Contents

About the Authors xv I Pr eface xvii introduction

Chapter 1

Introduction to Personality Psychology 2

Personality Defined 4

Personality Is the Set of Psychological Traits . . . 6 And Mechanisms . . . 7 Within the Individual . . . 8

That Are Organized and Relatively Enduring . . . 8 And That Influence . . 9 His or Her Interactions with . . . 9 And Adaptations to . . . 10 The Environment 10 Three Levels of Personality Analysis 11

Human Nature 11 Individual and Group Differences 12 Individual Uniqueness 13 A Fissure in the Field 13

Grand Theories of Personality 13 Contemporary Research in Personality 14 Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature 15 Dispositional Domain 16 Biological Domain 16 Intrapsychic Domain 17 Cognitive-Experiential Domain 17 Social and Cultural Domain 18 Adjustment Domain 19 The Role of Personality Theory 20 Standards for Evaluating Personality Theories 21 Is There a Grand Ultimate and True Theory of Personality? 22

Key Terms 23

Chapter 2

Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design

Sources of Personality Data 26

Self-Report Data (S-Data) 26 Observer-Report Data (O-Data) 30 Test-Data (T-Data) 32 Life-Outcome Data (L-Data) 38 Issues in Personality Assessment 39

Evaluation of Personality Measures 41 Reliability 41 Validity 42 Generalizability 43

Research Designs in Personality 44 Experimental Methods 44 Correlational Studies 47 Case Studies 51

When to Use Experimental, Correlational, and Case Study Designs 53

Summary and Evaluation 54 Key Terms 55

PART I

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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