and immunomodulatory (22) effects that potentially contribute to its efficacy as a maintenance medication for controlling chronic asthma. Theophylline down-regulates inflammatory and immune cell function in vitro and in vivo in animals with airway inflammation (39,40). In patients with allergic asthma, it attenuates the late phase increase in airway obstruction and airway responsiveness to histamine (27) and decreases allergen-induced migration of activated eosinophils into the bronchial mucosa (30). Moreover, withdrawal of theophylline from 27 adults with severe...

Electrical Acupuncture

Endorphin mechanisms are nonspecific. Electrical acupuncture and needling stimulate the secretion of endorphins however, chiropractic manipulation, massage, physical exercise, meditation, and taking a vacation can also have the same result to some degree. Nevertheless, electrical acupuncture provides special clinical mechanisms that greatly enhance the effects of ISDN. When a needle is inserted into damaged or unhealthy soft tissue, the needling process and the needling-induced lesions activate an anti-inflammatory response, relax the soft tissue contracture, and enable tissue regeneration. During insertion and removal of the needles, the tissue is only slightly stretched. Manipulating the needle can apply more of this tissue-stretching effect.3

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

The process of wound healing involves 3 stages inflammatory reaction, formation of granulation tissue, and tissue remodeling (164). All these events are known to be regulated by different cytokines and growth factors. There are obvious advantages of gene transfer techniques for treatment of wound healing abnormalities or to enhance the wound healing rate because the epidermal barrier is defective, only limited target gene expression is needed, and the treated area is usually localized (165). Tyrone et al. successfully treated ischemic dermal ulcers in rabbits by topical application of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A or-B-DNA plasmids embedded within a collagen latice. They showed that PDGF-A and PDGF-B DNA substantially increased the formation of new granulation tissue, epithelialization, and wound closure (166). Subcutaneously injected liposomal insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) cDNA construct was shown to effectively promote reepithelialization of burn wounds, by...

Which medications can affect both esophagus and stomach

Max), and clarithromycin (Biaxin), can cause stomach irritation. Medications for osteoporosis, the bis-phosphonates, can cause problems by irritating the lining of the esophagus as well as that of the stomach. Bisphosphonates, which include risendronate (Actonel) and alendronate, can directly affect the lining of the esophagus and increase the acid production in the stomach. Finally, pain medications related to aspirin in the drug family called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which includes over-the-counter medication such as naproxen (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil and Motrin), can irritate the stomach lining and cause ulcers in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Symptoms from these medications include heartburn, abdominal pain, and nausea.

Treatment for Pauciarticular Onset Arthritis

Treatment for pauciarticular-onset arthritis usually consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs are discussed in detail in Chapter 20. I often use diclofenac for children with pauciarticular-onset disease that does not respond adequately to other NSAIDs. Naproxen, celecoxib, nabumetone, and diclofenac have the advantage of being given less frequently than ibuprofen.

Viigarlic Allium Sativum

Garlic is one of the most extensively studied herbal medications available. It has been thought to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, antineoplastic, and antithrombotic properties that make its use as a general tonic attractive. Recent research has primarily focused on the use of garlic for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. Although allicin has been proposed to be the active ingredient within garlic (54,55), its poor bioavailability limits its direct effects (56). The

Supplements For Venous Insufficiency

Therapy of chronic venous insufficiency.) FortschrMed 114(15) (1996) 196-200. Guillaume M, Padioleau F. Veinotonic effect, vascular protection, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging Senatore F et al. Steroidal constituents and anti-inflammatory activity of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 65(2) (1989) 137-41.

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