Hie Dispositional Domain

Chapter 3

Traits and Trait Taxonomies 60

What Is a Trait? Two Basic Formulations 62 Traits as Internal Causal Properties 62 Traits as Purely Descriptive Summaries 63

The Act Frequency Formulation of Traits—An Illustration of the Descriptive Summary Formulation 64

Act Frequency Research Program 64 Critique of the Act Frequency Formulation 66

Identification of the Most Important Traits 67 Lexical Approach 67 Statistical Approach 69 Theoretical Approach 70

Evaluating the Approaches for Identifying Important Traits 72

Taxonomies of Personality 72

Eysenck's Hierarchical Model of Personality 72 Cattell's Taxonomy: The 16 Personality Factor System 77 Circumplex Taxonomies of Personality 79 Five-Factor Model 82

Summary and Evaluation 91 Key Terms 93

Chapter 4

Theoretical and Measurement Issues in Trait Psychology 94

Theoretical Issues 97

Meaningful Differences between Individuals 97 Consistency over Time 98 Consistency across Situations 100 Person-Situation Interaction 101 Aggregation 107

Measurement Issues 108 Carelessness 109 Faking on Questionnaires 110 Response Sets 110

Beware of Barnum Statements in Personality Test Interpretations 116

Personality and Prediction 118

Applications of Personality Testing in the Workplace 118 Legal Issues in Personality Testing in Employment Settings 119 Personnel Selection—Choosing the Right Person for the Job 124 Selection in Business Settings—The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 125 Selection in Business Settings—The Hogan Personality Inventory 130

Summary and Evaluation 133 Key Terms 135

Chapter 5

Personality Dispositions over Time: Stability, Change, and Coherence 136

Conceptual Issues: Personality Development, Stability, Change, and Coherence 138 What Is Personality Development? 138 Rank Order Stability 138 Mean Level Stability 139 Personality Coherence 139 Personality Change 141 Three Levels of Analysis 141 Population Level 142 Group Differences Level 142 Individual Differences Level 143 Personality Stability over Time 143

Stability of Temperament during Infancy 143 Stability during Childhood 145 Rank Order Stability in Adulthood 148 Mean Level Stability in Adulthood 150 Personality Change 153

Changes in Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood 153

Flexibility and Impulsivity 154

Autonomy, Dominance, Leadership, and Ambition 154

Sensation Seeking 154

Femininity 155

Competence 157

Independence and Traditional Roles 157

Personality Changes across Cohorts: Women's Assertiveness in Response to Changes in Social Status and Roles 159

Personality Coherence over Time: The Prediction of Socially Relevant Outcomes 160 Marital Stability, Marital Satisfaction, and Divorce 161 Alcoholism and Emotional Disturbance 162 Education, Academic Achievement, and Dropping Out 162 Health and Longevity 163 Prediction of Personality Change 164

Summary and Evaluation 166 Key Terms 167


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