V

validity Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. There are five types of validity face validity, predictive validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity. 42 validity coefficient Validity coefficients are the correlation between a trait measure and measures of different criteria that should relate to the trait. An example might be the correlation between a self-report measure of agreeableness, and the person's roommate reports of how agreeable they are. 145 violation of desire According to the violation of desire theory of conflic between the sexes, break ups should i occur more when one's desires are violated than when they are fulfille (Buss, 1994). Following this theory, we would predict that people married to others who lack desired characteristics, such as dependability and emotional stability, will more frequently dissolve the marriage. 503

Ward's Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio

Ward's Cove Packing Co. was a salmon cannery operating in Alaska. In 1974 the non-white cannery workers started legal action against the company, alleging that a variety of the company's hiring and promotion practices were responsible for racial stratification i the workplace. The claim was advanced under the disparate impact portion of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. In 1989 the Supreme Court decided on the case in favor of Ward's Cove. The court decided that, even if employees can prove discrimination, the hiring practices may still be considered legal if they serve "legitimate employment goals of the employer." This decision allowed disparate impact if it was in the service of the company. This case prompted Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which contained several important modifications to Title VII of the original act. Most importantly, however, the new Act shifted the burden of proof onto the employer by requiring that they must prove a close connection between disparate impact and the ability to actually perform the job in question. 120 Whorfian hypothesis of linguisti relativity In 1956, Whorf proposed the theory that language creates thought and experience. According to this Whorfian hypothesis, the ideas tha people can think and the emotions they feel are constrained by the words that happen to exist in their language and culture and with which they use to express them. 576 wish fulfillmen If an urge from the id requires some external object or person, and that object or person is not available, the id may create a mental image or fantasy of that object or person to satisfy its needs. Mental energy is invested in that fantasy and the urge is temporarily satisfied. This process is called wish fulfillment where something unavailable is conjured up and the image of it is temporarily satisfying. 296 within-culture variation Within-culture variations are variations within a particular culture that can arise from several sources, including differences in growing up in various socioeconomic classes, differences in historical era, or differences in the racial context in which one grows up. 571 within the individual The important sources of personality reside within the individual—that is, a person carries the sources of their personality inside themselves—and hence are stable over time and consistent over situations. 8 working models Early experiences and reactions of the infant to the parents, particularly the mother, become what Bowlby called "working models" for later adult relationships. These working models are internalized in the form of unconscious expectations about relationships. 344

xenophobia Xenophobia is the fear of strangers. Characteristics that were probably adaptive in ancestral environments, such as xenophobia, are not necessarily adaptive in modern environments. Some of the personality traits that make up human nature may be vestigial adaptations to an ancestral environment that no longer exists. 248

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