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effect size An effect size in meta-analysis indicates how large a particular difference is, or how strong a particular correlation is, as averaged over several experiments or studies. 526 effective polygyny Because female mammals bear the physical burden of gestation and lactation, there is a considerable sex difference in minimum obligatory parental investment. This difference leads to differences in the variances in reproduction between the sexes: most females will have some offspring, while a few males will sire many offspring, and some will have none at all. This is known as effective polygyny. 261

egalitarianism Refers to how much a particular group displays equal treatment of all individuals within that group. 557

ego The ego is the part of the mind that constrains the id to reality. According to Freud, it develops within the first two or three years of life. The ego operates according to the reality principle. The ego understands that the urges of the id are often in conflic with social and physical reality, and that direct expression of id impulses must therefore be redirected or postponed. 296 ego psychology Post-Freudian psychoanalysts felt that the ego deserved more attention and that it performed many constructive functions. Erikson emphasized the ego as a powerful and independent part of personality, involved in mastering the environment, achieving one's goals, and hence in establishing one's identity. The approach to psychoanalysis started by Erikson was called Ego Psychology. 332 electra complex Within the psychoanalytic theory of personality development, the electra complex is the female counterpart to the oedipal complex, which both refer to the phallic stage of development. 308 electrode A sensor usually placed on the surface of the skin and linked to a physiological recording machine (often called a polygraph) to measure physiological variables. 210 electrodermal activity Also known as galvanic skin response or skin conductance, it refers to the fact that electricity will flow across the skin wit less resistance if that skin is made damp with sweat. Sweating on the palms of the hands is activated by the sympathetic nervous system, and so electrodermal activity is a way to directly measure changes in the sympathetic nervous system. 210 electroencephalograph (EEG) The brain spontaneously produces small amounts of electricity, which can be measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. This measure is called the electroencephalogram (EEG). EEGs can provide useful information about patterns of activation in different regions of the brain that may be associated with different types of information processing tasks. 236 emotion Emotions can be define by their three components: (1) emotions have distinct subjective feelings or affects associated with them; (2) emotions are accompanied by bodily changes, mostly in the nervous system, and these produce associated changes in breathing, heart rate, muscle tension, blood chemistry, and facial and bodily expressions; (3) emotions are accompanied by distinct action tendencies or increases in the probabilities of certain behaviors. 424

emotional inhibition Emotional inhibition refers to the suppression of emotional expressions, and often is thought of as a trait, e.g., some people chronically suppress their emotions. 607

emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence is an adaptive form of intelligence consisting of the ability to: 1. know one's own emotions; 2. regulate those emotions; 3. motivate oneself; 4. know how others are feeling; and 5. influence how other are feeling. Goleman posited that emotional intelligence is more strongly predictive of professional status, marital quality, and salary than traditional measures of intelligence and aptitude. 381, 417 Emotional Stability Emotional Stability is the fourth of the personality traits in the Five-Factor Model, a model which has proven to be replicable in studies using English language trait words as items. Some of the key adjective markers for Emotional Stability are "calm," "composed," "not hypochondriacal," "poised." 87 emotional states Emotional states are transitory and depend more on the situation or circumstances a person is in than on the specific person. Emotion as states have a specific cause, and tha cause is typically outside of the person (something happens in the environment). 425 emotional traits Emotional traits are stable personality traits that are primarily characterized by specific emotions. Fo example, the trait of neuroticism is primarily characterized by the emotions of anxiety and worry. 425

empathy In Rogers's client-centered therapy, empathy is understanding the person from his or her point of view. Instead of interpreting the meaning behind what the client says (e.g., "you have a harsh superego that is punishing you for the actions of your id."), the client-centered therapist simply listens to what the client says and reflects i back. 381

environment Environments can be physical, social, and intrapsychic (within the mind). Which aspect of the environment is important at any moment in time is frequently determined by the personality of the person in that environment. 10 environmentalist view Environmentalists believe that personality is determined by socialization practices, such as parenting style and other agents of society. 199 environmentality The percentage of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be attributed to environmental (nongenetic) differences is called environmentality. Generally speaking, the larger the heritability, the smaller the environmentality. And vice versa, the smaller the heritability, the larger the environmentality. 178 episodic acute stress Episodic acute stress refers to repeated episodes of acute stress, such as having to work at more than one job every day, having to spend time with a difficult in-la , or needing to meet a recurring monthly deadline. 598

equal environments assumption

The equal environments assumption is that the environments experienced by identical twins are no more similar to each other than are the environments experienced by fraternal twins. If they are more similar, then the greater similarity of the identical twins could plausibly be due to the fact that they experience more similar environments rather than the fact that they have more genes in common. 183 Erikson's eight stages of development According to Erikson, there are eight stages of development: trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair. 333

esteem needs At the fourth level Maslow's motivation hierarchy are esteem needs. There are two types of esteem: esteem from others and self-esteem, the latter often depending on the former. People want to be seen by others as competent, as strong, and as able to achieve. They want to be respected by others for their achievements or abilities. People also want to feel good about themselves. Much of the activity of adult daily life is geared toward achieving recognition and esteem from others and bolstering one's own self-confidence 373 eugenics Eugenics is the notion that the future of the human race can be influenced by fostering th reproduction of persons with certain traits, and discouraging reproduction among persons without those traits or who have undesirable traits. 175 evocation Evocation is a form of person-situation interaction discussed by Buss. It is based on the idea that certain personality traits may evoke consistent responses from the environment, particularly the social environment. 106, 506 evoked culture Evoked culture refers to a way of considering culture that concentrates on phenomena that are triggered in different ways by different environmental conditions. 556 evolutionary by-product Incidental effects evolved changes that are not properly considered adaptations. For example, our noses hold up glasses, but that is not what the nose evolved for. 248

evolutionary noise Random variations that are neutral with respect to selection. 248 evolutionary-predicted sex differences Evolutionary psychology predicts that males and females will be the same or similar in all those domains where the sexes have faced the same or similar adaptive problems (for example, both sexes have sweat glands because both sexes have faced the adaptive problem of thermal regulation) and different when men and women have faced substantially different adaptive problems (for example, in the physical realm, women have faced the problem of childbirth and have therefore, evolved adaptations that are lacking in men, such as mechanisms for producing labor contractions through the release of oxytocin into the bloodstream). 260 exhaustion stage The exhaustion stage is the third stage in Seyle's general adaptation syndrome (GAS). Selye felt that this was the stage where we are most susceptible to illness and disease, as our physiological resources are depleted. 595

expectancy confirmatio Expectancy confirmation is a phenomenon whereb people's beliefs about the personality characteristics of others cause them to evoke in others actions that are consistent with the initial beliefs. The phenomenon of expectancy confirmation has als been called self-fulfilling prophesy an behavioral confirmation 511 experience sampling In experience sampling, people answer some questions, for example about their mood or physical symptoms, every day for several weeks or longer. People are usually contacted electronically ("beeped") one or more times a day at random intervals to complete the measures. Although experience sampling uses self-report as the data source, it differs from more traditional self-report methods in being able to detect patterns of behavior over time. 29 experimental methods Experimental methods are typically used to determine causality—to find out whether on variable influences another variable Experiments involve the manipulation of one variable (the independent variable) and random assignment of subjects to conditions defined by th independent variable. 44 explanatory style Whenever someone offers a cause for some event, that cause can be analyzed in terms of the three categories of attributions: internal-external, stable-unstable, and global-specific. The tendency a person has to employ certain combinations of attributions in explaining events (e.g., internal, stable, and global causes) is called their explanatory style. 409 expressiveness Expressiveness refers to the ease with which one can express emotions, such as crying, showing empathy for the troubles of others, and showing nurturance to those in need. 541

external locus of control

Generalized expectancies that events are outside of one's control is called an external locus of control. 406

extreme responding Extreme responding is a response set that refers to the tendency to give endpoint responses, such as "strongly agree" or "strongly disagree" and avoid the middle part of response scales, such as "slightly agree," "slightly disagree," or "am indifferent." 111 eye-blink startle method People typically blink their eyes when they are startled by a loud noise. Moreover, a person who is in an anxious or fearful state when startled will blink faster and harder than a person in a normal emotional state. This means that eye-blink speed when startled may be an objective physiological measure of how anxious or fearful a person is feeling. The eye-blink startle method may allow researchers to measure how anxious persons are without actually having to ask them. 634 f face validity Face validity refers to whether a test, on the surface, appears to measure what it is supposed to measure. Face validity is probably the least important aspect of validity. In fact, some psychologists might argue that face validity refers to the assumption of validity, not to evidence for real validity. 42 factor analysis Factor analysis is a commonly used statistical procedure for identifying underlying structure in personality ratings or items. Factor analysis essentially identifies group of items that covary (i.e., go together or correlate) with each other, but tend not to covary with other groups of items. This provides a means for determining which personality variables share some common underlying property or belong together within the same group. 69

factor loadings Factor loadings are indexes of the how much of the variation in an item is "explained" by the factor. Factor loadings indicate the degree to which the item correlates with or "loads on" the underlying factor. 69

faking Faking involves the motivated distortion of answers on a questionnaire. Some people may be motivated to "fake good" in order to appear to be better off or better adjusted than they really are. Others may be motivated to "fake bad" in order to appear to be worse off or more maladjusted than they really are. 110 false consensus effect The false consensus effect refers to the tendency many people have to assume that others are similar to them, i.e., extraverts think that many other people are as extraverted as they are. To think that many other people share your own traits, preferences, or motivations is to display the false consensus effect. 305

false memories False memories are memories that have been "implanted" by well-meaning therapists or others interrogating a subject about some event. 324

false negative and false positive

There are two ways for psychologists to make a mistake when making decisions about persons based on personality tests, e.g., when deciding whether or not to hire a person, to parole a person, or that the person was lying. For example, when trying to decide whether a person's answers are genuine or faked, the psychologist might decide that a person who was faking was actually telling the truth (called a false positive). Or they might conclude that a truthful person was faking. This is called a false negative. 110 family studies Family studies correlate the degree of genetic overlap among family members with the degree of personality similarity. They capitalize on the fact that there are known degrees of genetic overlap between different members of a family in terms of degree of relationship. 181 fear of success Horney coined the phrase "fear of success" to highlight a gender difference in response to competition and achievement situations. Many women, she argued, feel that if they succeed, they will lose their friends. Consequently, many women, she thought, harbor an unconscious fear of success. She held that men, on the other hand, feel that they will actually gain friends by being successful, and hence are not at all afraid to strive and pursue achievement. 339 femininity A psychological dimension containing traits such as nurturance, empathy, and expression of emotions (e.g., crying when sad). 538

field-dependent and fiel independent In Witkin's rod and frame test, if a participant adjusts the rod so that it is leaning in the direction of the tilted frame, then that person is said to be dependent of the visual field or field dependent. If a participan disregards the external cues and instead uses information from their bodies in adjusting the rod to upright, they are said to be independent of the field, o field independent; they appear to rel on their own sensations, not the perception of the field, to make th judgment. This individual difference may have implications in situations where people must extract information from complex sensory fields, such as i multimedia education. 396 five-facto model The Five-Factor Model of personality is a trait taxonomy that has its roots in the lexical hypothesis. The first psychologist to us the terms "Five-Factor Model" and "Big Five" was Warren Norman, based on his replications of the factor structure suggesting the following fiv traits: Surgency (or extraversion), Neuroticism (or emotional instability), Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience (or intellect). The Five Factor Model has been criticized by some for not being comprehensive and for failing to provide a theoretical understanding of the underlying psychological processes that generate the five traits Nonetheless, the Five Factor Model remains heavily endorsed by many personality psychologists, and continues to be used in a variety of research studies and applied settings. 82 fixatio According to Erikson, if a developmental crisis is not successfully and adaptively resolved, then personality development could become arrested and the person would continue to have a fixation on that crisis i development. According to Freud, if a child fails to fully resolve a conflict at particular stage of development, he or she may get stuck in that stage, a phenomenon known as fixation. If child is fixated at a particular stage he or she exhibits a less mature approach to obtaining sexual gratification 306, 334 flo A subjective state that people report when they are completely involved in an activity to the point of forgetting time, fatigue, and everything else but the activity itself. While flo experiences are somewhat rare, they occur under specific conditions; there i a balance between the person's skills and the challenges of the situation, there is a clear goal, and there is immediate feedback on how one is doing. 375

forced choice questionnaire In a forced-choice questionnaire format, test-takers are confronted with pairs of statements and are asked to indicate which statement in the pair is more true of them. Each statement in the pair is selected to be similar to each other in social desirability, forcing participants to choose between statements that are equivalently socially desirable (or undesirable), and differ in content. 113

free association In free association, patients relax, let their minds wander, and say whatever comes into their minds. Patients often say things that surprise or embarrass them. By relaxing the censor that screens everyday thoughts, free association allows potentially important material into conscious awareness. 310 free running Refers to a condition in studies of circadian rhythms, where participants are deprived from knowing what time it is, e.g., meals are served when the participant asks for them, not at pre-scheduled times. When a person is free-running in time, there are no time cues to influence their behavior o biology. 232

frequency-dependent selection In some contexts, two or more heritable variants can evolve within a population. The most obvious example is biological sex itself. Within sexually reproducing species, the two sexes exist in roughly equal numbers because of frequency-dependent selection. If one sex becomes rare relative to the other, evolution will produce an increase in the numbers of the rarer sex. Frequency-dependent selection, in this example, causes the frequency of men and women to remain roughly equal. Different personality extremes (e.g., introversion and extraversion) may be the result of frequency dependent selection. 272

frontal brain asymmetry Asymmetry in the amount of activity in the left and right part of the frontal hemispheres of the brain. Studies using EEG measures have linked more relative left brain activity with pleasant emotions and more relative right brain activity with negative emotions. 238 frustration Frustration is the high-arousal unpleasant subjective feeling that comes when a person is blocked from attaining an important goal. For example, a thirsty person who just lost his last bit of money in a malfunctioning soda machine would most likely feel frustration. 613 fully functioning person According to Rogers, a fully functioning person is on his or her way toward self-actualization. Fully functioning persons may not actually be self-actualized yet, but they are not blocked or sidetracked in moving toward this goal. Such persons are open to new experiences and are not afraid of new ideas. They embrace life to its fullest. Fully functioning individuals are also centered in the present. They do not dwell on the past or their regrets. Fully functioning individuals also trust themselves, their feelings, and their own judgments. 377

functional analysis In his book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin proposed a functional analysis of emotions and emotional expressions focusing on the "why" of emotions and expressions. Darwin concluded that emotional expressions communicate information from one animal to another about what is likely to happen. For instance, a dog baring its teeth, growling, and bristling the fur on its back is communicating to others that he is likely to attack. If others recognize the dog's communication, they may choose to back away to safety. 424 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to identify specific areas of brain activit . As parts of the brain are stimulated, oxygenated blood rushes to the activated area, resulting in increased iron concentrations in the blood. The fMRI detects these elevated concentrations of iron and prints out colorful images indicating which part of the brain is used to perform certain tasks. 36, 212

functionality Functionality is the notion that our psychological mechanisms are designed to accomplish particular adaptive goals. 250 fundamental attribution error When bad events happen to others, people have a tendency to attribute blame to some characteristic of the person, whereas when bad events happen to onself, people have the tendency to blame the situation. 300

gender Gender refers to social interpretations of what it means to be a man or a woman. 524 gender differences The distinction between gender and sex can be traced back to Horney. Horney stressed the point that, while biology determines sex, cultural norms determine what is acceptable for typical males and females in that culture. Today we use the terms masculine and feminine to refer to traits or roles typically associated with being male or female in a particular culture, and we refer to differences in such culturally ascribed roles and traits as gender differences. Differences that are ascribed to being a man or a woman per se are, however, called sex differences. 339 gender identity disorder (GID) According to the DSM-IV, a diagnosis of gender identity disorder requires that two aspects be present simultaneously:

(1) cross-gender indentification that i strong and persists over time, and

(2) persistent psychological discomfort with one's biological sex. A recent study of twins has concluded that there is a strong heritable component in GID. 191

gender schemata Gender schemas are cognitive orientations that lead individuals to process social information on the basis of sex-linked associations (Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1993). 541

gender stereotypes Gender stereotypes are the beliefs that we hold about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ, which are not necessarily based on reality. Gender stereotypes can have important real-life consequences for men and women. These consequences can damage people where it most counts—in their health, their jobs, their odds of advancement, and their social reputations. 524

general adaptation syndrome

Seyle's general adaptation syndrome (GAS) has three stages: When a stressor first appears, people experienc the alarm stage. If the stressor continues, then stage of resistance begins. If the stressor remains constant, the person eventually enters the third stage, the stage of exhaustion. 594 general intelligence Early on in the study of intelligence, many psychologists thought of intelligence in trait-like terms, as a property of the individual. Individuals were thought to differ from each other in how much intelligence they possessed. Moreover, intelligence was thought of as a single broad factor, often called "g" for general intelligence. This stands in contrast to those views of intelligence as consisting of many discrete factors, such as social intelligence, emotional intelligence, and academic intelligence. 416 generalizability Generalizability refers to the degree to which a measure retains its validity across different contexts, situations, and conditions. Greater generalizability is not always better; rather, what is important is to identify empirically the contexts in which the particular measure is and is not applicable. 43 generalized expectancies Rotter claimed that a person's expectations for reinforcement hold across a variety of situations, what he called generalized expectancies (Rotter, 1971, 1990). When people encounter a new situation, they base their expectancies about what will happen on their generalized expectancies about whether they have the abilities to influenc events. 406

genes Genes are packets of DNA that are inherited by children from their parents in distinct chunks. They are the smallest discrete unit that is inherited by offspring intact, without being broken up. 246

genetic junk The 98% of the DNA in human chromosomes that are not protein-coding genes used to be called "genetic junk" because scientists believed that these parts were functionless residue. Recent studies have shown that these portions of DNA may affect everything from a person's physical size to personality, thus adding to the complexity of the human genome. 174

genital stage The genital stage is the final stage in Freud s psychosexual stage theory of development. This stage begins around age 12 and lasts through one's adult life. Here the libido is focused on the genitals, but not in the manner of self-manipulation associated with the phallic stage. People reach the genital stage with full psychic energy if they have resolved the conflicts at th prior stages. 309 genome Genome refers to the complete set of genes an organism possesses. The human genome contains somewhere between 30,000 and 80,000 genes. 174

genotype-environment correlation

Genotype-environment correlation refers to the differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments. 196 genotype-environment interaction

Genotype-environment interaction refers to the differential response of individuals with different genotypes to the same environments. 195 genotypic variance Genetic variance that is responsible for individual differences in the phenotypic expression of specific traits 178 global self-esteem Although researchers have explored many facets of self-esteem, by far the most frequently measured component is global self-esteem, defined as "the leve of global regard that one has for the self as a person" (Harter, 1993, p. 88). Global self-esteem can range from highly positive to highly negative, and reflects an overall evaluation of the sel at the broadest level (Kling et al., 1999). Global self-esteem is linked with many aspects of functioning and is commonly thought to be central to mental health. 534 good theory A good theory is one that serves as a useful guide for researchers, organizes known facts, and makes predictions about future observations. 20

Griggs v. Duke Power Prior to 1964, Duke Power Company had used discriminatory practices in hiring and work assignment, including barring blacks from certain jobs. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Duke Power instituted various requirements for such jobs, including passing certain aptitude tests. The effect was to perpetuate discrimination. In 1971 the Supreme Court ruled that the seemingly neutral testing practices used by Duke Power were unacceptable because they operated to maintain discrimination. This was the first lega case where the Supreme Court ruled that any selection procedure could not produce disparate impact for a group protected by the Act (e.g., racial groups, women). 119 group differences People in one group may have certain personality features in common, and these common features make them different from other groups. Examples of groups studied by personality psychologists include different cultures, different age groups, different political parties, and people from different socioeconomic backgrounds. The most common group difference studied by personality psychologists concerns differences between men and women. For example, in the realm of physical development, females go through puberty on average two years earlier than males. At the other end of life, men in the U.S. tend to die seven years earlier than women. These are sex differences in development. 12

h happiness Researchers conceive of happiness in two complementary ways: in terms of a judgment that life is satisfying, as well as in terms of the predominance of positive compared to negative emotions in one's life (Diener, 2000). It turns out, however, that people's emotional lives and their judgments of how satisfied they ar with their lives are highly correlated. People who have a lot of pleasant emotions relative to unpleasant emotions in their lives tend also to judge their lives as satisfying, and vice versa. 430

harm avoidance In Cloninger's tridimensional personality model, the personality trait of harm avoidance is associated with low levels of serotonin. People low in serotonin are sensitive to unpleasant stimuli or to stimuli or events that have been associated with punishment or pain. Consequently, people low in serotonin seem to expect harmful and unpleasant events will happen to them, and so they are constantly vigilant for signs of such threatening events. 229 health behavior model In the health behavior model, personality does not directly influence the relation betwee stress and illness. Instead, personality affects health indirectly, through health-promoting or health-degrading behaviors. This model suggests that personality influences the degree t which a person engages in various health-promoting or health-demoting behaviors. 591

health psychology Researchers in the area of health psychology study relations between the mind and the body, and how these two components respond to challenges from the environment (e.g., stressful events, germs) to produce illness or health. 508

heritability Heritability is a statistic that refers to the proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be explained or "accounted for" by genetic variance (Plomin, DeFries, & McClearn, 1990). It describes the degree to which genetic differences between individuals cause differences in some observed property, such as height, extraversion, or sensation seeking. The formal definition o heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variance that is attributable to genotypic variance. 177 heuristic value Heuristic value is an evaluative scientific standard fo assessing personality theories. Theories that steer scientists to important new discoveries about personality that were not known before are superior to those that fail to provide this guidance. 21 hierarchy of needs Murray believed that each person has a unique combination of needs. An individual's various needs can be thought of as existing at a different level of strength. A person might have a high need for dominance, an average need for intimacy, and a low need for achievement. High levels of some needs interact with the amounts of various other needs within each person. 354 high-variance conditions One key variable triggering communal food sharing is the degree of variability in food resources. Specificall , under high-variance conditions, there are substantial benefits to sharing 556

historical era One type of intracultural variation pertains to the effects of historical era on personality. (People who grew up during the great economic depression of the 1930s, for example, might be more anxious about job security or adopting a more conservative spending style.) Disentangling the effects of historical era on personality is an extremely difficult endeavor since most currentl used personality measures were not in use in earlier eras. 571 histrionic personality disorder The hallmark of the histrionic personality is excessive attention-seeking and emotionality. Often such persons are overly dramatic and draw attention to themselves, preferring to be the center of attention or the life of the party. They may appear charming or even flirtatious. Often they can b inappropriately seductive or provocative. 636 Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) A questionnaire measure of personality based on the Big Five model but modified to emphasiz the assessment of traits important in the business world, including the motive get along with others and the motive to get ahead of others. 130 holistic A way of processing information that involves attention to relationships, contexts, and links between the focal objects and the fiel as a whole. 567 hormonal theories Hormonal theories of sex differences argue that men and women differ not because of the external social environment, but rather because the sexes have different amounts of specific hormones. It i these physiological differences, not differential social treatment, which causes boys and girls to diverge over development. 546 hostile attributional bias A hostile attributional bias is the tendency to infer hostile intent on the part of others in the face of uncertain or unclear behavior from others. Essentially, people who are aggressive expect that others will be hostile toward them. 506 hostile forces of nature Hostile forces of nature are what Darwin called any event that impedes survival. Hostile forces of nature include food shortages, diseases, parasites, predators, and extremes of weather. 245

r hostility Hostility is a tendency to respond to everyday frustrations with anger and aggression, to become irritable easily, to feel frequent resentment, and to act in a rude, critical, antagonistic, and uncooperative manner in everyday interactions (Dembrowski & Costa, 1987). Hostility is a subtrait in the Type A behavior pattern. 613

human nature Human nature is defined as the traits and mechanisms o personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by everyone or nearly everyone. 11 humanistic tradition Humanistic psychologists emphasize the role of choice in human life, and the influenc of responsibility on creating a meaningful and satisfying life. The meaning of any person's life, according to the humanistic approach, is found in the choices that person makes and the responsibility they take for those choices. The humanistic tradition also emphasizes the human need for growth and realizing one's full potential. In the humanistic tradition it is assumed that, if left to their own devices, humans will grow and develop in positive and satisfying directions. 370

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