Transcription factors regulate gene expression by interacting with specific DNA elements and other proteins to either activate or repress gene transcription. Aberrant expression and function of transcription factors are commonly observed in human cancers and play a pivotal role in oncogenic transformation. Ultimately, these affect downstream signaling pathways, resulting in acquisition of some or all of the hallmarks of cancer, such as insensitivity to antigrowth or apoptotic signals, production of self-sufficient growth signals, limitless rep-licative potential and invasive or metastatic capability [1].

Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a highly conserved transcription factor across species and ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. YY1 has the ability to act as either an activator or repressor of its target genes, depending on the compositional difference of its recruited complexes. Through these complexes YY1 regulates epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, of its targeted promoters. Originally, YY1 was discovered as a transcription factor capable of binding to the P5 promoter of adeno-associated virus [2]. YY1 executed an inhibitory effect on this promoter, but this inhibition was reversed to activation by its association with a viral protein, E1A. Indeed, the name "Yin Yang" symbolizes these two opposing abilities. "Yin Yang" also represents the ongoing debate over what role YY1 plays in human cancers, although its oncogenic role is clearly more predominant than its tumor suppressive potential based on the current literature.

As discussed below, the evidence supporting the oncogenic role of YY1 has been obtained through its study in various human cancers. In this chapter, we will first describe the studies that suggest a proliferative role for YY1 in cancers, and then specifically discuss what is known to date about the function of YY1 in prostate cancer.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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