Teaching Your Child to Read
Why is it important to study reading Skilled reading has much value in contemporary society, and adults without effective reading skills are at a great disadvantage. Thus, it is important to discover enough about reading processes to be able to sort out the problems of poor readers. A third method for studying reading involves a greater diversity of techniques than those considered so far. Rayner and Pollatsek (1989) referred to these tasks as word-identification techniques, because they assess the time taken for word identification. There is the lexical decision task (deciding whether a string of letters forms a word) and the naming task (saying a word out loud as rapidly as possible). The greatest advantage of word-identification techniques over eye movements is that they ensure that certain processing has been performed on a given word in a given time, whereas identification may not occur while a word is fixated. However, there are clear disadvantages. Normal reading processes are...
Each child needs practice to be a fluent reader. Research at the National Institute of Health has found that phonics instruction should be taught as part of a comprehensive, literature-based reading program. Many opportunities for children to read at their own reading level help them to learn to read for meaning and enjoy reading. Highly trained teachers can help children develop good, overall literacy skills, with good vocabularies, knowledge of correct syntax and spelling, reasoning and questioning skills.
To address this issue, the NICHD has supported scientific research continuously since 1965 to understand normal reading development and reading difficulties. NICHD developed a research network consisting of forty-one research sites in North America (and other parts of the world), which conducted numerous studies on thousands of children many over a period of years. Normal reading development and instruction Effective prevention and early intervention programs can increase the reading skills of 85 to 90 percent of poor readers to average levels. (Lyon, 1998b, 2000 Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998) Dr. Louisa Moats, another leader in the field, provides the following abysmal statistics About 42 percent of fourth graders score below basic in overall reading skill on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). In some communities the proportion of students beyond third grade who cannot read well enough to participate in grade-level work is between 60 and 70 percent, depending on...
The average scores for each group at the outset of the study on three variables are shown in Table 32.1. In addition, seven members of the experimental group and five members of the control group were given regular individual one-to-one help with reading at the school throughout the study. The researchers noted that it was regrettable that the groups were not well matched on the NFER measure of reading level. There were 18 children in the experimental group, and 17 in the control group.
His IQ was 125, he started reading at age three, and he knew the capitals of all the countries in Europe by the time he was five. In day care he was known as the little professor. His parents, Mike and Daphne, who were both academics, expected great things of him in school, and at first they were not disappointed. His early school years were largely trouble free since he could rely on his reading skills to get by. He could recite the alphabet before anyone else in class he could count to fifty before anyone else could get to ten. He quickly learned all the flags of the world. He was the marvel of the local school, and all the teachers talked about how bright he was, especially since they knew he had a diagnosis of AS. But now Frankie was in grade three, and he was languishing near the bottom of the class. It was not that he did not have the ability everybody recognized his talents. The problem was that Frankie was obsessed with flags of the world, and this...
Strategies for Building Word Recognition Reading Vocabulary and Fluency Rief 1998 2003 Rief Heimburge 1996
As many students with ADHD also have the learning disability dyslexia, they must be identified and provided with specialized instruction designed to build their reading skills. However, certainly not all children who have poor decoding skills and lack fluency are dyslexic. Many students have had minimal phonics and word analysis instruction and have simply not sufficiently been taught these skills and strategies. Most research-validated reading programs for children with reading disabilities in decoding skills incorporate systematic instruction in phonics, direct instruction, and mnemonics (memory devices). Boys Town Reading Program Boys Town USA
A4 Annotated Bibliography of Studies Specifically Designed To Achieve Weight Reduction in Special Populations
Practice of the behavioral weight loss strategies no reading skills were required. All participants in the study lived with their parents, and all parents were instructed in the behavioral weight reduction techniques and the forms so that they could provide guidance and support to their child at home during the course of the program. Daily homework assignments were given so that participants could practice behavioral strategies outside of the training setting. Bimonthly phone calls to the parents were made to discuss their child's progress and difficulties in implementing behavior techniques. To encourage attendance, at each session, participants were entered into a drawing to win small prizes, and awards were also given for each pound of weight lost. Follow-up was conducted for 1 year.
If children are having difficulty remaining interested in school work due to fatigue and not feeling well, it may be useful to consider alternative learning activities. In such circumstances, a parent and child might identify an area of special interest or curiosity (e.g., dinosaurs, space, animals, nature, the Wild West, etc.). Children may find it more interesting to develop reading skills, learn math concepts, develop writing skills, and learn research and study principles in the context of a high-interest area while still learning and maintaining the concepts being introduced in school. Play is a significant part of such activities and can often spark imaginative activities. It is important that the school be aware of and supportive of such an approach most often they are and, in fact, may be valuable resources for ideas and activities. The goal is to encourage confidence and prepare the child for the least disruptive reentry to school routines.
But an appropriate remedial reading program can help learners make great strides. With age, and appropriate help from parents and clinicians, children with ADHD become better able to suppress their hyperactivity and to channel it into more socially acceptable behaviors.
Finally, in keeping with a central theme of this book, it is always important to capitalize on your child's strengths to compensate for academic difficulties or areas of weakness in school. Many examples are already woven throughout this chapter. For example, supplementing oral directions with visual aids is a way to use your child's well-developed visualization skills to make up for one of his weaker skills. Similarly, giving your child written directions or written rules is a way to use his or her reading skills to maintain focus and teach more appropriate behavior. Your child's special interests can be used to motivate him or her in the classroom.
Roughly 30 to 60 percent of children with ADHD also have specific learning disabilities. Among the various learning disabilities, reading disorders are most common. Some children have specific processing deficiencies (auditory or visual perception, short-term memory, phonological awareness, or receptive expressive language) that affect their acquisition of reading skills.
Studies of eye movements in reading indicate that most words are fixated once for durations ranging from 50 to 250 ms. Short function words are sometimes skipped and longer words may be fixated more than once. Word recognition speeds vary depending on reading skill, the type of text, and how carefully it is being read large increases in reading speed can only be achieved with significant loss of comprehension, as in skimming. The main bottleneck is perceptual the perceptual span is approximately four letters to the left of fixation and fifteen to the right when reading from left-to-right (it is asymmetrical to the left in reading languages such as Hebrew). Letter identities can be determined only over a smaller range, approximately five to six letters further from fixation only letter shape and length are perceived (Pollatsek and Rayner 1990). A long-standing issue for reading researchers and educators is whether words are recognized on a visual basis or by first computing a...
This description of the reading of individual words is oversimplified. The study of adult patients whose reading skills have been impaired due to brain damage suggests that there are several reading disorders, depending on which parts of the cognitive system involved in reading are damaged. Some of the major findings from the cognitive neuropsychological approach are discussed in the next section.
The upper limit for the language of the consent form should be a 10th grade reading level. Often, even simpler language should be used. If the subjects are likely to have lower levels of education, the language level should be adjusted accordingly. Consent forms that are overly complex or technical are likely to be rejected by the IRB and neither read nor understood by the potential subjects. If the investigators desire to try and convey complex topics such as the molecular biology of the new agent, this can easily be presented in additional documents supplementary to the ICF. Researchers must also be aware that modern IRBs consider informed consent a process, not just a document. Leaving a patient encounter with a signed trophy will not satisfy this important requirement. In examining the validity of the informed consent process, the IRB will consider broadly two major factors are the patients adequately informed about the study and is their choice fully voluntary. In addition to...
Johnson & Z. Engleman (DeSoto, TX SRA McGraw-Hill) www.sra4kids.com The Herman Method for Reversing Reading Failure (Herman Method Reading Institute, 2002) is a multi-sensory program based on the Orton-Gillingham philosophy and is a remedial program for struggling readers at all grade levels. www.hermanmethod.com Language by Jane Fell (Longmont, CO Sopris West) www.sopriswest.com Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes (San Luis Obispo, CA) www.lindamoodbell.com Orton-Gillingham Failure Free Reading Program, produced by the Institute for Multi-Sensory Education (ISME, 2002), is based on the Orton-Gillingham method of reading instruction developed by Dr. Samuel T. Orton and educator Anna Gillingham (www.ortongillingham.com). The methodology uses phonetics and emphasizes visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles.
The amount of text from which useful information is obtained in each fixation has been studied by using the moving window technique (see Rayner & Sereno, 1994). Most of the text is mutilated except for an experimenter-defined area or window surrounding the reader's point of fixation. Every time the reader moves his or her eyes, different parts of the text are mutilated to permit normal reading only within the window region. The effects of different-sized windows on reading performance can be compared.
Most adults read aloud at about 150-200 words per minute, whereas skilled readers typically have a silent reading rate of about 300 words per minute. How can we explain this difference Perfetti and McCutchen (1982) argued that normal reading rates are much faster than speech rates, because the phonological specification of words in inner speech is incomplete. Their basic assumption was that the abbreviated phonological representation of inner speech is biased towards key information. Most words are specified more precisely by their consonants than by their vowels, and so consonant sounds are more likely to be included in the phonological representation. However, we do not consciously experience inner speech as having this abbreviated form. An alternative view-point was expressed by Rayner and Pollatsek (1989, p. 213) It is possible that the difference between oral and silent reading rates is because a motor response for actually pronouncing each word need not occur in silent reading.
Evidence opposing the constructionist position and indicating the importance of the distinction between automatic and strategic inferences was obtained by Dosher and Corbett (1982). They used instrumental inferences (e.g., a sentence such as Mary stirred her coffee has spoon as its instrumental inference). In order to decide whether participants generated these instrumental inferences during reading, Dosher and Corbett made use of a somewhat unusual procedure. It is known from research on the Stroop effect that the time taken to name the colour in which a word is printed is affected if the word has recently been activated. Thus, if presentation of the sentence Mary stirred her coffee activates the word spoon , then this should slow the time taken to name the colour in which the word spoon is printed on the Stroop task. In a control (out-of-context) condition, the words presented on the Stroop task bore no relationship to the preceding sentences. There was no evidence that the...
In spite of this impressive dual-task performance, Spelke et al. were still not satisfied. Diane and John could recall only 35 out of the thousands of words they had written down at dictation. Even when 20 successive dictated words formed a sentence or came from a single semantic category, the two students were unaware of that. With further training, however, they learned to write down the names of the categories to which the dictated words belonged while maintaining normal reading speed and comprehension.
Teachers need to use a child's name and articulate clearly and slowly when directing speech to a hearing-impaired child. They should kneel at a desk and focus on cuing. Cued speech, developed by Dr. Cornett at Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C., is a system of teacher hand cues that enhances lip-reading by children. The hand cues, used near the lips, match what is being said to clarify ambiguities. Cued speech used by a trained adult helps the hearing-impaired school-age child increase reading skills.
Weekes and Coltheart (1996) studied a patient, NW, whose main difficulty lay in reading irregularly spelled words. A reading programme produced a significant improvement in his ability to read irregular words, but did not enhance his spelling performance. Weekes and Coltheart (1996, p. 302) concluded We interpret the results we have obtained with NW as distinctly favouring a two-orthographic-lexicon model. However, as Holmes and Carruthers (1998, pp. 266-267) pointed out, brain-damaged patients often have deficits that extend beyond their difficulties in reading and spelling. Thus, their reading and spelling behaviour may be affected in multiple ways, with compensatory strategies having little to do with normal reading and spelling determining performance.
This is an instructional strategy in which students of approximately the same reading level are in reading groups (usually no more than six per group). The teacher selects books for each group to read together that are new to them and will involve working on strategies that students in that group specifically need to practice. Usually leveled books are used for guided reading groups or any selection that is at the students' instructional level.
Therefore, the process of reading strengthens the child's ability to perceive sounds in both verbal and written language. Moreover, for practice to be most effective, children need to read stories that are at their reading level in other words, they should be able to recognize most of the words.
The most common form of dyslexia is associated with deficits in phonological processing (Morais, Luytens, and Alegria 1984 Shankweiler et al. 1995), but other varieties, some based on disturbances affecting the visual system, have also been identified (Lovegrove 1991 Stein 1994). A difficulty with processing rapidly changing stimuli, affecting at least visual and auditory functions has also been implicated, which blurs the distinction between perceptual and cognitive mechanisms in the etiology of dyslexia (Merzenich et al. 1996a, 1996b Tallal et al. 1995). The temporal processing hypothesis states that sensory-perceptual temporal processing deficits impede the development of normal phonological representations in the brain, which in turn produce the reading disorder. The main idea is that reading requires knowledge of the normal sound structure of the language before appropriate sound-sight associations can be made. Sensory-perceptual temporal processing deficits may lead to...
It is hard to know whether Neely's (1977) findings apply to normal reading, because the situations are so different. However, context does influence reading. For example, Ehrlich and Rayner (1981) found that words fitting the sentential context were fixated for 40 milliseconds less than other words.
Helping Your Child Learn To Read
When parents help their children learn to read, they help open the door to a new world. As a parent, you can begin an endless learning chain: You read to your children, they develop a love of stories and poems, they want to read on their own, they practice reading, and finally they read for their own information or pleasure. They become readers, and their world is forever expanded and enriched.