Because the KFA is a difficult measure to obtain, researchers have developed questionnaire measures to assess people's standing on the reducing-augmenting dimension. One example is the questionnaire developed by Vando (1974) and modified by Clapper (1992), called the Revised Reducer Augmenter Scale (RRAS). This measure is based on the notion that, if reducers dampen down stimulation, then they have a relatively high need for stimulation, compared with augmenters. Items on Clapper's RRAS questionnaire present test takers with a choice between a relatively stimulating and a nonstimulating experience. The test taker indicates his or her preference for either the stimulating or the non-stimulating experience. Subjects who prefer many of the stimulating choices are assumed to be reducers. Examples of these items follow. For each pair of activities or events, circle a number that best indicates your preference:

Hard-rock music Action movies Contact sports A drum solo Too much exercise

2 3 4 5 6 Soft pop music

2 3 4 5 6 Comedy movies

2 3 4 5 6 Noncontact sports

2 3 4 5 6 Too little exercise

Many researchers see a strong similarity between the augmenting-reducing construct and other personality constructs related to individual dif ferences in how people respond to stimulation, such as those covered in Chapter 6 (e.g., sensation seeking), as well as Eysenck' s theory of extraversion, covered in Chapters 3 and 6. For our purposes here, the reducer -augmenter research illustrates how personality psychologists have studied individual dif ferences in perception, the most basic form of cognition. Let's turn now to a consideration of how people dif fer from one another in a higher level of cognition—interpretation.

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