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narcissism Narcissism is a style of inflated self-admiration and th constant attempt to draw attention to the self and to keep others focused on oneself. Although narcissism can be carried to extremes, narcissistic tendencies can be found in normal range levels. 340, 517 narcissistic paradox The narcissistic paradox refers to the fact that, although a narcissistic person appears to have high self-esteem, they actually have doubts about their self-worth. While they appear to have a grandiose sense of self-importance, narcissists are nevertheless very fragile and vulnerable to blows to their self-esteem and cannot handle criticism well. They need constant praise, reassurance, and attention from others, whereas a person with truly high self-esteem would not need such constant praise and attention from others. 340, 639 narcissistic personality disorder

The calling card of the narcissistic personality is a strong need to be admired, a strong sense of self-importance, and a lack of insight into other people's feelings. Narcissists see themselves in a very favorable light, inflating their accomplishments an undervaluing the work of others. Narcissists daydream about prosperity, victory, influence, adoration fro others, and power. They routinely expect adulation from others, believing that homage is generally long overdue. They exhibit feelings of entitlement, even though they have done nothing in particular to earn that special treatment. 639

natural selection Darwin reasoned that variants that better enabled an organism to survive and reproduce would lead to more descendants. The descendants, therefore, would inherit the variants that led to their ancestors' survival and reproduction. Through this process, the successful variants were selected, and unsuccessful variants weeded out. Natural selection, therefore, results in gradual changes in a species over time, as successful variants increase in frequency and eventually spread throughout the gene pool, replacing the less successful variants. 244

naturalistic observation In naturalistic observation, observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of the lives of their participants. For example, a child might be followed throughout an entire day, or an observer may record behavior in the home of the participant. Naturalistic observation offers researchers the advantage of being able to secure information in the realistic context of a person's everyday life, but at the cost of not being able to control the events and behavioral samples witnessed. 31

nature-nurture debate The nature-nurture debate is the ongoing debate as to whether genes or environments are more important determinants of personality. 179

need for achievement The need for achievement, according to McClelland, is the desire to do better, to be successful, and to feel competent. A person with a high need for achievement obtains satisfaction from accomplishing a task or from the anticipation of accomplishing a task. They cherish the process of being engaged in a challenging task. 360 need for intimacy McAdams define the need for intimacy as the "recurrent preference or readiness for warm, close, and communicative interaction with others" (1990, p. 198). People with a high need for intimacy want more intimacy and meaningful human contact in their day-to-day lives than do those with a low need for intimacy. 368 need for power Winter defines th need for power as a preference for having an impact on other people. Individuals with a high need for power are interested in controlling situations and other people. 366 needs Needs refer to states of tension within a person; as a need is satisfied, the state of tension i reduced. Usually the state of tension is caused by the lack of something (for example, a lack of food causes a need to eat). 352

negative affectivity Includes components such as anger, sadness, difficult , and amount of distress. 529 negative identity In resolving their identity crises, some people develop negative identities, identities founded on undersirable social roles, such as "gangstas," girlfriends of street toughs, or members of street gangs. 335 negligent hiring A charge sometimes brought against an employer for hiring someone who is unstable or prone to violence. Employers are defending themselves against such suits which often seek compensation for crimes committed by their employees. Such cases hinge on whether the employer should have discovered dangerous traits ahead of time, before hiring such a person into a position where he or she posed a threat to others. Personality testing may provide evidence that the employer did in fact try to reasonably investigate an applicant's fitness for th workplace. 119

neurotic anxiety Neurotic anxiety occurs when there is a direct conflic between the id and the ego. The danger is that the ego may lose control over some unacceptable desire of the id. For example, a man who worries excessively that he might blurt out some unacceptable thought or desire in public is beset by neurotic anxiety. 298 neurotic paradox The neurotic paradox refers to the fact that people with disorders or other problems with living often exhibit behaviors that exacerbate, rather than lessen, their problems. For example, borderline personality disordered persons, who are generally concerned with being abandoned by friends and intimate others, may throw temper tantrums or otherwise express anger and rage in a manner that drives people away. The paradox refers to doing behaviors that make their situation worse. 646

neuroticism Neuroticism is one of the "Big Five" dimensions of personality, and is present, in some form, in every major trait theory of personality. Different researchers have used different terms for neuroticism, such as emotional instability, anxiety-proneness, and negative affectivity. Adjectives useful for describing persons high on the trait of neuroticism include moody, touchy, irritable, anxious, unstable, pessimistic, and complaining. 442

neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are those chemicals in the nerve cells that are responsible for the transmission of a nerve impulse from one cell to another. Some theories of personality are based directly on different amounts of neurotransmitters found in the nervous system. 228 neurotransmitter theory of depression According to the neurotransmitter theory of depression, an imbalance of the neurotransmitters at the synapses of the nervous system causes depression. Some medications used to treat depression target these specific neurotransmitters. Not al people with depression are treated successfully with drugs. That suggests that there may be varieties of depression; some are biologically based, while others are more reactive to stress, physical exercise, or cognitive therapy. 449

nomothetic The study of general characters of people as they are distributed in the population, typically involving statistical comparisons between individuals or groups. 13 noncontent responding Noncontent responding, also referred to as the concept of response sets, refers to the tendency of some people to respond to the questions on some basis that is unrelated to the question content. One example is the response set of acquiescence or yea saying. This is the tendency to simply agree with the questionnaire items, regardless of the content of those items. 111 nonshared environment Nonshared environment is a concept referring to features of the environment that siblings do not share. Some children might get special or different treatment from their parents, they might have different groups of friends, they might be sent to different schools, or one r might go to summer camp while the other stays home each summer. These features are called "nonshared" because they are experienced differently by different siblings. 193 norepinephrine Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter involved in activating the sympathetic nervous system for flight or figh 229 novelty seeking In Cloninger's tridimensional personality model, the personality trait of novelty seeking is based on low levels of dopamine. Low levels of dopamine create a drive state to obtain substances or experiences that increase dopamine. Novelty and thrills and excitement can make up for low levels of dopamine, and so novelty seeking behavior is thought to result from low levels of this neurotransmitter. 229

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