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id The id is the most primitive part of the human mind. Freud saw the id as something we are born with and as the source of all drives and urges. The id is like a spoiled child: selfish, impulsive and pleasure-loving. According to Freud, the id operates strictly according to the pleasure principle, which is the desire for immediate gratification 295 id psychology Freud's version of psychoanalysis focused on the id, especially the twin instincts of sex and aggression, and how the ego and superego respond to the demands of the id. Freudian psychoanalysis can thus be called id psychology, to distinguish it from later developments that focused on the functions of the ego. 331 ideal self The self that a person wants to be. 470

identificatio Identification is developmental process in children. It consists of wanting to become like the same-sex parent. In classic psychoanalysis, it marks the beginning of the resolution of the Oedipal or

Electra conflicts and the successfu resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual development. Freud believed that the resolution of the phallic stage was both the beginning of the superego and morality, as well as the start of the adult gender role. 308 identity conflic According to Baumeister, an identity conflic involves an incompatibility between two or more aspects of identity. This kind of crisis often occurs when a person is forced to make an important and difficult life decision. Identit conflicts are "approach-approach conflicts, in that the person wants t reach two mutually contradictory goals. Although these conflicts involv wanting two desirable identities, identity conflicts usually involv intense feelings of guilt or remorse over perceived unfaithfulness to an important aspect of the person's identity. 486

identity confusion Identity confusion refers to a period of a person not having a strong sense of who she or he really is in terms of values, careers, relationships, and ideologies. 335 identity crisis Erikson's term "identity crisis" refers to the desperation, anxiety, and confusion a person feels when he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity. A period of identity crisis is a common experience during adolescence, but for some people it occurs later in life, or lasts for a longer period. Baumeister suggests that there are two distinct types of identity crises, which he terms identity deficit and identit conflict 332

identity defici According to Baumeister, an identity deficit arise when a person has not formed an adequate identity and thus has trouble making major decisions. When people who have an identity deficit loo toward their social identity for guidance in making decisions (e.g., "what would a person like me do in this situation?"), they find little in the wa of a foundation upon which to base such life choices. Identity deficits ofte occur when a person discards old values or goals. 485 identity foreclosure Identity foreclosure occurs when a person does not emerge from a crisis with a fir sense of commitment to values, relationships, or career, but forms an identity without exploring alternatives. An example would be young people who accept the values of their parents or their cultural or religious group without question. 336 idiographic The study of single individuals, with an effort to observe general principles as they are manifest in a single life over time. 13 if . . . then . . . propositions A component of Walter Mischel's theory referring to the notion that, if situation A, the person does X, but if situation B, then the person does Y. Personality leaves its signature, Mischel argues, in terms of the specific situationa ingredients that prompt behavior from the person. 415

illness behavior model The illness behavior model suggests that personality influences the degree t which a person perceives and pays attention to bodily sensations, and the degree to which a person will interpret and label those sensations as an illness. 592

imagination inflation effec An imagination inflation e fect occurs when a memory is elaborated upon the imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event with events that actually happened. 325 implicit motivation Implicit motivation refers to motives as they are measured in fantasy-based (i.e., TAT) techniques, as opposed to direct self-report measures. The implied motives of persons scored, for example, from TAT stories, is thought to reveal their unconscious desires and aspirations, their unspoken needs and wants. McClelland has argued that implicit motives predict long-term behavioral trends over time, such as implicit need for achievement predicting long-term business success. 358 impulsivity A personality trait that refers to lowered self-control, especially in the presence of potentially rewarding activities, the tendency to act before one thinks, and a lowered ability to anticipate the consequences of one's behavior. 220

inclusive fitness theor Modern evolutionary theory, which is based on differential gene reproduction, is also called inclusive fitness theor (Hamilton, 1964). The "inclusive" part refers to the fact that the characteristics that affect reproduction need not affect the personal production of offspring; they can affect the survival and reproduction of genetic relatives as well. 246

independence Markus and Kitayama propose that each person has two fundamental "cultural tasks" that have to be confronted. One such task, agency or independence, involves how you differentiate yourself from the larger group. Independence includes your unique abilities, your personal internal motives and personality dispositions, and the ways in which you separate yourself from the larger group. 564 independence training McClelland believes that certain parental behaviors can promote high achievement motivation, autonomy, and independence in their children. One of these parenting practices is placing an emphasis on independence training. Training a child to be independent in different tasks promotes a sense of mastery and confidence in the child. 364

individual differences Every individual has personal and unique qualities which make them different from others. The study of all the ways in which individuals can differ from others, the number, origin, and meaning of such differences, is the study of individual differences. 12 individualism A sense of self as autonomous and independent, with priority given to personal goals. 565 influential fo ces Personality traits and mechanisms are influential force in people's lives in that they influenc our actions, how we view ourselves, how we think about the world, how we interact with others, how we feel, our selection of environments (particularly our social environment), what goals and desires we pursue in life, and how we react to our circumstances. Other influential forces include sociologica and economic influences, as well a physical and biological forces. 9 information processing Information processing is the transformation of sensory input into mental representations and the manipulation of such representations. 393 infrequency scale A common method for detecting measurement technique problems is to use an infrequency scale embedded within a set of questionnaire items. The infrequency scale contains items that most or all people would answer in a particular way. If a participant answered more than one or two of these unlike the rest of the majority of the participants, a researcher could begin to suspect that the participant's answers do not represent valid information. Such a participant may be answering randomly, may have difficulty reading or may be marking his or her answer sheet incorrectly. 109 inhibitory control The ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviors. 528

insight In psychoanalysis, through many interpretations, a patient is gradually led to an understanding of the unconscious source of his or her problems. This understanding is called insight. 313

inspection time Inspection time, a variable in intelligence research, refers to the time it takes a person to make a simple discrimination between two displayed objects or two auditory intervals that differ by only a few milliseconds. This variable suggests that brain mechanisms specificall involved in discriminations of extremely brief time intervals represent a sensitive indicator of general intelligence. 418 instincts Freud believed that there were strong innate forces that provided all the energy in the psychic system. He called these forces instincts. In Freud's initial formulation there were two fundamental categories of instincts: self-preservation instincts and sexual instincts. In his later formulations, Freud collapsed the self-preservation and sexual instincts into one, which he called the life instinct. 289 instrumentality Instrumentality refers to personality traits that involve working with objects, getting tasks completed in a direct fashion, showing independence from others, and displaying self-sufficienc . 541 integrity testing Because the private sector cannot legally use polygraphs to screen employees, some companies have developed and promoted questionnaire measures to use in place of the polygraph. These questionnaires, called integrity tests, are designed to assess whether a person is generally honest or dishonest. 115

interactional model The interactional model suggests that objective events happen to a person, but that personality factors determine the impact of those events by influencing the person s ability to cope. This is called the interactional model because personality is assumed to moderate (that is, influence) the relatio between stress and illness. 589 interdependence Markus and Kitayama propose that each person has two fundamental "cultural tasks" that have to be confronted. The first i communion or interdependence. This cultural task involves how you are affiliated with, attached to, or engage in the larger group of which you are a member. Interdependence includes your relationships with other members of the group and your embeddedness within the group. 564

internal locus of control An internal locus of control refers to the generalized expectancy that reinforcing events are under one's control, and that one is responsible for the major outcomes in life. 406 internalized In object relations theory, a child will create an unconscious mental representation of his or her mother. This allows the child to have a relationship with this internalized "object" even in the absence of the "real" mother. The relationship object internalized by the child is based on his or her developing relationship with the mother. This image then forms the fundamentals for how children come to view others with whom they develop subsequent relationships. 341 interpersonal traits Interpersonal traits pertain to what people do to and with each other. They include temperament traits, such as nervous, gloomy, sluggish, and excitable; character traits, such as moral, principled, and dishonest; material traits, such as miserly or stingy; attitude traits, such as pious or spiritual; mental traits, such as clever, logical, and perceptive; and physical traits, such as healthy and tough. 79 interpretation Interpretation is one of the three levels of cognition that are of interest to personality psychologists. Interpretation is the making sense of, or explaining, various events in the world. Psychoanalysts offer patients interpretations of the psychodynamic r causes of their problems. Through many interpretations, patients are gradually led to an understanding of the unconscious source of their problems. 313, 394 inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability involves the use of multiple observers to gather information about a person's personality and then allows investigators to evaluate the degree of consensus among the observers. When different observers agree with one another, the degree of inter-rater reliability increases. When different raters fail to agree, the measure is said to have low inter-rater reliability. 30 intersexual selection In Darwin's intersexual selection, members of one sex choose a mate based on their preferences for particular qualities in that mate. These characteristics evolve because animals that possess them are chosen more often as mates, and their genes thrive. Animals that lack the desired characteristics are excluded from mating, and their genes perish. 245 intrapsychic domain This domain deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside the realm of conscious awareness. The predominant theory in this domain is Freud's theory of psychoanalysis. This theory begins with fundamental assumptions about the instinctual system—the sexual and aggressive forces that are presumed to drive and energize much of human activity. The intrapsychic domain also includes defense mechanisms such as repression, denial, and projection. 17 intrasexual competition In Darwin's intrasexual competition, members of the same sex compete with each other, and the outcome of their contest gives the winner greater sexual access to members of the opposite sex. Two stags locking horns in combat is the prototypical image of this. The characteristics that lead to success in contests of this kind, such as greater strength, intelligence, or attractiveness to allies, evolve because the victors are able to mate more often and hence pass on more genes. 245

analyzing the requirements of the job. The psychologist might interview employees who work in the job or supervisors who are involved in managing the particular job. The psychologist might observe workers in the job, noting any particular oral, written, performance, or social skills needed. He or she may also take into account both the physical and social aspects of the work environment in an effort to identify any special pressures or responsibilities associated with the job. Based on this job analysis, the psychologist develops some hypotheses about the kinds of abilities and personality traits that might best equip a person to perform well in that job. 124

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How To Win Your War Against Anxiety Disorders

How To Win Your War Against Anxiety Disorders

Tips And Tricks For Relieving Anxiety... Fast Everyone feels anxious sometimes. Whether work is getting to us or we're simply having hard time managing all that we have to do, we can feel overwhelmed and worried that we might not be able to manage it all. When these feelings hit, we don't have to suffer. By taking some simple steps, you can begin to create a calmer attitude, one that not only helps you feel better, but one that allows you the chance to make better decisions about what you need to do next.

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