objectifying cognitions Processing information by relating it to objective facts. This style of thinking stands in contrast to personalizing cognitions. 393
objective anxiety Objective anxiety (fear) occurs in response to some real, external threat to the person. For example, being confronted by a large, aggressive-looking man with a knife while taking a shortcut through an alley would elicit objective anxiety (fear) in most people. 298 objective self-awareness Objective self-awareness is seeing oneself as an object of others' attention. Often, objective self-awareness is experienced as shyness, and for some people this is a chronic problem. Although objective self-awareness can lead to periods of social sensitivity, this ability to consider oneself from an outside perspective is the beginning of a social identity. 469
object relations theory Object relations theory places an emphasis on early childhood relationships. While this theory has several versions that differ from each other in emphasis, all the versions have at their core a set of basic assumptions: that the internal wishes, desires, and urges of the child are not as important as his or her developing relationships with significant externa others, particularly parents, and that the others, particularly the mother, become internalized by the child in the form of mental objects. 341 observer-report data (O-data)
Observer-report data are the impressions and evaluations others make of a person whom they come into contact with. For every individual, there are dozens of observers who form such impressions. Observer-report methods capitalize on these sources and provide tools for gathering information about a person's personality. Observers may have access to information not attainable through other sources, and multiple observers can be used to assess each individual. Typically, a more valid and reliable assessment of personality can be achieved when multiple observers are used. 30 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder The obsessive-compulsive personality is preoccupied with order and strives to be perfect. The high need for order can manifest itself in the person's attention to details, however trivial, and fondness for rules, rituals, schedules, and procedures. Another characteristic is a devotion to work at the expense of leisure and friendships. Obsessive-compulsive persons tend to work harder than they need to. 650 Oedipal conflic For boys, the main conflict in the Freud s phallic stage is the Oedipal conflict. It is a boy s unconscious wish to have his mother all to himself by eliminating the father. (Oedipus is a character in a Greek myth who unknowingly kills his father and marries his mother). 308 Openness Openness is the fift personality trait in the Five-Factor Model, a model which has proven to be replicable in studies using English language trait words as items. Some of the key adjective markers for Openness are "creative," "imaginative," "intellectual." Those who rate high on openness tend to remember their dreams more and have vivid, prophetic, or problem-solving dreams. 88 optimal level of arousal Hebb's believed that people are motivated to reach an optimal level of arousal. If they are underaroused relative to this level, an increase in arousal is rewarding; conversely, if they are overaroused, a decrease in arousal is rewarding. By optimal level of arousal Hebb meant a level that is "just right" for any given task. 224
optimistic bias Most people generally underestimate their risks, with the average person rating their risks as below what is the true average. This has been refereed to as the optimistic bias, and it may actually lead people in general to ignore or minimize the risks inherent in life or to take more risks than they should. 604 optimistic explanatory style An explanatory style that emphasizes external, temporary, and specific cause of events. 410
oral stage The oral stage is the firs stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage occurs during the initial 18 months after birth. During this time, the main sources of pleasure and tension reduction are the mouth, lips, and tongue. Adults who still obtain pleasure from "taking in," especially through the mouth (e.g., people who overeat or smoke or talk too much) might be fixated at this stage 307 organized and enduring "Organized" means that the psychological traits and mechanisms for a given person are not simply a random collection of elements. Rather, personality is coherent because the mechanisms and traits are linked to one another in an organized fashion. "Enduring" means that the psychological traits are generally consistent over time, particularly in adulthood, and over situations. 8
orthogonality Discussed in terms of circumplex models, orthogonality specifies that traits that ar perpendicular to each other on the model (at 90 degrees of separation, or at right angles to each other) are unrelated to each other. In general, the term "orthogonal" is used to describe a zero correlation between traits. 81 ought self A person's understanding of what others want them to be. 470
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