T

taxonomy A taxonomy is simply a technical name given to a classificatio scheme—the identification and namin of groups within a particular subject field 512

telemetry Telemetry is the process by which electrical signals are sent from electrodes to a polygraph using radio waves instead of wires. 210 temperament Most researchers define temperament as those individua differences that emerge very early in life, are likely to have a heritable basis, and are often involved in behaviors linked with emotionality or arousability. 143 tender-mindedness Tender-mindedness is defined by a nurturan proclivity, having empathy for others, and being sympathetic with those who are downtrodden. 530 test data (T-data) A common source of personality-relevant information comes from standardized tests (T-data). In these measures, participants are placed in a standardized testing situation to see if different people react or behave differently to an identical situation. Taking an exam, like the Scholastic Aptitude Test, would be one example of T-data as a measure used to predict success in school. 32 testability Testability is the capacity to render precise predictions that scientists can test empirically. Generally, the testability of a theory is dependent upon the precision of its predictions. If it is impossible to test a theory empirically, the theory is generally discarded. 21 thanatos Freud postulated that humans have a fundamental instinct toward destruction and that this instinct is often manifest in aggression toward others. The two instincts were usually referred to as libido, for the life instinct, and thanatos, for the death instinct. While thanatos was considered to be the death instinct, Freud also used this term to refer to any urge to destroy, harm, or aggress against others or oneself. 289

thematic apperception technique

The Thematic Apperception Technique (TAT), developed by Murray and Morgan, is a projective assessment technique which consists of a set of black and white ambiguous pictures. The person is shown each picture and is told to write a short story interpreting what is happening in each picture. The psychologist then codes the stories for the presence of imagery associated with particular motives. The TAT remains a popular personality assessment technique today. 356 theoretical approach The theoretical approach to identifying important dimensions of individual differences starts with a theory, which then determines which variables are important. The theoretical strategy dictates in a specific manner whic variables are important to measure. 67 theoretical bridge A theoretical bridge refers to the connection between two different variables (for instance, dimensions of personality and physiological variables). 209 theoretical constructs Most personality traits refer to constructs, or what Allport called convenient fictions For example, if someone asks you to show them your level of extraversion, there is nothing you could produce. Extraversion is a convenient fiction, theoretical construct useful for explaining aspects of personality. Constructs are represented by observable measures, such as self-reports or observations of behavior. So, to explain how extraverted you are, you could produce scores on an extraversion scale. The construct, however, is always more than the observations. 43

theories versus beliefs Beliefs are often personally useful and crucially important to some people, but they are based on leaps of faith, not on reliable facts and systematic observations. Theories, on the other hand, are based on systematic observations, that can be repeated by others, and that yield similar conclusions. 20 third variable problem One reason why correlations can never prove causality is the third variable problem. It could be that two variables are correlated because some third, unknown variable is causing both. 51 time urgency Time urgency is a sub-trait in the Type A personality. Type A persons hate wasting time. They are always in a hurry and feel under pressure to get the most done in the least amount of time. Often they do two things at once, such as eat while reading a book. Waiting is stressful for them. 613 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 A specific section of th Civil Rights Act of 1964 that requires employers to provide equal r employment opportunities to all persons, regardless of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. 119 trait-descriptive adjectives Trait-descriptive adjectives are words that describe traits, attributes of a person that are reasonably characteristic of the individual and perhaps even enduring over time. 4

trait levels A concept that can be applied to motives and emotions, trait levels refer to a person's average tendency, or his or her set-point, on the specific motive or emotion. The idea is that people differ from each other in their typical or average amount of specific motives or emotions 359 transactional model In the transactional model of personality and health, personality has three potential effects: (1) it can influence coping, a in the interactional model; (2) it can influence how the person appraises o interprets the events; and (3) it can influence exposure to the event themselves. 589

transference Transference is a term from psychoanalytic therapy. It refers to the patient reacting to the analyst as if he or she were an important figur from the patient's own life. The patient displaces past or present (negative and positive) feelings toward someone from his or her own life onto the analyst. The idea behind transference is that the interpersonal problems between a patient and the important people in his or her life will be reenacted in the therapy session with the analyst. This is a specific form o the mechanism of evocation, as described in the material on personsituation interaction. 314 transmitted culture Transmitted culture refers to representations originally in the mind of one or more persons that are transmitted to the minds of other people. Three examples of cultural variants that appear to be forms of transmitted culture are differences in moral values, self-concept, and levels of self-enhancement. Specific patterns o morality, such as whether it is considered appropriate to eat beef or wrong for a wife to go to the movies without her husband, are specific t certain cultures. These moral values appear to be transmitted from person to person within the culture. 559

traumatic stress A massive instance of acute stress, the effects of which can reverberate within an individual for years or even a lifetime is called traumatic stress. It differs from acute stress mainly in terms of its potential to lead to post-traumatic stress disorder. 598

tridimensional personality model

Cloninger's tridimensional personality model ties three specific personalit traits to levels of the three neurotransmitters. The first trait i called novelty seeking and is based on low levels of dopamine. The second personality trait is harm avoidance, which he associates with low levels of serotonin. The third trait is reward dependence, which Cloninger sees as related to low levels of norepinephrine. 229 trust Trust is defined by th proclivity to cooperate with others, giving others the benefit of the doubt and viewing one's fellow human beings as basically good at heart. 530 twin studies Twin studies estimate heritability by gauging whether identical twins, who share 100 percent of their genes, are more similar to each other than fraternal twins, who share only 50 percent of their genes. Twin studies, and especially studies of twins reared apart, have received tremendous media attention. 182 type A personality In the 1960s, cardiologists Friedman and Rosenman began to notice that many of their coronary heart disease patients had similar personality traits—they were competitive, aggressive workaholics, were ambitious overachievers, were often hostile, were almost always in a hurry, and rarely relaxed or took it easy. Friedman and Rosenman referred to this as the Type A personality, formally defined as "an action-emotion comple that can be observed in any person who is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons" (1974, p. 37). As assessed by personality psychologists, Type A refers to a syndrome of several traits: (1) achievement motivation and competitiveness; (2) time urgency; and (3) hostility and aggressiveness. 212,612

Type 4 Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD4) According to Schinka, Letsch, and Crawford, very specifi types of repeated genetic codes on the Type 4 Dopamine Receptor Gene are associated with novelty seeking. 198

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Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

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