Introduction

This CHAPTER deals with a more defined and specified issue: whether we can already identify, point our fingers toward a specific infectious agent or infectivity pathway most likely targeting and lurking behind prostate cancer (PCa). This issue became quite evident in the past 5-6 years, in view of the heated debate on the possible role of a what was considered a novel retrovirus: Xenotropic Murine Related Virus, or XMRV, in the aetiology of PCa and subsequently also of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Over two years ago, the same issue was discussed by the author at the International Congress on Muscle Fatigue held in Pisa in July 2010. That presentation has been now transformed in a paper, which is in press in the journal Neuro Muscolar Disease (NMD, Springer Verlag) [1]. The reader is therefore referred to that article -most likely already published by the time of this book printing- for aetiological considerations on CFS [1]. In this section, I will more extensively discuss the association of XMRV with PCa. Such an association was the first one to be discovered and this finding was the basis for also searching XMRV in CFS. In CFS, the potential association with an infective agent doesn't appear to be trivial, since "fatigue" has been widely associated with several types of cancer in the so called Cancer Related Fatigue (CRF), also discussed more extensively in the NMD paper [1] [2].

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