So far in this chapter, we have considered aspects of personality related to how a person perceives and interprets the world. We turn now to a third aspect of cognition, a person's goals and how these are related to personality . Such goals may range from minor ones, such as buying groceries for the week, to the more lofty , such as reducing world hunger. The focus in this approach is on intention, on what persons want to happen, on what they want to achieve in their lives. People dif fer in their goals, and these dif ferences are part of and reveal their personalities.
Different psychologists have of fered different terms, such as personal strivings (Emmons, 1989), current concerns (Klinger , 1977a; 1977b), personal projects (Little, 1999) and life tasks (Cantor , 1990). All of these constructs emphasize what people believe is worth pursuing in life, as well as the kinds of goal-directed behaviors they enact to achieve these desires. Other personality theories in this section emphasize self-guides, or the standards that people strive to meet (Higgins, 1996), their understanding of their own abilities and motivations (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995), or internal abilities related to goals, including people' s expectations, beliefs, plans, and strategies (Mischel, 2004).
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