Psilocybin Ebook

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! Read more...

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Author: Jake White
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Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

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Dilled Asparagus and Wild Mushrooms

1 1-ounce package dried mushroom medley, or any dried mushrooms 3 cups boiling water 1V2 teaspoons olive oil Rinse mushrooms and combine with boiling water in a medium bowl. Set aside for 15 minutes. In a 4-quart saucepan, heat oil over medium-high heat. Add garlic, onion, and bell pepper, and cook for 3 minutes. Drain mushrooms, discarding soaking liquid, and snip larger mushrooms with clean kitchen shears. Add softened mushrooms to the pan with the asparagus. Cook for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add squash soup, dillweed, tamari, and lemon pepper, stirring after each addition. Lower heat and simmer for 10 minutes. Enlightened Dilled Asparagus and Wild Mushrooms Protein 3 g, carbohydrate 12, fiber 3 g, fat 2 g, saturated fat 0 g, cholesterol 0 mg, calcium 39 mg, sodium 292 mg Calories 83 from protein 17 , from carbohydrate 58 , from fat 25 Traditional Dilled Asparagus and Wild Mushrooms Protein 3 g, carbohydrate 10 g, fiber 2 g, fat 21 g, saturated fat 13 g, cholesterol 74 mg,...

Amanita Mushrooms Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria Panther Mushroom Amanita pantherina

Amanita Pantherina

Amanitas are a family of large, beautiful mushrooms that grow in many parts of the world. Some of them are deadly, the most poisonous of all wild mushrooms. Some are edible and delicious. Two are neither deadly nor edible as food but are used as psychoactive drugs. Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric, is a big mushroom with white dots on a red or orange cap. (Agaric is an old word for mushroom the name fly comes from an old practice of chopping this mushroom into a saucer of milk to attract and kill flies.) The fly agaric is often pictured in illustrations of fairy tales and cannot be mistaken for any other mushroom. Fly agarics growing in the eastern United States are yellow and not usually psychoactive. Those in the western states are red or orange their pharmacological power correlates with cap color, the reddest mushrooms being strongest. Amanita muscaria was the traditional intoxicant of a number of primitive tribes of Siberia people who did not have access to other drugs but did...

Shelled Edamame and Mushrooms in Spring Onion Marinade

Serve edamame and sliced cremini mushrooms in this light marinade as a side dish. (page 219) 1 6-ounce package sliced cremini mushrooms If frozen, cook edamame according to package directions and drain well. Combine marinade ingredients in a medium glass measuring cup. Place edamame in a nonreactive bowl (preferably glass) and combine with marinade. Add mushrooms, onion, and bell pepper and mix thoroughly. Cover and refrigerate at least 4 hours, or overnight for optimal flavor.

Iiihistory Of G Lucidum As A Medicinal Mushroom

The first book wholly devoted to the description of herbs and their medicinal value is called Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, written in the Eastern Han dynasty of China (a.d. 25-220). This book is also known as Classic of the Materia Medica or Shen-nong's Herbal Classic and describes botanical, zoological, and mineral substances. It was composed in the second century under the pseudonym of Shen-nong, the Holy Farmer (31). The book, which has been continually updated and extended, describes the beneficial effects of several mushrooms and there is reference to the medicinal mushroom G. lucidum (4,11,31). In the book Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (''Supplement to Classic of Materia Medica,'' a.d. 502-536) and in the Ben Cao Gang Mu by Li Shin-Zhen, which is considered to be the first pharmacopoeia in China (a.d. 1590, Ming dynasty), the mushroom was attributed with certain medicinal effects, including tonifying effects, enhancing vital energy and strengthening cardiac function, increasing memory, and...

Mushroom Ofeara Pt

Olive oil cooking spray 2 teaspoons olive oil 2 cloves garlic, minced V3 cup minced shallots 1 cup chopped red onion V2 cup chopped red bell pepper 6 ounces portobello mushrooms, chopped 6 ounces button mushrooms, chopped Heat oil over medium-high heat in a 10-inch frying pan for 1 minute. Add garlic, shallots, onion, and pepper, and saut for 3 minutes. Add mushrooms and cook for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add okara and sherry, and cook mixture for 3 minutes, stirring occasionally. Pour mixture into food processor and pulse briefly. In a small bowl or liquid measuring cup, blend the miso and hot broth, then add to the mushroom mixture. Add tomato paste, potato flakes, and Italian Herb Medley and process to mix thoroughly. Pour into prepared loaf pan. Bake, uncovered, for 30 minutes. Set aside to cool on wire rack. Cover and refrigerate overnight. Mushroom Okara-P t Traditional P t


PSILOCYBIN is the active substance contained in the fruiting bodies of the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom (called the MAGIC MUSHROOM) it is a potent hallucinogen that can cause psychological disturbances. Taken orally or injected, the drug produces effects similar to those of the chemically unrelated LSD (LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE), and cross-tolerance has been experienced between psilocybin, LSD, and mescaline. The use of psilocybin is illegal in the United States, except for the direct consumption of mushrooms by a few religious groups as part of their ritual.

Taxonomy Of G Lucidum

The family Ganodermataceae describes polypore basidiomycetous fungi having a double-walled basidiospore (14). In all, 219 species within the family have been assigned to the genus Ganoderma of which G. lucidum (W.Curt. Fr.) P. Karsten is the species type (15). Basidiocarps of this genus have a laccate (shiny) surface that is associated with the presence of thick-walled pilocystidia embedded in an extracellular melanin matrix (15). Ganoderma species is found worldwide, and different characters, such as the shape and color (red, black, blue green, white, yellow, and purple) of the fruit body (11,16,17), host specificity, and geographical origin, have been used to identify individual members of the species (18-21). The use of macroscopic characteristics has resulted in a large number of synonyms and in a confused, overlapping, and unclear taxonomy of this mushroom, and some taxonomists now consider macromorphological features to be of limited value in the identification of Ganoderma...

Ivcultivation Of G Lucidum And Global Usage

Different members of the Ganoderma genus need different conditions for growth and cultivation (34). Moreover, different types are favored in different geographical regions. For example, in South China, black G. lucidum is popular, white red G. lucidum is preferred in Japan. Owing to its irregular distribution in the wild and to an increasing demand for G. lucidum as a medicinal''herb,'' attempts were made to cultivate the mushroom. G. lucidum thrives under hot and humid conditions, and many wild varieties are found in the subtropical regions of the Orient. Artificial cultivation of G. lucidum has been achieved using substrates such as grain, sawdust, or wood logs (10,34). Riu et al. (35) showed that the mushroom could be cultivated successfully on cork residues. Since the early 1970s, cultivation of G. lucidum has become a major source of the mushroom consumption is now estimated at several thousand tons worldwide, and the market is growing rapidly. In 1995, the total estimated annual...

Major Bioactive Components Of G Lucidum

Most mushrooms are composed of around 90 water by weight. The remaining 10 consists of 10-40 protein, 2-8 fat, 3-28 carbohydrate, 3-32 fiber, 8-10 ash, and some vitamins, with potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper accounting for most of the mineral content (3). In addition to these nutrients, the mushroom contains a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as terpenoids, steroids, phenols, nucleotides and their derivatives, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. Mushroom proteins contain all the essential amino acids and are especially rich in lysine and leucine. The low total fat content, and the high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to total fatty acids, is considered a significant contributor to the health value of mushroom (1,3). In a study of the nonvolatile components of G. lucidum, it was found that the mushroom contains 1.8 ash, 26-28 carbohydrate, 3-5 crude fat, 59 crude fiber, and 7-8 crude protein (49). One of the characteristics...

Other Components of G lucidum

G. lucidum contains some other compounds that may contribute to its medicinal effect, such as proteins and lectins. The protein content of dried G. lucidum was found to be around 7-8 (49), which is lower than that of many other mushrooms (1). Bioactive proteins are reported to contribute to the medicinal properties of G. lucidum. For example, a protein purified from the mycelium (LZ-8) was found to have immunosuppressive effects (104-106). The content of carbohydrate and crude fiber of the dried mushroom was examined and found to be 26-28 and 59 , respectively, showing G. lucidum is a good source of fiber (49). Lectins were also isolated from the fruit body and mycelium of the mushroom. ''Lectins'' (from the latin word ''legere,'' to pick up, choose) are nonenzymatic proteins or glycoproteins that bind carbohydrate. Many species of animals, plants, and microorganisms produce lectins and these exhibit a wide range of functions. In animals, for example, lectins are involved in variety...

Synergism and Vitamin C

High-molecular-weight substances such as the mushroom extract PSK and lignans from pine cones increase vitamin C oxidation and synergistically enhance the cy-totoxicity of vitamin C against human leukemia and brain cancer cells in vitro.119,120 121 Again, a prooxidant mechanism is at work. Optimal results in vitro are obtained when a sodium solution is used to dissolve vitamin C, the mixture is freshly made before testing, the vitamin C concentration is 300 pM or greater, and the lignin to vitamin C ratio is roughly 20 to 1 (weight to weight).

Roasted Chicken and Vegetables

6 ounces sliced cremini mushrooms V2 cup vermouth Combine Chicken Not mix with water in a medium saucepan and bring to a boil. Lower heat to medium low and simmer for 12 minutes. Set aside. Parboil potatoes and carrots for 5 minutes, drain, and set aside. Heat oil and garlic over medium-high heat in a 5-quart ovenproof pan for 1 minute. Add onion and mushrooms and cook for 3 minutes. Add vermouth and cook for 2 minutes. Lower heat, add potatoes, carrots, and reconstituted Chicken Not Cook for 5 minutes. Sprinkle with thyme, and place, uncovered, in preheated oven. Bake for 25 minutes or until tender. Serve hot. 6 ounces cremini mushrooms, sliced 12 ounces fresh asparagus, trimmed In a Dutch oven or electric frying pan, heat oil with crushed red pepper over medium-high heat, for 1 minute. Add garlic, scallions, bell pepper, carrots, and veggie bacon. Cook for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Remove seitan from marinade, reserving the liquid. Add seitan to pan and cook for 5 minutes,...

Summary of Research and Conclusions

The immunostimulating and antitumor properties of Ganoderma and shiitake mushrooms have been discussed in at least five reviews.58-62 In addition to these, two in-vitro studies have reported they can increase cy-tokine production, stimulate immune cells, and induce differentiation of cancer cells via cytokine activity.63'64 Nine studies have reported antitumor effects in animals.65-73 A large number of additional animal and human cancer studies have been published on the purified polysaccharide lentinan, isolated from shiitake.74-77 Based on the extensive anticancer data of lentinan, it would seem reasonable that crude shiitake extracts could also produce an immunostimulating effect and be useful in cancer treatment. The few studies on crude shiitake and Ganoderma extracts suggest both may indeed be helpful.

Anticancer Antitumor Effects

For all the above studies cited so far, lentinan was administered via injections. Studies (44-48) were carried out using oral administration of powdered, dried mushroom fruiting bodies. Oral administration may be important for eliminating the side effects of (1 3)-p-d-glucans, including the pain that accompanies parenteral administration. The tumor-growth-inhibitory activity increased with the concentration of the shiitake mushroom powder. When 10 L-feed (feed containing powdered shiitake fruit bodies) was used, the rate of tumor inhibition was 39.6 . Inhibition rates of 53.2 and 58.9 were achieved when 20 L-feed and 30 L-feed, respectively, were used. The degree of inhibition was proportional to the experimental diet. Administration schedule of the lentinan also influenced the rate of tumor inhibition. Crude mushroom homogenates also resulted in some degree of antitumor efficacy but at a much lower percentage (43-55 ) The buffer-fed mice were controls (placebo). The mice with tumors...

Immune Modulating Effects of Lentinan

When fed with crude mushroom homogenates, IL-1a, IL-2, and TNF-a levels were also induced but to much lower levels when compared to lentinan-fed cohort. The IFN-g level was not significantly induced. The lipid and protein fractions from the mushrooms did not result in noticeable induction of any of the four cytokines tested and was at the baseline like the buffer-fed cohort (control). Figure 3 Cytokine profiles from mice fed with lentinan, crude mushroom homogenate, lipid fraction, protein fraction, and buffer (placebo). (a) IL1-a profile. There is a sharp rise 2 hr after feeding with lentinan. A small increase in level of IL1-a is seen in the mice fed with the crude mushroom homogenate. For the other three cohorts of mice, the level is at the baseline. (b) IL-2. Similar to (a), a significant rise in IL-2 level is seen in the lentinan-fed mice. This is followed in modest amount in the crude-mushroom-homogenate-fed population. Again the lipid-, protein-, and buffer-fed mice do not show...

Hallucinogenic Plants Literally

For example, a variety of mushrooms contain indole-type HALLUCINOGENS, the most publicized being the Mexican or ''magic'' mushroom, Psilocybe mexicana, which contains both the hallucinogenic compounds PSILOCYBIN and psilocin, as do some of the other Psilocybe and Conocybe species. The PEYOTE cactus (Lophophra williamsii or Anhalonium lewinii), which is found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, contains MESCALINE. The seeds of the MORNING Glory, Ipomoea, contain hallucinogenic LYSERGIC Acid derivatives, particularly lysergic acid amide. Many of these plants and plant by-products were and are used during religious ceremonies by Native Americans and other ethnic groups. Some plant substances may contain prodrugs, that is to say, compounds that are chemically altered in the body to produce PSYCHOACTIVE substances. For example, NUTMEG contains elemicin and myristicin, whose structures have some similarities to the hallucinogen mescaline as well as...

The biology of biofilm formation

Association between the bacteria and a solid surface (Fig. 12.3, step 1). This association advances to 'adhesion' to the substratum (Fig. 12.3, step 2) (Costerton et al., 1987, 1995 Hall-Stoodley et al., 2004) and at this step the bacterial cells alter their phenotypes in response to their proximity to the surface (Costerton et al., 1995). Once attached, sessile or planktonic cells surrounding the newly attached bacteria aggregate with the attached bacteria to form microcolonies (Fig. 12.3, step 3) (Hall-Stoodley et al., 2004). Microcolonies are differentiated from adherent bacteria by production of an extracellular matrix (Costerton et al., 1987, 1995, 1999). From the microcolony stage the biofilm develops into a mature biofilm (Fig 12.3, step 4). Mature biofilms can adopt different structures such as 'mushroom' or 'flat' phenotypes that are dependent upon the nutrient source of the bacteria in the biofilm (Hall-Stoodley et al., 2004). As the biofilm matures, large sections of...

Sleep Dreaming And Drugs

The ancient Hindus imbibed a sacred drink called soma, and Marijuana was used in practices of meditation. For the Arabs, Hashish (a form of marijuana) was the substance of choice, while the Incas chewed the leaves of the Coca plant (from which Cocaine may be made). The Opium poppy was used in Asia, and the ancient Mexicans used a variety of powerful Psychoactive substances, including Peyote, sacred mushrooms, and seeds from the Mexican Morning Glory plant, to enter the realm of dreams. The Australian aboriginals used the pituri, a psychoactive substance, to take them into dream time,'' as they referred to it. Reference to the effects of drugs and Alcohol on sleep and dreaming are also found in popular literature. It was a mixture made from poppies that caused Dorothy and her companions to fall into deep sleep in the Wizard of Oz (Baum, 1956). After ingesting a series of pills and liquids, in Through the Looking Glass, Alice finds herself in ''Wonderland,'' where she has a conversation...

Current Situation And Trends

Amphetamine, which is relatively easily obtained throughout the country, is the most popular drug of abuse for intravenous use about 10,000 people are currently using this CNS stimulant. Injection of heroin seems to be mainly concentrated in the southern and central metropolitan areas, where some 2,000 to 3,000 are known to indulge in this form of drug abuse. The abuse of cocaine is primarily seen within jetset circles in the major cities. The smoking of Crack-cocaine is uncommon in Sweden. Hallucinogens (such as LSD and Ecstasy) are used to some extent by adolescents who follow the ''rave'' culture. Plant hallucinogens such as Psilocybin are rarely encountered, as are Phencyclidine (PCP), ''ice'' (crystallized Methamphetamine) andphentanyl (e.g., fentanyl, sufentanil) opioids. Solvent (inhalant) abuse is on the rise in Sweden, with 10 percent of 16-year-old boys and 6 percent of 16-year-old girls reporting usage in 1999. Those who use this type of product for the purpose of...

Blaeberry See bilberry

See also ageing (3). bleeding bread A bacterial infection with Bacillus prodigiosus or Serratia marcescens, which stains the bread bright red. Under warm and damp conditions the infection can appear overnight, and contamination of the shewbread in churches has led to accusations and riots against religious minorities over the centuries. blewits Edible wild fungus, Tricholoma (Lepista) saevum, also known as bluetail also wood blewits, T. nudum, see mushrooms. blinding Blocking of a sieve by small particles. blind loop syndrome Or stagnant loop syndrome stasis of the small intestine, permitting bacterial overgrowth and causing malabsorption and steatorrhoea. Usually the result of chronic obstruction or surgical by-pass operations producing a stagnant length of bowel. boletus Edible wild mushroom, Boletus edulis or B. granulatus, also known as the yellow mushroom or cep (c pe). bologna Italian smoked pork and veal sausage, also known as polony.

Piper nigrum L Piperaceae Pepper Lada

Piper Nigrum

Vomiting, diarrhoea and gastric symptoms. Homeopathically, it is used for irritation of mucous membrane and galactorrhoea. 3 A heavy dose of pepper with wild bamboo shoots is said to cause abortion. 4 In Assam, a method of birth control include Cissampelos pareira in combination with Piper nigrum, root of Mimosa pudica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.ll2 The fruits are used to remove excessive gas in system, increase flow of urine, treat colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, and menstrual pains. 13 White pepper is used for cholera, malaria, stomachache while black pepper is used for abdominal fullness, adenitis, cancer, cholera, cold, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, dysuria, furuncles, headache, gravel, nausea, poisoning due to fish, mushrooms or shellfish. 4

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram. It increases aroma in such vegetable dishes as pea soup and other pea dishes, squash and stews made from mixed vegetables, mushrooms and asparagus.

Naturally Occurring Carcinogens

Microorganisms Agaratine (mushrooms) aflatoxin, ochratoxin, sterigmatocystin (Aspergillus spp. and others) mitomycin, streptozotocin, daunomycin, actinomycin (Streptomyces spp.) Chemical carcinogens are also found in a wide range of lower plants, such as fungi, and in microorganisms. Simple and complex hydrazines are found in many species of mushroom and have been shown to produce tumors in many tissues of experimental animals. Mycotoxins such as aflatoxin Bj and the related polynuclear compound produced by Aspergillus species are some of the most potent carcinogens known, being active at dose levels in the nanogram per kilogram range. Human exposure to such compounds occurs when cereal crops and nuts are stored in humid conditions, as they are in many parts of equatorial Africa and China. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the few established human carcinogens found in the plant kingdom. Other carcinogenic compounds produced as natural products include the antibiotics adriamycin and daunomycin...

PCP Angel Dust Peace Pill Hog Animal Tranquilizer THC Cannabinol

Shortly thereafter PCP appeared on the black market. It is a cheap and easy drug to make, produces a strong intoxication, and can be sold to unsuspecting buyers as other, more desirable drugs. For instance, pills of PCP have often been sold as synthetic THC, the chief component of marijuana. (In fact, synthetic THC is very rare and expensive and is almost never available on the black market.) Supermarket mushrooms, treated with PCP alone or with PCP and LSI), were sold as magic mushrooms throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCP-LSD combinations have also been sold as mescaline and psilocybin. Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s most people who took PCP took it unwittingly, thinking they were taking something else mescaline, psilocybin, or some sort of supermarijuana. It came in all kinds of disguises. Few people took it for its own merits, and it had an unsavory reputation, often being disparaged as an animal tranquilizer.

Secondary Metabolites

Psilocybin Secondary metabolites produced via the amino acid pathway are most noted for their antibacterial activities. The b lactam antibiotics, penicillin and cephalosporin, are produced by some Ascomycota spp. of fungi and many bacteria, while the antibiotic peptide defensins, produced mainly by vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, are also synthesized by the amino acid pathway. However, some toxins derived from amino acid synthesis affect the mammalian endocrine system by acting as agonists of the mammalian 5-HT2A receptor, which is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor belonging to the serotonin receptor family. One example of these is psilocybin, an indole produced by hundreds of species of fungi (often called magic mushrooms ), including those of the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybin is rapidly absorbed through the lining of the mouth and stomach, and is dephosphorylated to psilocin in acidic conditions (Sard et al. 2005). Psilocin travels through the blood to the brain and binds to 5-HT2A...

Van Helmont Johannes Baptista 15771644 Early seventeenthcentury Flemish chemist

In van Helmont's guidelines for a long life, obesity is to be eschewed. Human life can be extended by medicine, but what God can offer is life eternal, not merely fleshly life. As a physician, van Helmont saw his job as prolonging the Life of the World. What is bad for human life is clear Carnal lust, tobacco and mushrooms, as well as much and unreasonable gluttony (van Helmont 1683 1241 para 9). Mushrooms breed melancholy, according to Roger Bacon's treatise on longevity (Bacon 1683 140). Food remains at the core of health. Thus, deceiving the body by reducing hunger is dangerous. Tobacco seems to still hunger, but ultimately doesn't it merely makes one insensitive to the natural need for food, which itself must be controlled. And so van Helmont returns to a notion of the control of food as a means of controlling the potentially obese body.

Experiments in voluntary death Ketamine research study

All 36 participants had smoked cannabis at least once in their lives or had taken MDMA (also known as 'ecstasy'). Thirty-four (94 per cent) had tried an amphetamine of some sort (especially 'speed' powder), 91 per cent cocaine, 97 per cent LSD, and 86 per cent 'magic mushrooms' (psilocybin). They were less likely to have taken anabolic steroids (6 per cent), solvents (5.5 per cent) or opiates (16 per cent).

Ketamine Ketalar Ketaject SuperK

Jonathan Ott includes Amanita muscaria and Amanita pan-therina in his Hallucinogenic Plants of North America (Berkeley, California Wingbow Press, 1976 revised edition, 1979). Descriptions of uses of Amanita muscaria will be found in Narcotic Plants of the Old World, Used in Rituals and Everyday Life An Anthology of Texts from Ancient Times to the Present, edited by Hedwig Schleiffcr (Monticello, New York Lubrecht & Cramer, 1979). In Soma Divine Mushroom of Immortality (New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972), R. Gordon Wasson presents his theory that Amanita muscaria was used as a sacramental intoxicant in ancient India.

Single Remedy Homoeopathy

The proponents of single remedy homoeopathy were not only concerned about what they perceived to be a lack of efficacy in the complex remedies, but also about the vast number of lay practitioners offering remedy mixtures who had sprung up like mushrooms in recent years .89 Fritz Donner (1896-1979) thought that the rising number of lay practitioners after World War I was due to changing values that led more people to become health practitioners.90 According to the Reich statistics the number of practitioners had risen by 63 per cent between 1909 and 1927, but the number of qualified physicians has also grown by 27 per cent in 1909 there were 4,414 lay practitioners and 31,969 physicians in 1927 there were 11,791 lay

Inflammatory Disorders

G. lucidum reportedly has anti-inflammatory properties, but we have been unable to find any reports of clinical trials investigating this aspect of G. lucidum and its potential health benefits. A family of triterpenoids from the mushroom was reported to reduce inflammation induced by carageenan and

Fantasy Narratives At

The most skilled fantasy storytellers among our 5-year-olds used conventional narrative structure to frame and organize their fantasy performances. Structural elements present in the most successful fantasy narratives included orienting information about an imaginary setting, a build-up of events toward a narrative climax or highpoint, a resolution of the themes developed in the story, for example conflict between the animal participants, and a conventionalized closing, for example, Everyone lived happily ever after. The best storytellers elaborated on the conflict theme introduced by their adult partner, weaving in subplots around themes like a search for a magic mushroom. They made abundant use of a variety of types of evaluation, including in particular the reporting of character intentions (then he tried to attack him) and internal states (the mother saw the dragon and was terrified). These fantasy storytellers built up a fully-realized story world (Wolf & Polanyi, 1990),...

Brown Rice and Tomato Pilaf

Kasha Pilaf, made with barley and portobello mushrooms, is a substantial side dish. mushrooms, diced In a medium saucepan, heat oil and crushed red pepper over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add minced garlic, onion, and carrots, and cook for 3 minutes. Add mushrooms, and continue to cook vegetables for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. In a medium bowl, combine egg replacer powder and cold water. Blend with a wire whisk until foamy. Combine kasha and egg replacer mixture, and quickly add to the pan, stirring to mix. Quickly combine boiling water with broth powder, and stir into the mixture. Reduce heat to low and simmer for 10 minutes. Add cooked barley, yeast, aminos, and granulated garlic. Stir to mix, and simmer a few minutes, or until liquid is absorbed.

Herbal Immunostimulant Compounds

The mechanisms by which herbal compounds exert their immunostimulant effects are not well understood, but often they include the production of im-munostimulating cytokines or modulation of cytokine effects. For example, Astragalus polysac-charides have been reported to potentiate the in-vitro antitumor cytotoxicity of lymphokine-activated killer cells generated with low-dose IL-2. The exact mechanism was uncertain but could have been due to Astragalus-induced increases in IL-2 receptor expression on the LAK cells, or some other form of increased IL-2 binding.14 As another example, one study reported that Ganoderma polysaccharides increased production of cytokines by macrophages and T cells and increased the cytotoxic effect of macrophages against leukemia cells in vitro. The cytokines that were increased included IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and interferon-gamma.15 Lastly, these compounds may work synergistically with IL-2 itself or possibly other natural compounds that increase IL-2 production....

Kale with Toasted Pine Nuts and Raisins

Tofu, sliced on an angle 3 ounces portobello mushrooms, diced Heat oil and garlic in a 14-inch stir-fry pan or wok for 1 minute. Add onion, bell pepper, and carrots. Saut for 3 minutes, then add the kale. Cook for 3 minutes, then add tofu and mushrooms. Cook for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add the corn, raisins, pine nuts, sherry, tamari, and nutritional yeast. Reduce heat and simmer for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally.

Occurrence of Neurotransmitters in Living Organisms 221 Discoveries

Kawashima et al. (2007) have attempted to compare the concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in a wide variety of sources using the same experimental conditions, which involved a radioimmunoassay with high specificity and sensitivity (1 pg tube). The authors measured the acetylcholine content in samples from the bacteria, archaea, and eucarya domains of the universal phyloge-netic tree. The authors compared the concentrations in different groups of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), archaea (Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1), fungi (shiitake mushroom and yeast), plants (bamboo shoot and fern), and animals (e.g., bloodworm and lugworm). The levels varied considerably, however, with the highest acetylcholine content detected in the top portion of bamboo shoot (2.9 jmmol g), which contained about 80 times of that found in rat brain. Various levels of ace-tylcholine-synthesizing activity were also detected in extracts from the cells tested, which contained a choline...

Selfhelp And Annonymous Groups See Treatment Types

Naturally occurring drugs, such as Mescaline from the Peyote cactus, increase awareness of visual and auditory sensations and also produce visual illusions and Hallucinations. The Psilocybin mushroom (Mexican or Magic mush room) produces similar effects. Because of these sensory changes, mescaline and psilocybin have been used since pre-Columbian times in religious ceremonies by the peoples of Mexico and the American southwest.

General Information

Ganoderma lucidum, also called reishi mushroom, is a common Chinese fungus mentioned in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. Like a variety of other mushrooms, including the edible shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes), Ganoderma acts as an immunostimulant in both animals and humans. In addition to its potential to inhibit cancer through immune stimulation, Ganoderma may impede metastasis by inhibiting platelet aggregation (see Table 10.1). The antitumor effects of the purified polysaccharide lentinan, which is obtained from Lentinus edodes (the shiitake mushroom), have been extensively studied in mice. The results have been very encouraging an antitumor effect has been reported against many types of cancers.11 Lentinan has also been studied in humans with promising results. Human clinical trials have reported increased survival when used in combination with chemotherapy.12' 75 In rodent studies, the dose generally given (1 mg kg intraperitoneal) is low relative to doses of other polysaccharides...

Minerals Metals and Microbial Content

Activity Collor Oranger

Freeze-dried fruit bodies of unidentified Ganoderma spp collected from the wild were reported to have a mineral content of 10.2 with potassium, calcium, and magnesium the major components (48). Significantly, no cadmium, mercury, or selenium was detected in these samples. There are several reports of heavy metal accumulation in mushroom fruit bodies (92-96). However, the evidence for greater accumulation in mushrooms collected in urban areas compared with domains considered to be pollution-free'' is conflicting (94,97). Particular attention has been given to the germanium content of Ganoderma spp. Germanium was fifth highest in terms of concentration (489 Ag g) among minerals detected in Ganoderma fruit bodies collected from nature (48). This mineral is also present in the order of parts per billion in many plant-based foods including ginseng, aloes, and garlic (100). Germanium is not an essential element but, at low doses, has been ascribed immuno-potentiating,...

Requirements and High Intakes

And peas, grains Coffee, black tea, fruits and vegetables (especially asparague), poultry, fish Unrefined grains of high fiber content, cereal products, beer, coffee Canned foods Shellfish, mushrooms, parsley, dill seed, black pepper, some prepared foods, grains, beer, wine

Indications Milk Thistle

HHB) Fibrosis (1 CGH) Food Allergies (1 WAM) Gallstones (1 HHB MAB SKY HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Gastrosis (f APA) Hematuria (f HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Hemoptysis (f BIB) Hemorrhage (f KAB MCK) Hemorrhoid (f BIB HHB MAB WOI) Hepatosis (f12 KOM PH2 SHT WAM) Hepatosis A (1 BGB) High Blood Pressure (1 MCK HC020444-262) High Cholesterol (1 MAB) High Triglycerides (1 CGH X15177299) Hydrophobia (f BIB GMH) Hypereme-sis (f1 NP9(2) 6) Hypotonia (f HH3) Infection (f HHB) Inflammation (f1 APA HC020444-262 X15617879) Intoxication (1 FAD) Insulin Resistance (1 SYN) Itch (1 MAB) Jaundice (f2 BIB HH3 MAB PH2 PNC WAM) Leukemia (f1 HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Leukorrhea (f BIB) Malaria (f1 BIB HHB PHR PH2 HC020444-262) Menopause (f HHB) Metastasis (1 X15224346) Metrorrhagia (f HHB) Migraine (f HH3) MS (f ACT9 251) MS (1 HC020444-262) Mushroom Poisoning (2 FAD SHT) Myalgia (1 HC020444-262) Nausea (f1 MAB Cyto-protective (1 NP9(2) 6) Nephrosis (f12 BGB NP9(2) 6) Neurosis (f ACT9 251) Obesity (1 PNC) Oligolactea...

Nitrogencontaining Compounds

4.6.2 The Indole Alkaloids, Psilocybin and Psilocin (Psilocybe Mushrooms), that Act as Hallucinogens Psilocybe mushrooms (Figure 4.20) are the source of two metabolites, psilcybin and psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dim- ethyltryptamine).14 These are both psychoactive compounds that produce hallucinations in humans. Psilocybe mushrooms are called Teonanacatl by Mexican Amerinds, a term which means flesh of the gods . FIGURE 4.20 The Liberty Cap mushroom, Psilocybe semilaceata, common in Northern Europe and the western coast of the U.S. north to British Columbia, Canada. The Mexican species are the hallucinogenic species collected by Mexican Amerinds. (Photo by David Bay.) In Mexican Indian religious ceremonies, the Psilocybe mushrooms, are collected and dried by women, then served to tribal members in pairs in all night ceremonies. The ingested mushrooms have a vision-inducing action that is typified by the following symptoms muscular relaxation, flaccidity, and pupil dilation in the early...

The Internet And Health Care

As the number of Internet users continues to mushroom, many physicians report a growing number of patients asking for recommended online health sites. Many patients already expect to be able to communicate with their doctor through electronic mail.1 A new type of patient is emerging someone who no longer just accepts what he or she is told by the physician but who carries out extensive re

Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, studies on G. lucidum composition, cultivation, and reputed effects are still being carried out, and several new studies have been published since this paper was drafted. However, convincing evidence of direct effects of G. lucidum on human health is lacking to date, even though the mushroom is widely promoted and consumed. Observational and anecdotal reports of benefits have not as yet been substantiated by well-controlled clinical trials or reliable scientific data. The G. lucidum preparations used have TABLE 2 Summary of Experimental Studies3 on the Putative Therapeutic Effects of the Lingzhi Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum) Antitumor activity appears related to polysaccharide content of mushroom. Only two human trials reported to date there were small (n 4 and n 5) and uncontrolled, involved advanced illness, and G. lucidum was given in conjunction with standard therapy contribution of G. lucidum to reported improvement in patients is not clear. often not been well...

Mycoplasma pneumonia 353

Lowing list outlines what to do if a child accidentally ingests a toxic mushroom 1. An adult should collect the mushrooms the child was eating if possible, a few should be dug up so that even the underground parts can be saved for identification. If there are several kinds of mushrooms around the child, all of the different kinds that the child might have eaten should be collected. 2. An adult should check with the child's doctor, the local poison control center, or the hospital emergency room. If directed to go to the emergency room, the adult should bring the child and the mushrooms. 5. The doctor will check the child's vital signs and consult a local mushroom expert to determine whether or not the mushroom is poisonous and whether any other treatment is necessary. In the United States, early removal of mushroom poison by using dialysis and correcting any electrolyte imbalance has become part of the treatment program. An enzyme called thioctic acid and corticosteroids also appear to...

Muscular Dystrophy Association

Mushroom poisoning Since the 1970s, the United States has seen a marked increase in mushroom poisoning due to an increase in the popularity of natural foods, the use of mushrooms as recreational hallucinogens, and the gourmet qualities of wild mushrooms. About 90 percent of the deaths due to mushroom poisoning in the United States and western Europe result from eating a type of mushroom known as the Amanita phal-loides. Higher death rates of more than 50 percent occur in children less than 10 years of age. out of the more than 5,000 varieties of mushrooms found in the United States, about 100 are toxic and most of these cause only mild stomach problems. A few, however, can cause fatal reactions. Most of the toxic symptoms are caused by the stomach irritants that lead to the vomiting and diarrhea common in mushroom poisoning. In most cases onset of symptoms is rapid, but if the onset is delayed past six to 12 hours, the more serious toxins may be suspected. Although only an expert can...

Festive Holiday Roast

2 ounces portobello mushrooms, For the stuffing Heat oil in a large saucepan over medium-high heat. Add garlic, onion, celery, bell pepper, and mushrooms. Cook mixture for 5 minutes, then add stuffing mix, broth, cranberries, and sage. Stir to moisten, remove from heat, and set aside. 2 8-ounce packages tempeh, cubed 2 teaspoons olive oil V4 teaspoon crushed red pepper 4 cloves garlic, minced 1 medium red onion, chopped 1 red bell pepper, chopped 6 ounces portobello mushroom, diced In a 5-quart saucepan, heat olive oil and crushed pepper over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add garlic, onion, and bell pepper, and saut for 3 minutes, stirring frequently. Crumble steamed tempeh into the pan and add the diced mushrooms. Cook for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add stewed tomatoes, chile beans, chile powder, basil, and oregano. Reduce heat and simmer for 15 minutes.

Milk thistle silybum marianum l gaertn asteraceae

Being positive is not always possible. Zohary lists three species as good candidates for the thorns and briers (not for thistles), Echinops viscosus, Notobasis syriaca, and this species, Silybum mari-anum, my favorite, bearing the common names Holy Thistle and Mary's Thistle. He confesses there is no concrete evidence that any of these three are the barkanim of Gideon , but they are more probable because they are tall plants likely used as whips. They are the most abundant of the thorns around Ophra where judge Gideon was, beating out wheat in the wine press (Judges 6 11). I would not call milk thistle an annual, as does Zohary. Mine, like his, germinates one year, has leaves appressed to the ground that winter, bolting in the spring. Flowers will soon follow the bolting, and then come the seeds, eagerly harvested by the gleeful goldfinch. Then the biennial in midsummer is done for the year. Those few seeds that escape the goldfinches germinate in the fall. Zohary selects Centaurea...

Cardiovascular Disease

Platelet aggregation and agents that mediate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle play a role in thrombosis and vascular spasm, key players in CVD (146). Several compounds from the G. lucidum mushroom have been reported to have antagonistic effects on platelet aggregation. Adenosine suppresses platelet aggregation, and a dried water extract of G. lucidum was reported to have an adenosine concentration of 40 mg 100 g (147). Administration of the adenosine derivative, 5-deoxy-5-methylsulfinyladeno-sine, isolated from G. lucidum, showed inhibitory effects on induction of platelet aggregation in rabbit plasma, but the effect was not as strong as that of adenosine (148). Su et al. (149-151) showed that the triterpene ganodermic acid S (GAS), isolated from the mushroom's mycelia, inhibited platelet response to collagen, and GAS showed an additive inhibitory effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation in the presence of prostaglandin E1. Collagen-induced aggregation is mediated by...

Natural History Black Willow

Fungus willow scab or blight (Pollaccia saliciperda), which can cause leaves to blacken and die. Other fungal diseases include Cytospora shrysosperma, causing elongate cankers, and Phytophora cactorum, causing slimy weeping lesions on lower trunks. On dead or decaying willows, seek the yellowish, crown coral mushroom (Clavicorona pyxidata) (EAS). Many sphinx moth caterpillars eat willow for example, big poplar or modest sphinx, one-eyed sphinx, and twin spotted sphinx. Tent moth caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) and the gypsy moth are fairly common, along with several noctuiids. Among common butterfly caterpillars are mourning cloak, tortoise shells, and viceroy. Midges and sawflies may create leaf galls. Feeding en masse, willow sawfly larvae, resembling black and yellow caterpillars, may strip the plant of its leaves. Giant willow aphids may suck sap from twigs in summer. Then there are oystershell scale and willow scale (EAS).

Alcoholism Versus Unwise Drinking

Organic HALLUCINOGENIC substances (plants with perception-altering properties, such as peyote and mescaline, and fungi, such as psilocybin mushrooms) have been used in various cultures in the context of religious rituals, with the dramatic visual and aural hallucinations induced being interpreted in spiritual terms. Intoxicating beverages (with alcohol and or other drugs) also have a long history of use, usually recreationally (i.e., for their relaxing and disinhibiting effects in social situations), but sometimes also for supposed medicinal purposes, as in elixirs and tonics that were marketed as patent medicines in the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

Monitoring and Control of Hazards

Carcinogens in food with a carcinogenic effect in a few favorable circumstances, since such chemicals are likely to be present at low levels and induce only a small increase in tumor incidence over background levels. 0ne such example was the identification of a carcinogenic hydrazone in the mushroom Gyromitra esculenta, as a result of an epidemiologi-cal study in Finland. Such methods have also indicated the relative importance of 'life style' factors in carcinogenesis in particular, associations have been made between lack of dietary fiber and colon cancer, between a low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables and stomach cancer, and between excess dietary fat and colon and breast cancer, although the specific chemicals responsible have not been identified with any certainty.

Regulation EC No 8522004

Regulation (EC) No. 852 2004 lays down general hygiene requirements to be respected by food businesses at all stages of the food chain including primary production. The Regulation does not apply to small quantities of primary products supplied directly by the producer to the final consumer or by the producers to local retail establishments directly supplying the final consumer. Examples of such products are vegetables, fruits, eggs and raw milk or products collected in the wild such as mushrooms and berries. All bee-keeping activities are also considered as primary production. However, fresh meat is not a primary product since it is obtained after slaughter.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Milk thistle is indigenous to Kashmir, Southern Europe, Southern Russia, North Africa, and Asia Minor. It was introduced to most areas of Europe, North and South America, and Southern Australia, and is cultivated mainly in the dry rocky soils of European countries, Australia, Canada, China, North and South America as a medicinal plant. It is also grown as ornamental plant for its attractive foliage. The seeds are collected when ripe, during late summer. Presently, milk thistle seed, its purified extracts and its active constituents are mainly used in liver diseases. It is the most widely used hepatoprotective agent in chronic inflammatory hepatic disorders, including hepatitis, jaundice, alcohol abuse, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and fatty infiltration and in hepatotoxicity by mushroom poisoning and by industrial pollutants. It is also widely used as nutraceutical agent. In homoeopathy, the seed tincture is used in liver disorders, jaundice, gall stones, peritonitis, hemorrhage, bronchitis,...

Catecholamine Inotropes Induce Staphylococcal Growth and Biofilm Formation on Intravascular Catheters

Clearly visible, exposure of S. epidermidis to the inotrope led to massive increases in biofilm formation and production of exopolysaccharide (Lyte et al. 2003). The increasing magnification shows the mushroom like structures of bacteria and exopolysaccharide, all of which became evident in less than 48 h.

Extracts Milk Thistle

Milk thistle regenerates injured liver cells (SKY). Silymarin, at 100 mg kg in rabbit diets, is reported to induce p450. Such data weakly suggest that milk thistle might detoxify (or inactivate) drugs detoxified by p450. Silymarin, the antihepatotoxic lignan, is hypolipidenic, lowering fatty deposits in the livers of experimental animals, and has been used successfully for Hepatosis B virus (PNC). Pre-treatment with silymarin and silybin gives 100 protection against mushroom poisoning in experimental animals. Posttreatment When silybin was given ivn to humans within 48 hours of ingesting death cap mushroom, it effectively prevented fatalities (PNC). Equally good results were reported in Santa Cruz, California, in January 2007. LD50 silibinin 1065 mg kg ivn mus HH3. LDlo silymarin 20,000 mg kg orl mus (MAB) LDlo silymarin 1000 mg kg orl dog (MAB) LDlo Extracts 16,000 mg kg orl mus HH3. McCarty (2005) discussed the potential of milk thistle polyphenols for reversing fat-induced insulin...

Activities Milk Thistle

Adrenergic (1 WOI) Alterative (f BIB EFS) Antiaggregant (1 ACT9 170) Antiallergic (1 MAB) Antiangiogenic (1 X12943822 NP9(2) 6) Antibilious (f APA) Anticarcinogenic (f1 MAB NP9(2) 6) Antidepressant (f PNC) Antidiabetic (f1 ACT9 251 Antidotal (2 SHT) Antidote (mushroom) (f1 PH2) Antiedemic (f1 MAB NP9(2) 6) Antifibrotic CGH Antihistaminic (1 MCK) Antiinflammatory (f1 BGB MAB WAM) Antileukotriene (1 MAB) Antimetastatic (1 X15224346) Antioxidant (12 MAB SHT) Antiproliferant (1 HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Antiprostaglandin (1 MAB) Antitelomerase (1 X15076315) Antitoxic (2 SHT) Antitumor (f1 MAB) Antitumor Promoter (1 NP9(2) 6) Antiulcer (1 PR14 581) Antiviral (1 PNC) Aperient (f BIB WOI) Apoptotic (1 JN133 3861S X15117815) Bitter (f1 PED) cAMP-Phosphodiester-ase Inhibitor (1 MAB) Caspase Activator (1 X15117815) Chemopreventive (1 NP9(2) 6) Chola-gogue (f2 BIB EFS PHR) Choleretic (1 HHB MAB NP9(2) 6) COX-2 Inhibitor (1 NP9(2) 6) Cytoprotective (1 NP9(2) 6) Cytotoxic (1 NP9(2) 6) Demulcent (f...

Hepatic and Renal Failure

Considering the importance of the liver and kidney in the maintenance of blood glucose levels hypogly-cemia is remarkably rare in both liver and kidney disease. In liver disease hypoglycemia is virtually confined to patients with acute toxic hepatic necrosis, whether due to overwhelming viral infection or specific hepatotoxins such as poisonous mushrooms, unripe akee fruit, and paracetamol in excess. Its appearance always portends an extremely poor prognosis. The association of hypoglycemia with primary cancer of the liver is comparatively common and due to overexpression and secretion of aberrant, or big IGF-II, and is not, as was once supposed, due to nonspecific destruction of hepatic tissue. Hypoglycemia is very rarely due to hepatic secondaries except from IGF-II secreting tumors.

Therapeutic Applications Of G Lucidum

Few human trials have been reported in the English language scientific literature on the effect of G. lucidum in patients. In an open, uncontrolled clinical study of four elderly patients, a dried hot-water extract of G. lucidum (taken orally, and equivalent to 36 or 72 g dried mushroom per day) was used

Bacterial Infection

Cancer is the leading cause of death in Hong Kong, and the second largest cause of death in the world (122,123). Despite comprehensive advances in early diagnosis of and chemotherapy for cancer, many malignancies remain difficult or impossible to cure. In searching for new cancer chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents over the last several years, hundreds of plant extracts, including those from mushroom, have been evaluated (2,4,5,70,124). A number of bioactive molecules, including antitumor substances, have been identified in numerous mushroom species, including the Ganoderma species (2-5,125). Polysaccharides have been established to be the most potent mushroom-derived compounds with antitumor activity. It is generally accepted that some h-d-glucans, especially h-(1 3)-d-glucans obtained from fungi, including those from the Ganoderma family, show antitumor activity (3-5,16). This attracted attention toward the polysaccharide components of the fruiting body of G. lucidum and...

Toxicity Symptoms

Brewer's yeast, broccoli, ham, grape juice, brown rice, cheese, whole grains, dried beans, calves liver, chicken, corn, corn oil, dairy products, eggs, potatoes, mushrooms, wine, beer Shellfish, nuts, seeds, cocoa powder, beans, whole grains, mushrooms, calves liver, avocados, barley, beets, broccoli, lentils, oats, oranges, radishes, raisins, salmon, green leafy vegetables

Other Native Drugs

There are ancient drug-taking practices connected to FLY AGARIC, a sometimes deadly mushroom (Amanita mascaria) found in several countries. One way to reduce the toxicity of this mushroom is to feed it to a reindeer and drink the reindeer urine, which contains intoxicating metabolites of the chemicals found in the mushroom.

Dr Bobs Breakfast

What do you feed yourself I normally start my day with hot water and lemon. I make half-caffeine, half-decaffeinated organic coffee with organic cream. On work days, I eat two scrambled eggs with spinach and mushrooms. I use butter or olive oil. No bread I try to minimize bread. I do eat it but not regularly. I do not eat pancakes or waffles. I eat tomatoes, carrots, and half an apple around 10 or l0 30 a.m. as a midmorning snack.

Figure 212

One reason why we show colour constancy is because of familiarity. We know that letter-boxes are bright red, and so they look the same colour whether they are illuminated by the sun or by artificial street lighting. For example, Delk and Fillenbaum (1965) presented various shapes cut out of the same orange-red cardboard. The shapes of objects that are typically red (e.g., heart apple) were perceived as slightly redder than the shapes of other objects (e.g., mushrooms). However, it is hard with such evidence to distinguish between genuine perceptual effects and response or reporting bias.

Pizza and Beer

I'll bet you can guess by now that the oil and the cheese on the pizza aren't the worst things it has to offer. Especially if it's good olive oil and partskim mozzarella. The crust is white flour, which is a problem. And the beer, of course, is nobody's idea of a diet drink. Maltose, the sugar in beer, has a higher glycemic index than white bread. The insulin response to it leads to the fat storage in the abdomen that we call, quite accurately, the beer belly. But pizza isn't completely devoid of benefits. Cooked tomatoes (in the sauce) are a great source of lycopene, a cancer fighter. Completely eliminate pizza and pasta forever and you lose two of the most palatable ways to serve this vegetable. If you can switch from deep dish to thin crust, you've made a difference. And if, along with the olive oil and tomato sauce and part-skim cheese you add some green peppers, onions, mushrooms, and olives, you've added lots of good, nutritious carbs that will make the dish more filling. In...


G. lucidum is clearly rich in triterpenes, and it is this class of compounds that gives the herb its bitter taste and, it is believed, various health benefits such as lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects. However, the triterpene content is different in the different parts and growing stages of the mushroom. The profile of the different triterpenes in G. lucidum can be used to distinguish this medicinal fungus from other taxonomically related species, and can serve as supporting evidence for classification. The triterpene content can also be used as a measure of quality of different Ganoderma samples (6,7,25,27). (See


Psychedelics include drugs related to the in-dolealkylamines, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), PSILOCYBIN, psilocin, DIMETHYL-TRYPTAMINE (DMT) and diethyltryptamine (DET), to the phenylethylamines, such as mescaline, or to the phenylisopropylamines, such as 2,5-dime-thoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM or STP ) as well as 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMAor ecstasy ). The feature that distinguishes these psychedelic agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to reliably induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling. There is a heightened awareness of sensory input accompanied by an enhanced sense of clarity, but a diminished control over what is experienced. The effects of LSD and related psychedelic drugs appear to be mediated through a subclass of receptors associated with the inhibitory neurotransmitter serotonin (i.e., serotonin 5HT2 receptors). Immediately after the administration of LSD, somatic symptoms...

Individual Compounds

Six polysaccharide-rich plants or extracts are examined in this chapter Astragalus, Eleutherococcus, Gan-oderma, shiitake, PSK, and PSP. These plants and extracts act in part by increasing production of immu-nostimulating cytokines (such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, interferons, TNF, and colony-stimulating factors) by increasing the responsiveness of cytokine receptors and or by decreasing the production or reducing the action of cytokines that inhibit the immune system, such as TGF-beta and IL-10.13-21 The resulting effect is, in gen- In the following, only brief discussions are provided for most compounds, since much of the information on immune stimulation is included in Chapter 12 and Table H.1. A more in-depth discussion is provided for the mushroom polysaccharides PSK and PSP, however, because they have been researched extensively.

Dietary sources

Tyrosine in foods may be degraded by spoilage or processing. Bacterial EC4.1.1,25 tyrosine decarboxylase generates tyramine. Some fermented foods, especially cheeses, contain significant amounts of tyramine. Catechol oxidase (EC ) in mushrooms, apples, potatoes, and other fresh plant foods causes newly cut surfaces to darken due to the oxidation of Tyr to monohydric and o-dihydric phenols.


The variety of polysaccharides that have the ability to enhance the immune system are pharmacologically classified as biological response modifiers (BRM). The most active BRM has (1 3)-p-d-glucans, sometimes referred to as (1 3), (l 6)-h-d-glucans. Chihara and co-workers (7,20,21) first isolated a water-soluble antitumor polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of L. edodes, which was named ''lentinan'' after the generic name of this mushrooms. The amount of pure lentinan extracted was low. In 2001, Yap and Ng (22) designed a more efficient and simple extraction procedure that resulted in yield of more that 100-fold of pure lentinan from the same amount of mushrooms. Only those that consist of a (1 3)-linked h-glucan backbone with (l 6)-linked h-d-glucopyranosyl units as branches produce strong inhibition of tumor growth (27,28). Degree of branching plays a role in producing the antitumor activity. The most active polymers (l 3)-h-d-glucans have degrees of branching between 0.20 and 0.33....


1 Tbsp. olive oil 4 oz. medium shrimp, peeled N cup sliced mushrooms N cup sliced green peppers Heat olive oil in large skillet add shrimp and cook while stirring for about 3 minutes set aside. Stir-fry mushrooms, green and red peppers, water chestnuts, and garlic to desired tenderness. Add shrimp to vegetables. Season with pepper and soy sauce. 1 red onion cut into large pieces 1 red pepper cut into large pieces 8 oz. fresh whole mushrooms 10 shiitake mushrooms (soak in cold water 20 minutes if dried and cut into G-inch pieces) Saut pork chops in sesame oil for 2 minutes on each side remove from pan and set aside. Saut onions, carrots, and mushrooms until tender. Add broccoli and soy sauce and cook 3 minutes. Add baby corn and cook 1 minute. Return pork chops to pan. Add pepper to taste. MUSHROOM AND SPINACH PIZZA 1 cup sliced mushrooms 1 cup low-fat shredded mozzarella Spread G cup sauce evenly around each pita bread. Add G cup spinach, G cup mushrooms, and G cup cheese to each pita...

Other Substances

Throughout the world, many other natural plant substances are used for mind- and mood-altering effects. These include the use of the KAVA root (Piper methysticum) for an intoxicating drink in the South Pacific indole-containing snuff (distilled from indigo, genus Indigofera) among the Amazonian Indians of Brazil KHAT leaves of a bush indigenous to East Africa containing an amphetaminelike drug (cathinone) BETEL Nut derived from the betel palm (Areca catechu) and widely used throughout the Pacific rim and FLYAGARIC (a toxic mushroom, Amanita muscaria) among the Uralic-speaking tribes of Siberia.

Chlorine Chloride

Chlorine helps clean out nitrogen and the end products of metabolism. It is responsible for maintaining fluid levels in the body. It also is important for proper digestion. A deficiency of chlorine would show as a loss of hair and teeth. Chronic deficiency also can cause growth failure in children, muscle cramps or weak muscles, mental apathy, loss of appetite, and bad digestion. Foods rich in chlorine are mushrooms, parsley, sweet potato, rhubarb, and especially tomato.


A large number of studies have reported that the mushroom polysaccharides PSK or PSP increased survival of tumor-bearing rodents treated with chemotherapy or protected them from its adverse effects or both.66-71 Most of the studies used oral administration. We do not discuss these here, however, since many human studies using PSK PSP in combination with chemotherapy were already described in Chapter 16. In most animal and human studies, PSK PSP was reported beneficial when used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs.


Nitrosamines N-Nitroso derivatives of amines. Found in trace amounts in mushrooms, fermented fish meal and smoked fish, and in pickled foods, where they are formed by reaction between nitrite and amines. They cause cancer in experimental animals, but it is not known whether the small amounts in foods affect human beings. They are also found in human gastric juice, possibly as a result of reaction between dietary amines and nitrites or nitrates.

Antiviral Effects

Many AIDS patients die of opportunistic infections due to immuno-dysfunction, and prevention of the development of symptoms by enhancing the immune system would be useful. Effects against HIV have been found in some of the carcinostatic h-D-glucans (lentinan and others) isolated from shiitake mushrooms (98-101). A tolerance study of lentinan in HIV patients has been carried out and showed that lentinan was well tolerated and produced increases in neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells activity (35). Lentinan also produced a trend toward improvement in CD4 cells generation and a decline in p24 antigen levels. A water-soluble, pale-brownish powder designated LEM was prepared from the culture medium of shiitake mushroom mycelia before the formation of fruit bodies. LEM is a glycoprotein containing glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, fructose, and various nucleic acid derivatives, vitamin B compounds, especially B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), and ergosterol (107). Two...

Toxic Liver Damage

Mushroom poisoning (Amanita phalloides) One of the best documented uses of milk thistle is in the treatment of poisoning by the mushroom Amanita phalloides (death cap). Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and severe diarrhoea usually occur 8-12 hours after ingestion with extensive hepatic necrosis occurring 1-2 days later. A mortality rate of 20-30 has been observed but can be as high as 50 in children under 10 years of age (Floersheim et al 1982). Several clinical studies have shown silybin (20-50 mg kg day IV) to protect against hepatotoxicity when administered within 48 hours. One report of pooled data from 452 case reports of A. phalloides poisoning showed a highly significant difference in mortality in favour of silybin (Sailer et al 2001).

Violence and Crime

Today, the question is whether some illicit drugs, such as marijuana, should be decriminalized The Dutch have long favored harm reduction rather than law enforcement to reduce substance abuse. Many coffee shops openly sell marijuana. They have banned the sale and cultivation of mushrooms, and the large-scale production of marijuana. Rotterdam has passed a law recently that will shut down nearly half of its grow shops. By the late 1990s the Netherlands had become the world's largest producer of Ecstasy, but in 2002 the government launched a five-year campaign against the drug.

East Asian Food

Different regions of China have distinct tastes in food. Shang-hainese cooking is known for its spicy chili flavoring and trademark red-colored meats. The Cantonese and Chaozhao regions are known for cooked meats and vegetables and in the Beijing, Mandarin, and Shandong regions steamed bread and noodles are used as staples instead of rice. The most prized food staples in China are rice and wheat, though yams, taros, and potatoes are eaten when rice and wheat are not available. Chinese vegetables are mostly imported from Central Asia, including cucumbers, coriander, peas, sesame, onions, grapes and pomegranates, tomatoes, maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts, mushrooms, and daikon (radish). Preserved foods are popular, including pickled foods, fermented vegetables, and smoked and salted meats. Other well-known seasonings that are used include salted black beans (douchi), sweet and salty sauce, garlic, oyster sauce, soy sauce, black fungus, chilies, hoisin sauce, ginger, sesame seeds,...

The formula provides

Chromium 30 micrograms (as picolinate) - Chromium (found in liver and seafood, whole grains, mushrooms and asparagus) is part of the Glucose Tolerance Factor (with B3 and amino acids) necessary for the regulation of blood sugar levels. Chromium works with insulin for normal glucose metabolism and conversion of amino acids into protein. Continued stress or frequent sugar consumption depletes the body of chromium. A diet high in refined carbohydrates can also lead to deficiency as the food processing removes much of the natural chromium content. Other causes of depletion include infection, strenuous physical exercise and pregnancy. Deficiency is implicated in adult onset of diabetes. Impaired glucose utilisation can promote sugar conversion to fats and cholesterol leading to obesity and arteriosclerosis.

Tip of the Tongue

As you descend, a mushroom-shaped structure looms up out of the murk. At your molecular scale, it appears monstrous. You're looking at a fungiform papilla one of the 9,000 or so small bumps on the tongue that most people call taste buds. The name fungiform refers to the mushroom shape of these bumps, which arc actually just support structures. Each papilla contains between fifty and one hundred individual taste buds, most of them located on the underside of the papilla, not the top.

Pepperoni Potatoes

Creamy Mushroom Cauliflower Bake chopped 8 ounces mushrooms, caps only, V3 cup dry sherry 3 tablespoons DDC Cr me of Mushroom Soup Mix Over medium-high heat, warm oil, crushed red pepper, and dried garlic for 1 minute in a 5-quart stovetop- and oven-safe casserole dish. Add onion and cook for 3 minutes, stirring frequently. Add mushrooms and cook for 3 minutes. Add cauliflower and cook for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add sherry and reduce heat to medium low. Combine mushroom soup mix with boiling water, pour over cauliflower mixture, and stir to mix. Sprinkle with parsley and soynuts. Bake, uncovered, for 20 minutes, or until sauce has thickened and cauliflower is lightly browned. Enlight ened Creamy Mushroom Cauliflower Bake Protein 9 g, carbohydrate 20 g, fiber 5 g, fat 4 g saturated fat 1 g, cholesterol 0 mg, calcium 45 mg, sodium 266 mg Calories 146 from protein 23 , from carbohydrate 54 , from fat 23 Traditional Creamed Mushroom Cauliflower Bake Protein 13 g, carbohydrate...

Immune Modulators

Mushrooms play a major role in traditional Chinese medicine and as components of contemporary Chinese health foods. Many Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysacchar-ides in fruiting bodies, cultured mycelium, or culture broth. Most belong to the group of beta-glucans that have both beta-(1 3) and beta-(1 6) linkages. Although they stimulate macrophages and natural killer cells, the anticancer effect of mushroom polysaccharide extracts appears to be mediated by thymus-derived lymphocytes. In experimental animals, mushroom polysaccharides prevent oncogen-esis, show direct antitumor activity against various cancers, and prevent tumor metastasis. Clinical trials in humans have shown improvement in clinical outcome when chemotherapy was combined with the use of commercial mushroom polysaccharides like lentinan (from Lentinus edodes or shiitake), krestin (from Coriolus versicolor), or schizophyllan (from Schizophyllum commune). Mushroom extracts may fulfill their...


Function Biotin is essential for lipid metabolism, amino acid breakdown, replenishing of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and some nuclear functions. Requirements Adequate daily intakes for infants are 0.7 puiz kg. Children need 8-20jig day, depending on their age. Adults should get 30p.g day. Lactation increases tins amount to 35 jxg day. I lemodialysis increases requirements. Sources Intestinal bacteria probably provide enough to satisfy requirements under most circumstances. Soybeans. Ii er. cauliflower, mushrooms, bean sprouts, and eggs each provide at least 20 of adult needs per serving. Foods contain both free and bound biotin (epsilon-N-biotinyl-L-lysinec metabolites such as bisnorbiotin and biotin sulfoxide have no biotin activity. Good sources include soybeans (O.fipgg), li er (I.Opgg), cauliflower and mushrooms (0.17pgg). egg yolk (K.5 p.g yo k), legumes (especially sprouts), grains, and nuts. Milk contains only 3 5 pg 1 most vegetables, fruits, and meats are poor...


Although a defined biochemical function for vanadium in higher animals and humans is yet to be described, recent reports of vanadium in bacteria and algae have provided clues as to the functional necessity of this metal in enzyme catalysis. About 10 years ago, vanadium was found to be essential for the activity of bromoperoxidase, an enzyme found in brown and red algae. Shortly thereafter, a vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidase was characterized. Vanadium was also found in high concentrations in mushrooms and was shown to accumulate in large quantities in ascidians, specifically the blood cells (vanocytes) of these organisms. Speculation as to the function of vanadium in microorganisms ranges from antimicrobial action to electron transfer and the trapping of oxygen. In higher animals, however, vanadium has been shown to have insulin-mimetic properties and to stimulate cell proliferation and

Common Ginger

Sialogogues Examples

Traditional Medicinal Uses Ginger is the folk remedy for anaemia, nephritis, tuberculosis, and antidote to Arisaema and Pinellia. 8 Sialogogue when chewed, causes sneezing when inhaled and rubefacient when applied externally. Antidotal to mushroom poisoning, ginger peel is used for opacity of the cornea. The juice is used as a digestive stimulant and local application in ecchymoses. 8 Underground stem is used to treat stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, nose bleeds, rheumatism, coughs, blood in stools, to improve digestion, expel intestinal gas, and stimulate appetite. 9 The rhizomes are


Diethylamide (LSD), Phencyclidine (PCP), Mescaline, Psilocybin mushrooms, and several newer drugs with hallucinatory and stimulant effects (called ''designer drugs,'' e.g. ecstasy. Apart from profound effects on perceptions, responsiveness, learning, and judgment are affected. Some users experience flashbacks spontaneous vivid recollections of experiences that occurred while under the influence of hallucinogens.


One striking feature of LSD, mescaline, and related psychedelic drugs is tolerance, which is a loss of typical drug effects after repeated doses. In brief, with daily doses the duration and intensity of effects rapidly diminish to the point where no subjective effects are perceived. After 200 micrograms per day of LSD, there is simply no detectable drug effect on the third or fourth day. After three or four days without LSD, the full initial effects can be triggered by the same dose that has been ''tolerated.'' Thus tolerance develops and dissipates rapidly. When subjects are tolerant to LSD, the usual dose of mescaline required for a trip is also no longer effective. This is called cross-tolerance. It is readily seen with similar dosage schedules of psilocybin, LSD, and mescaline. There is no cross-tolerance with the nonhallucinogenic stimulant drug amphetamine. Thus, there must be some common mechanism of action among the psychedelic drugs beyond their structure and similar array of...

Immune Status

An a-1,2 polysaccharide (58 glucose) from G. lucidum was reported to increase the proliferation of Con A-stimulated mouse spleen cells as shown by MTT test in vitro, and to increase expression of cytokines IL-I and IL-2 and IFN-g (55). This activity was abolished after treatment with a-1,2 fucosidase (glytolic cleavage). It seems, therefore, that the main active compound is a polysaccharide or glycoprotein fraction containing essential fucose residues with a-1,2-linkages. Polysaccharides from the mushroom increased lymphocyte proliferation in spleen cells from normal and aged mice in vivo and promoted the response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), an indirect test of antibody production (53,137). In a similar study, a polysaccharide (1-3-a-d native and degraded) isolated from the mushroom spores showed some immunostimulating activity as assessed by increased lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies against SRBC, after being injected into mice (54,58). Immunostimulating...

Lentinus Edodes

In recent years, there has been growing awareness and interest in the medicinal value of the biologically active components extracted from higher Basidiomycoto mushrooms (15-18). One such mushroom is the Lentinus edodes, better known as shiitake mushroom, which belongs to the family Tricholomataceae (order Agaricales and class Basidiomycetes). The edible part of raw L. edodes contains about 90 water. Carbohydrates make up the major component of dried shiitake (59.2 ), followed by 22.7 protein (digestibility of 80-87 ), 10 fiber, 3.2 lipids (primarily linoleic acid), and 4.7 ash. L. edodes is currently second in terms of global production, next to Agaricus bisporus. For centuries, this mushroom has been consumed not only as a delicacy but also for its beneficial effects. Shiitake mushrooms (L. edodes, Berk Sing, Tricholomataceae fungus) is a cultured edible fungus popular in Japan for the past three centuries. The curative powers of shiitake mushrooms are legendary. It was stated in Ri...

Balsamic Chicken

3 cups sliced fresh green beans 6 ounces cremini mushrooms, sliced 3 large plum tomatoes, diced V3 cup dry sherry In a 5-quart saucepan or Dutch oven, heat oil and crushed red pepper over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add garlic and shallots, saut for 3 minutes, then add green beans and mushrooms. Cook for 5 minutes, then add reconstituted chicken with any liquid that remains. Reduce heat to medium low and cook mixture this fragrant seas mng. for 10 minutes, stirring frequently. Add tomatoes, sherry, and balsamic vinegar. Reduce heat further and add chopped basil and liquid aminos. Simmer for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. In a small, dry frying pan, toast pine nuts over medium heat, shaking pan, until nuts are fragrant and lightly brown, about 3 minutes. Sprinkle over Balsamic Chicken just before serving. 1 ounce dried shitake mushrooms Rinse shitake mushrooms and combine with boiling water in a small saucerpan. Bring to a second boil, reduce heat, and simmer for 5 minutes. Set...

Some Dangers

The acetylcholine-type drugs, especially musca-rine, can be deadly when taken in high doses. In fact, muscarine is the active ingredient causing some forms of lethal mushroom poisoning, but it is unlikely that the mixture of any of the plant products in betel-nut preparations are potent enough to cause lethal overdose. Regular recreational use of betel nut is, however, responsible for a number of adverse health consequences that can contribute to the risk for early death.

The Future

Since the 1950s, a number of Asian countries have also experienced a growth of what might best be called ''drug tourism.'' Travelers, mainly from the Western Hemisphere, have come to Asia to purchase and consume such drugs as opium, Cannabis, heroin, and magic mushrooms. For many, it has come as a surprise that Asian countries respond with harsh penalties, as did Singapore in 1994, when a man from the Netherlands was hanged for possessing a large amount of heroin. It must be kept in mind that a long history of harsh penalties and social sanctions against those who violate social conventions, including local drug regulations, are part of Asian heritage as well as the seemingly exotic custom of drug use.

Jerome H Jaffe

PSILOCYBIN This is an indole-type HALLUCINOGEN, found naturally with another hallucinogen in a variety of mushrooms the most publicized being the Mexican or MAGIC MUSHROOM, Psilocybe mexicana, as well as other Psilocybe and Conocybe species. These mushrooms have long been consumed by Native Americans, especially in Mexico and the southwestern United States, as part of religious rites. Psilocybin produces effects similar to LYSERGIC Acid Diethylamide (LSD), but it is less potent and is metabolized in the body to form psilocin, another hallucinogenic compound. Both of these compounds have been synthesized in clandestine laboratories and made available on the streets. Psilocybin

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