Prostate cancer in the world

Cancer is an important public problem and is considered a national health priority area in several countries due to the burden that it places on the individual, families and the community [1, 2, 31].

The World Health Organization (WHO) develops strategies towards the prevention, research, education and control of the cancer. Important medical developments and relevand scientific findings have permitted that people with cancer can survive with their disease and with the side effects of their disease and its treatment for longer [31].

The high relevance of the cancer in public health and research activity can also be demonstrated by the number of scientific research identified in the database system PubMed (a service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health) [32].

It is possible to see in the Table I, the number of publications in the PubMed related to cancer and cancer and some organs. It is possible to identify in the Table I approximately 2 700

000 full papers in this databank with the keyword cancer and 2.22% of these publications are related with PCa.

The mainly risk factors for PCa are (a) age (it is the strongest risk factor for PCa andthe probability of developing this disease is 1 in 12,833 for men aged birth to 39, 1 in 44 for men aged 40 to 59, and 1 in 7 for men aged 60 to 79 years), (b) family history (greater risk if father or brother had the disease and slightly higher for men whose mothers or sisters have had breast cancer ), (c) Race/Ethnicity (greater risk among African American men compared with white, Asian, and American Indian men), (d) prostate changes (abnormal cells described as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia), and (e) diet ( food with high animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables).Moreover, between 5 to 10% of the PCa cases are believed to be due primarily to high-risk inherited genetic factors or PCa susceptibility genes. Genetic testing has been a reality and it has been well documented that genetic factors might increase the risk of cancer onset [33, 34].

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