The Red Wine Diet
The well publicized French paradox means that when in France one can eat and drink with abandon without fear of becoming obese. Red wine consumption has often been cited as the protective factor in this phenomenon. The good news is that there may well be a scientific basis for this happy situation. Pal et al. (2004) studied the impact of acute consumption of red wine polyphenolics in postmenopausal women. They found that red wine polyphenolics attenuate postprandial chylomicron and chylomicron remnant levels in plasma, possibly by delaying absorption of dietary fat.
The least harmful part of this classic is the peanut butter, of course. It's a good source of monounsaturated fat. It contains resveratrol, too, the same phytochemical that makes red wine beneficial as a protection against heart disease and cancer. Peanut butter also contains folate, which helps you to metabolize homocysteine, a byproduct of protein metabolism that otherwise can harm the cardiovascular system. The drawbacks to commercially processed peanut butter are that bad fats saturated ones are sometimes added, and so is sugar. It's best to stick to all-natural peanut butter. Jelly is like eating sugar from the bowl even teamed with peanut butter, it will jolt your pancreas into making more insulin than is healthy. And the bread you're no doubt using for a base is the standard supermarket white the
Euphorbia lagascae seeds are rich in piceatannol (trans-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene, 1), a stilbene that was first identified in Vouacapoua species (King et al., 1956), and is also present in rhubarb, sugar cane, berries, peanuts, red wine, and the skin of grapes (Roupel et al., 2006).
There is evidence that moderate wine consumption protects against CAD. Two studies linked the beneficial effects of moderate drinking only to wine 13,14 . Red wine contains several flavonoids and phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant properties. The protection effects against atherogenesis suggested that antioxidants in wine might play a role through modification of LDLs 15 , However, it seems unlikely that the cardioprotective effects are due solely to the antioxidant properties of these compounds, since the orally ingested phenolic antioxidants may not reach sufficiently high plasma levels to affect the oxidizability of LDL in humans 16 , Moreover, the majority of epidemiological studies have shown that all alcohol beverage types (beer, wine, and distilled spirits) confer some cardioprotective effects 17 ,
Colour stability has been found to be somewhat of a problem with compomers in a few studies. This is not entirely surprising, given that they are designed to take up water, which is likely to alter appearance through a change in refractive index, and also to carry with it coloured chemical species (stains) from certain foodstuffs such as coffee and red wine. In a 3-year study of Class V restorations of Dyract, Demirci et al. 21 found that all Ryge criteria were good, except those relating to colour change, i.e. colour stability and marginal discoloration. In both of these there were significant changes 21 .
Given the differences in dietary intake, particularly for fruits and vegetables, between populations, it is not surprising that the relationships between the predominant flavonoids and their sources will vary between populations, nor is it unexpected that there will be wide inter- and intraindividual variations in intake of the individual subclasses of the flavonoids. Flavonol intake was estimated to be highest in a Japanese population group (64mg day) and lowest in Finland (6mg day). International comparisons of dietary sources also reflect this variation, but only a few sources of flavonoids are responsible for most of the intake. Red wine was the main source of the flavonol quercetin in Italy, tea was the main source in Japan and The Netherlands, and onions were the most significant contributor to intake in Greece, the United States, and the former Yugoslavia (Table 1).
A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the protection by flavonoids against CHD, including antioxidant activity. Oxidative damage to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (particularly to the apoprotein B molecule) is considered to be an important stage in the development of atherosclerosis It is a prerequisite for macrophage uptake and cellular accumulation of cholesterol leading to the formation of the atheromal fatty streak. Flavonoids such as quercetin are effective inhibitors of in vitro oxidative modification of LDL by macrophages or copper ions. Although consumption of flavonoids in onions and black tea (providing 91 mg day of quercetin for 2 weeks) by young healthy male and female subjects had no effect on plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations (a biomarker of in vivo lipid peroxidation) or on resistance of LDL to copper-ion-induced oxidation, flavonoids in red wine have been reported to protect LDL against oxidative damage. The antiox-idant properties of flavonoids may...
Good sources (more than one-sixth of adequate intake per serving) include black lea, red wine, pecans, peanuts, pineapple, oatmeal, shredded wheat, raisin bran cereal, beans, rice, sweet potato, whole w heat, and spinach. Blueberry juice contains 21 ing I (Kaiantanas et at., 2000). Water usually contributes only a few micrograms or less per
The same is true for the polyphenolic flavonoids, anthocyanins, and various other plant-based non-nutrient antioxidants in the diet. Many of these have antioxidant powers far higher than those of vitamin C and vitamin E when tested in in vitro systems. Dietary intake can be similar to that of vitamin C (100mgday 1 or higher), but, as their bioavailability is low, plasma levels of individual flavonoids and other phenolic antioxidants are very low or undetectable. The major dietary polyphenolic compounds are quercetin, kaempferol, myricitin, and the catechins. These flavonoids are found in onions, apples, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, teas, grapes, and wine. Moderate wine intake, especially of red wine (which is very rich in polyphenolic antioxidants), is associated with a significant
Phenolic compounds present in red wine elicit antioxidant activity and prevent LDL oxidation (Whitehead et al., 1995). In line with this, epidemi-ological studies have linked moderate intake of wine with an appreciable decrease in the risk of coronary artery disease, particularly in regions of France where the diet is high in fat (Fuhrman et al., 1995). Studies have demonstrated that RSV is a potent inhibitor of the oxidation of polyunsat-urated fatty acids (PUFA) found in LDL, which plays a major role in atherosclerosis (Miller and Rice-Evans, 1995). Other reports indicate that RSV is more potent than flavonoids in preventing copper-catalyzed oxidation, and as LDL has high affinity for copper, this copper-chelating activity impedes oxidative modification of LDL (Frankel et al., 1993). Further evidence of the protective effect of RSV on lipid accumulation was reported in human hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2, which elicit most of the normal liver parenchymal functions (Goldberg et al.,...
Health problems caused by food intolerance vary depending upon the food and chemical involved. The amount of a food eaten may also play a role. Lactose intolerance is usually characterized by gastrointestinal problems such as bloating and diarrhea. Sulfite intolerance is typically characterized by difficulty in breathing. Those sensitive to MSG may experience a variety of symptoms, such as headache, numbness, and rapid heartbeat. Tyramine, found in pickled herring, soy sauce, red wine, and other foods, has been linked to migraine headache. Capsaicin can cause a burning pain in the mouth and other problems, such as nausea and vomiting. Myristicin has been associated with anxiety, chest pressure, hallucinations, fever, and skin redness.
Although RSV does not enjoy a wide distribution in the plant kingdom, its occurrence has been documented in trees, including eucalyptus, spruce, and the tropical deciduous tree Bauhinia racemosa, in a few flowering plants such as Veratrum grandiflorum and Veratrum formosanum (two species of lilly), in Pterolobium hexapetallum (nonedible legume), in peanuts and groundnuts, and in grapevines (Soleas et al., 1997). One of the richest sources of RSV is the weed Polygonum capsidatum, root extracts of which have been used extensively in Oriental fold medicine (Kubo et al., 1981 Nonomura et al., 1963). Since the first reported detection of trans-RSV in grapvines (Vitus vinifera) in 1976 (Langcake and Pryce, 1976) and later in wine in 1992 (Siemann and Creasy, 1992), most interest has centered on RSV in grapevine. This was mainly due to the fact that compounds found in grapevines were implicated in epidemiological data demonstrating an inverse correlation between red wine...
A significant proportion of the research on flavo-noids has concentrated on their antioxidant actions, and their capacity to act as antioxidants remains their best described biological property to date. Their antioxidant ability is well established in vitro, and in vivo animal data also suggest that consumption of compounds such as rutin or red wine extracts, tea, or fruit juice lowers oxidative products such as protein carbonyls, DNA damage markers, and malonaldehyde levels in blood and a range of tissues.
Higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) and lower HDL-cholesterol 136 , However, total plasma ATC was comparable in all three groups (control, stable angina and unstable angina), except when expressed per LDL particle, whereupon it was lower in patents with unstable angina pectoris. Values in patents with stable angina pectoris were higher than the latter, but lower than controls 136 , Thus, it seems that the type of cardiovascular disorder needs to be defined and careful attention needs to be paid as to how ATC levels are expressed. Internal factors relevant to the determination of ATC status include triglycerides and apoproteins 10 , However, geographical and cultural dietary habits further compound the relationship between ATC and the etiology ofheart disease. Whole grain intake and nuts correlate negatively with coronary heart disease, which is not explained by the contribution of ATC (nor fiber, folate, vitamin B6) 137,138 , Another example pertains to...
The additives sulfur dioxide, tartrazine, sodium benzoate, and salicylates have been implicated, although in the case of sulfur dioxide its ability to cause asthma depends on the nature of the food to which it is added, the level of residual sulfur dioxide in the food, and the sensitivity of the patient. Foods such as nuts, cola drinks, ice, and those cooked in oil have been found to cause symptoms more frequently in Asian children. Many of the studies that have identified certain foodstuffs as triggering asthma have had limitations or flaws in their design, leading to difficulties in interpreting and extrapolating their results.
Early investigators, impressed by France's relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease despite an intake of saturated fats at least three times that of the United States (the so-called ''French paradox''), focused their studies on the potential cardioprotective properties of red wine. Based on other studies, however, the present consensus is that all alcoholic beverages wine, beer, and liquor, in moderation, are associated with a lower coronary artery disease risk (Rimm et al., 1996). In dose-range studies, a J or U shaped curve has been demonstrated whereby the equivalent of two alcoholic drinks per day is associated with a decreased
Anthocyanins are phenolic phytochemicals used for the coloring of foods and widely distributed in human diets through crops, beans, fruits, vegetables and red wine. In one study,180 it was found that dietary supplementation with anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-P-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color) suppressed the development of high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice the effect was not due to reduced energy intake or fat absorption, and was accompanied by reduced expression of key enzymes and transcription factors for fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in both liver and WAT. These results suggest that anthocyanins may constitute functional food factors of benefit in the prevention of obesity and diabetes, probably by targeting lipogenesis (effects on energy expenditure thermogenesis were not addressed in the above study, and remain to be investigated).
Similar to tea polyphenols, resveratrol, a major polyphenol in red wine, has also been found to have a protective effect against LDL oxidation in some but not all studies. In contrast to the disparate findings from wine and tea and their flavonoids on LDL protection, studies consistently suggest that cocoa, chocolate, and the procyanins found in cocoa protect LDL from oxidation, both in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro studies of apples, apple juice, and apple extracts (rich in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols) indicate that these foods also protect LDL.
Procyanidins or proanthocyanidins are oligomeric flavan-3-ol flavonoids, which occur in high amounts in some Western diets owing to their presence in cocoa chocolate, red wine, and also in some supplements such as grape seed extract. Because they are oligomers, a number of different compounds are found naturally, consisting of either eipcatechin or catechin monomers linked in different ways with a degree of polymerization of 2-6 and more. Analytical limitations make it difficult to obtain pure oligomers above 6. Although procyanidins are only poorly bioavailable, they exert a number of effects in vivo although not specifically on the gut.
I'll bet you can guess by now that the oil and the cheese on the pizza aren't the worst things it has to offer. Especially if it's good olive oil and partskim mozzarella. The crust is white flour, which is a problem. And the beer, of course, is nobody's idea of a diet drink. Maltose, the sugar in beer, has a higher glycemic index than white bread. The insulin response to it leads to the fat storage in the abdomen that we call, quite accurately, the beer belly. But pizza isn't completely devoid of benefits. Cooked tomatoes (in the sauce) are a great source of lycopene, a cancer fighter. Completely eliminate pizza and pasta forever and you lose two of the most palatable ways to serve this vegetable. If you can switch from deep dish to thin crust, you've made a difference. And if, along with the olive oil and tomato sauce and part-skim cheese you add some green peppers, onions, mushrooms, and olives, you've added lots of good, nutritious carbs that will make the dish more filling. In...
Paste 3 ounces red wine 1 teaspoon dried thyme 1 teaspoon dried marjoram 1 teaspoon granulated garlic Tabasco sauce to taste Warm olive oil in a 10-inch frying pan over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Saut the minced garlic, onion, and red pepper for 3 minutes. Add sausage and seitan and cook for 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add mixture to the Crock-Pot with the stewed tomatoes and artichoke hearts. Spoon tomato paste into the mixture. Fill tomato paste can halfway (3 ounces) with red wine, then add water to fill can. Stir into the pot, cover, and cook for 6 to 8 hours. Add thyme, marjoram, and granulated garlic 10 minutes before serving. You may season with a touch of Tabasco or serve the hot sauce on the side.
Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites with a common C6-C3-C6 structure (Fig. 2). They exist more often in the form of glycoside derivatives but less often in the aglycone form. Eleven flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides have been identified in chrysanthemum since the first report in 1974. All of them are also widely distributed in other plants, for example green tea, red wine, vegetables, and fruits. Nearly all flavonoids (luteolin, diosmetin, chrysin, apigenin, quecertin, and their glycosides) that could be isolated from chrysanthemum showed antioxidant activity and antimutagenic activity or inhibited tumor cell proliferation. Luteolin, chrysin, quecertin, and apigenin were proved to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase or G2 M or both. Flavonoids may block several points in the process of tumor promotion, including inhibiting kinases, reducing transcription factors, and regulating cell cycle (38).
Animal experiments indicate that doses of quercetin equivalent to 1-2 glasses of red wine exerts a cardioprotective effect following ischaemia-reperfusion by improving the function of mitochondria, which play a critical role in myocardial recovery (Brookes et al 2002) and may also prevent the development of atherosclerosis through several indirect mechanisms (Auger et al 2005). In humans quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and signalling and thrombus formation at doses of 1 50 mg or 300 mg quercetin-4'-0-beta-D-glucoside (Hubbard etal 2004). This effect, however, may not occur with clinically relevant doses.
The issue of how drinking affects platelet function is complicated even more by the fact that the non-alcoholic components of alcoholic beverages may also have effects on platelets (this aspect is discussed more fully elsewhere). Among wine drinking farmers lower platelet response to thrombin was observed compared to nondrinkers, even after alcohol deprivation for 10 hours 37 , Similarly, in rats, the rebound to thrombin-induced aggregation does not occur when animals are fed red wine as opposed to ethanol before deprivation 38 , This may be related to a reduction in lipid peroxidation by grape tannins. Pikaar and colleagues investigated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on twelve male volunteers 5 , Four standardized amounts of wine were consumed during 5-week intervals in randomized order. The doses consisted of 0, 2, and 4 glasses of red wine a day (corresponding to 0, 23, and 46 grams of alcohol a day). The effects of 'binge drinking' were also tested (14 glasses...
Flavan-3-ols, often referred to as flavanols, are the most complex class of the flavonoids because they range from simple monomers (catechin and its isomer epicatechin) to the oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins, which are also known as condensed tannins. Proanthocyanidins can occur as polymers of up to 50 units, and when hydroxylated they can form gallocatechins or undergo esterification to form gallic acid. Red wine contains oligometric proanthocyanidins derived mainly from the seeds of black grapes. Green tea is also a rich source of Tea, red wine, apple
Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary flavonoids, such as the quercetin, kaempferol, myri-cetin, apigenin, and luteolin found in tea, apples, onions, and red wine (usually as glycoside derivatives of the parent aglycones), may help to protect against coronary heart disease (CHD). The main epidemiological evidence comes from the Zutphen Elderly study and the Seven Countries Study. In the Zutphen Elderly study (805 men aged 65-84 years), the mean baseline flavonoid intake was 25.9 mg daily and the major sources of intake were tea (61 ), onions (13 ), and apples (10 ). Flavonoid intake, which was analyzed in tertiles, was significantly inversely associated with mortality from CHD, and the relative risk of CHD in the highest versus lowest tertile of flavonoid intake ( 28.6 vs
Americans, they appear to have a markedly lower mortality rate from heart disease. Medical experts generally agree that a low-fat diet, exercise, and not smoking minimize the risk of heart attacks, which makes this paradox difficult to understand. Studies suggest that one of the reasons the French have a lower rate of heart disease may be their regular consumption of red wine. The specific mechanism by which the French paradox operates has not yet been identified. Some research suggests that antioxidants called flavonoids, natural chemical compounds found in red wine, may confer important health benefits to the heart and blood vessels. Red grapes are one of the richest sources of flavonoids, which may make red wine more heart-healthy than white wine, beer, or other spirits. Other research suggests that pigments in red wine called polyphenols are responsible for explaining the French paradox. Polyphenols, found in red grape skins, are believed to act as antioxidants, control blood...
Although one or two drinks per day (particularly red wine) may have a beneficial effect on overall cardiovascular risk, as alcohol elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, any higher daily alcohol intake has a detrimental effect on the cardiovascular system. Excessive alcohol intake is a particularly powerful risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke.
The monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are generally used as second-line drugs for depressed patients who do not respond to tricyclics, because they require certain dietary restrictions (patients are not allowed liver, aged meats, most cheeses, red wine, soy sauce, etc.) The MAO inhibitors are, however, first-choice drugs for treatment of panic disorder and of depression in the elderly. They include phenelzine sulfate (Nardil), isocarboxazid (Marplan), and tranylcypromine sulfate (Parnate). These antidepressants may be given in either the morning or the evening, depending on their effect on the patient's sleep.
Some research has focused on the fact that red wine contains certain components called flavonoids and other antioxidants. Flavonoids are a type of plant compound that are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables and tea as well as in red wine. Certain studies have found that flavonoids improve health by their ability to combat oxidation. What is oxidation Oxidation is a process in which substances that damage cells accumulate in the body. These cell-damaging substances are known as free radicals. When the free radicals accumulate in the body, leading to oxidation, the body shows an increased chance of developing heart disease and stroke as well as certain other diseases. stroke, lung and prostate cancer, type-2 diabetes, and even asthma drops. Those who support the connection between drinking red wine and a decreased risk of heart disease often point to the flavonoids the wine contains as an explanation for the French Paradox. Other researchers also point out the differences in...
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