Education Academic Achievement and Dropping

Impulsivity also appears to play a key role in education and academic achievement. Kipnis (1971) had a group of individuals self-report on their levels of impulsivity . He also obtained their SA T scores, which are widely regarded as measures of academic achievement and potential. Among those with low SA T scores, there was no link between impulsivity and subsequent grade-point average. Among those with high SAT scores, however, the impulsive individuals had consistently lower GP As than did their less impulsive peers. Furthermore, the impulsive individuals were more likely to flunk out of college than were those who were less impulsive. Another researcher found a similar link, showing a correlation of - .47 between peer ratings of impulsivity before entry into college and GP A subsequently (Smith, 1967). Impulsivity

(or lack of self-control) continues to af fect performance in the workplace. One longitudinal study looked at personality dispositions at age 18 and work-related outcomes at age 26 (Roberts, Caspi, & Mof fitt, 2003). They found that those who were high on Self-Control at age 18 had higher occupational attainment, greater involvement with their work, and superior financial security at age 26. Conversel , the impulsive 18-year-olds were less likely to progress in their work, showed less psychological involvement, and experienced lower financial securit .

The personality trait of conscientiousness turns out to be the single best predictor of successful achievement in school and work. High conscientiousness at age three predicts successful academic performance nine years later (Abe, 2005). Observer-based assessment of children' s conscientiousness at ages 4 to 6 predict school grades nine years later (Asendorpf & Van Aken, 2003). Conscientiousness of children assessed between the ages of 8 and 12 predict academic attainment two decades later (Shiner , Masten, & Roberts, 2003). Although other personality traits also predict successful academic performance, such as emotional stability (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2003), and agreeableness and openness (Hair & Graziano, 2003), conscientiousness is the most powerful longitudinal predictor of success in school and work.

Interestingly, work experiences also have an ef fect on personality change (Roberts et al., 2001). Those who attain high occupational status at age 26 have become happier, more self-confident, less anxious, and less self-defeating since the were 18 years old. Those who attain high work satisfaction also become less anxious and less prone to stress in their transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Finally, what about people who attain financial success in the workplace? These individuals not only become less alienated and better able to handle stress, but they also increase their levels of social closeness—they like people more, turn to others for comfort, and like being around people. In sum, just as personality at age 18 predicts work outcomes at age 26 (e.g., self-control predicts income), work outcomes predict personality change over time. We see again that impulsivity is a critical personality factor, which is linked in meaningful ways with later life outcomes.

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Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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