Summary and future directions

Although the AR is an important target of therapeutics in the struggle against prostate cancer, it remains imperative to develop effective strategies to target other important transcirp-tion pathways, especially in AIPC. To alter gene transcription, some scientists, for example, are developing histone acetyl transferase inhibitors [97]. However, any such therapeutic would be expected to lack specificity for particular oncogenic pathways. DNA binding transcription factors represent druggable targets that should produce a more specific outcome, and are under appreciated as targets of small molecule inhibitors. Master transcriptional regulatory factors such as CBF and CSL clearly play important roles in cancer cell biology. Numerous studies show that inhibiting their function results in cancer cell death or loss of malignancy. These may be particularly useful targets in prostate cancers as the pathways intersect and CBF enhances AR function. In the case of CBF, it may make sense to target CBFp to inhibit CBF activity in cancers since the activity of CBF is clearly oncogenic, while individual RUNX proteins can act either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors [10]. Developing inhibitors against these key transcriptional regulators will allow their use not only for therapy but also as probes to understand specific transcriptional pathways that support cancer growth, proliferation and metastasis.

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