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cardiac reactivity The increase in blood pressure and heart rate during times of stress. Evidence suggests that chronic cardiac reactivity contributes to coronary artery disease. Also known as Cardiac Reactivity. 212 case study method In case studies, researchers examine the life of one person in particular depth. Case studies can give researchers insights into personality that can then be used to formulate a more general theory that is tested in a larger population. They can also provide in-depth knowledge of a particularly outstanding individual. Case studies can also be useful in studying rare phenomena, such as a person with a photographic memory or a person with multiple personalities— cases for which large samples would be difficult or impossible to obtain 51 castration anxiety Freud argued that little boys come to believe that their fathers might make a preemptive Oedipal strike and take away what is at the root of the Oedipal conflict: th boy's penis. This fear of losing his penis is called castration anxiety; it drives the little boy into giving up his sexual desire for his mother. 308 categorical approach Emotion researchers who suggest emotions are best thought of as a small number of primary and distinct emotions (anger, joy, anxiety, sadness) are said to take the categorical approach. Emotion researchers who take the categorical approach have tried to reduce the complexity of emotions by searching for the primary emotions that underlie the great variety of emotion terms. An example of a categorical approach to emotion is that of Paul Ekman, who applies criteria of distinct and universal facial expressions, and whose list of primary emotions contains disgust, sadness, joy, surprise, anger, and fear. 425

categorical view In psychiatry and clinical psychology today, the categorical view is the dominant approach to viewing personality disorders in distinct categories. There is a qualitative distinction made in which people who have a disorder are in one category, while people who do not have the disorder are in another category. 626

causal attribution Causal attribution refers to a person's explanation of the cause of some event. 409 chronic stress Chronic stress refers to stress that does not end, like an abusive relationship that grinds the individual down until his or her resistance is eroded. Chronic stress can result in serious systemic diseases such as diabetes, decreased immune system functioning, or cardiovascular disease. 599

circadian rhythm Many biological processes fluctuate around a approximate 24- to 25-hour cycle. These are called circadian rhythms (circa 5 around; dia 5 day). Circadian rhythms in temporal isolation studies have been found to be as short as 16 hours in one person, and as long as 50 hours in another person (Wehr & Goodwin, 1981). 231 client-centered therapy In Rogers's client-centered therapy, clients are never given interpretations of their problem. Nor are clients given any direction about what course of action to take to solve their problem. The therapist makes no attempts to change the client directly. Instead, the therapist tries to create an atmosphere in which the client may change him or herself. 381

cognition Cognition is a general term referring to awareness and thinking as well as to specific mental acts such a perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, and anticipating. 393 cognitive approaches Differences in how people think form the focus of cognitive approaches to personality. Psychologists working in this approach focus on the components of cognition, such as how people perceive, interpret, remember, and plan, in their efforts to understand how and why people are different from each other. 392 cognitive/experiential domain This domain focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others. This domain includes our feelings of self, identity, self-esteem, our goals and plans, and our emotions. 17 cognitive schema A schema is a way of processing incoming information and of organizing and interpreting the facts of daily life. The cognitive schema involved in depression, according to Beck, distorts the incoming information in a negative way that makes the person depressed. 447

cognitive social learning approach A

number of modern personality theories have expanded on the notion that personality is expressed in goals and in how people think about themselves relative to their goals. Collectively these theories form an approach that emphasizes the cognitive and social processes whereby people learn to value and strive for certain goals over others. 412

cognitive triad According to Beck, there are three important areas of life that are most influenced by th depressive cognitive schema. This cognitive triad refers to information about the self, about the world, and about the future. 447 cognitive unconscious In the cognitive view of the unconscious, the content of the unconscious mind is assumed to operate just like thoughts in consciousness. Thoughts are unconscious because they are not in conscious awareness, not because they have been repressed or because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes. 330

cohort effects Cohort effects refers to personality change over time as a reflection of the social times in whic an individual or group of individuals live. For example, American women's trait scores on assertiveness have risen and fallen depending on the social and historical cohort in which they have lived. Jean Twenge has posited that individuals internalize social change and absorb the cultural messages they receive from their culture, all of which, in turn, can affect their personalities. 159 collective unconscious According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious is a prehistoric, inherited unconscious content that is passed on from previous generations and contains the collected primordial images common across the human species. 291 collectivism In collectivist societies, people are interdependent with others in the group, giving priority to the goals of their in-groups. People in collectivist societies tend to be especially concerned about social relationships. They focus more on context, features external to their own wishes and goals. In collectivist societies, people tend to be more self-effacing, less likely to boast or brag about their own personal accomplishments. 565 combinations of Big Five variables "Traits" are often examined in combinations. For example, two people high in extraversion would be very different if one was an extraverted neurotic and the other was extraverted but emotionally stable. 88 comorbidity Comorbidity is define as the presence of two or more disorders of any type in one person. 227, 645

compatibility and integration across domains and levels In science, a theory that takes into account the principles and laws of other scientifi domains that may affect the study's main subject. For example, a theory of biology that violated known principles of chemistry would be judged fatally flawed 22

competitive achievement motivation

Also referred to as the Need for Achievement, it is a subtrait in the Type A behavior pattern. The Type A person likes to work hard and achieve goals. They like recognition and overcoming obstacles and feel they are at their best when competing with others. 613

complementary needs theory The complementary needs theory of attraction postulates that people are attracted to people whose personality dispositions differ from theirs. In other words, "opposites attract." This is especially true in biological sex choices, i.e., women tend to be attracted to men and vice versa. Other than biological sex choices, the complementary needs theory of attraction has not received any empirical support. 499 comprehensiveness

Comprehensiveness is one of the fiv scientific standards used in evaluatin personality theories. Theories that explain more empirical data within a domain are generally superior to those that explain fewer findings 21

conditional positive regard According to Rogers, people behave in specific ways to earn the love an respect and positive regard of parents and other significant people in thei lives. Positive regard, when it must be earned by meeting certain conditions, is called conditional positive regard. 378 conditions of worth According to Rogers, the requirements set forth by parents or significant others for earnin their positive regard are called conditions of worth. Children may become preoccupied with living up to these conditions of worth, rather than discovering what makes them happy. 378

confirmatory biase A confirmator bias is the tendency to look only for evidence that confirms a previou hunch, and to not look for evidence that might disconfirm a belief 327 Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is the third of the personality traits in the Five-Factor Model, a model which has proven to be replicable in studies using English language trait words as items. Some of the key adjective markers for Conscientiousness are "responsible," "scrupulous," "persevering," "fussy/tidy." 86

conscious The conscious mind is that part of the mind that contains all the thoughts, feelings, and images that a person is presently aware of. Whatever a person is currently thinking about is in his or her conscious mind. 289 conscious goals A person's awareness of what they desire and believe is valuable and worth pursuing. 395

consistency Trait theories assume there is some degree of consistency in personality over time. If someone is highly extraverted during one period of observation, trait psychologists tend to assume that she will be extraverted tomorrow, next week, a year from now, or even decades from now. 98 construct A construct is a concept or provable hypothesis that summarizes a set of observations and conveys the meaning of those observations, e.g., gravity. 403

construct validity Construct validity generally refers to whether a test measures what it claims to measure. It is often assessed by determining whether a test correlates with what it is supposed to correlate with, and does not correlate with what it is not supposed to correlate with. Construct validity is the broadest type of validity, subsuming face, predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity. 43 constructive memory It is accepted as fact that humans have a constructive memory; that is, memory contributes to or influences in various ways (adds to subtracts from, etc.) what is recalled. Recalled memories are rarely distortion-free, mirror images of the facts. 326

content The content of emotional life refers to the characteristic or typical emotions a person is likely to experience over time. Someone whose emotional life contains a lot of pleasant emotions is someone who might be characterized as happy, cheerful, and enthusiastic. Thus the notion of content leads us to consider the kinds of emotions that people are likely to experience over time and across situations in their lives. 429 continuity Identity has an element of continuity because many of its aspects, such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational level, and occupation, are constant. Having an identity means that others can count on you to be reliable in who you are and how you act. 482

contrast Identity contrast means that a person's social identity differentiates r that person from other people. An identity is what makes a person unique in the eyes of others. The combination of characteristics that make up a person's identity differentiates him or her from everyone else. 483 convergent validity Convergent validity refers to whether a test correlates with other measures that it should correlate with. Convergent validity is high to the degree that alternative measures of the same construct correlate or converge with the target measure. 42 core conditions According to Carl Rogers, in client-centered therapy there are three core conditions that must be present in order for progress to occur. The three core conditions are: 1. an atmosphere of genuine acceptance on the part of the therapist; 2. the therapist must express unconditional positive regard for the client; and 3. the client must feel that the therapist understands him or her (empathic understanding). 381 correlation coefficient (its di ection and magnitude) Researchers are interested in the direction (positive or negative) and the magnitude (size) of the correlation coefficient. Correlation around .10 are considered small; those around .30 are considered medium; and those around .50 or greater are considered large (Cohen & Cohen, 1975). 47

correlational method A correlation is a statistical procedure for determining whether there is a relationship between two variables. In correlational research designs, the researcher is attempting to directly identify the relationships between two or more variables, without imposing the sorts of manipulations seen in experimental designs. 47 cortisol Cortisol is a stress hormone that prepares the body to flee or figh Increases in cortisol in the blood indicate that the animal has recently experienced stress. 239 counterbalancing In some experiments, manipulation is within a single group. For example, participants might get a drug and have their memory tested, then later take a sugar pill and have their memory tested again. In this kind of experiment, equivalence is obtained by counterbalancing the order of the conditions, with half the participants getting the drug first an sugar pill second, and the other half getting the sugar pill first and the dru second. 44

creating positive events Creating positive events is defined as creatin a positive time-out from stress. Folkman and Moskowitz note that humor can have the added benefit o generating positive emotional moments even during the darkest periods of stress. 603

criterion validity Criterion validity or predictive validity refers to whether the test predicts criteria external to the test. Scales that successfully predict what they should predict have high criterion validity or predictive validity. 42

cross-cultural universality In the lexical approach, cross-cultural universality states that if a trait is sufficiently important in all cultures s that its members have codified term within their own languages to describe the trait, then the trait must be universally important in human affairs. In contrast, if a trait term exists in only one or a few languages but is entirely missing from most, then it may be of only local relevance. 67 cultural context of intelligence The cultural context of intelligence looks at how the definition of intelligen behavior varies across different cultures. Because of these considerations, intelligence can be viewed as referring to those skills valued in a particular culture. 418 cultural personality psychology

Cultural personality psychology generally has three key goals: (1) to discover the principles underlying the cultural diversity; (2) to discover how human psychology shapes culture; and (3) to discover how cultural understandings in turn shape our psychology (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1997). 555 cultural universals Cultural universals are features of personality that are common to everyone in all cultures. These universals constitute the human nature level of analyzing personality and define the elements o personality we share with all or most other people. 572 cultural variations Within-group similarities and between-group differences can be of any sort—

physical, psychological, behavioral, or attitudinal. These phenomena are often referred to as cultural variations. Two ingredients are necessary to explain cultural variations: (1) a universal underlying mechanism and (2) environmental differences in the degree to which the underlying mechanism is activated. 555 culture Culture is a set of shared standards for many behaviors. It might contain different standards for males and females, such that girls should be ashamed if they engage in promiscuous sex, whereas boys might be proud of such behavior, with it being culturally acceptable for them to even brag about such behavior. 338 culture of honor Nisbett proposed that the economic means of subsistence of a culture affects the degree to which the group develops what he calls "a culture of honor." In cultures of honor, insults are viewed as highly offensive public challenges that must be met with direct confrontation and physical aggression. The theory is that differences in the degree to which honor becomes a central part of the culture rests ultimately with economics, and specifically the manner in whic food is obtained. 558

D4DR gene The D4DR gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 11. This gene codes for a protein called a dopamine receptor. The function of this dopamine receptor is to respond to the presence of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter. When the dopamine receptor encounters dopamine from other neurons in the brain, it discharges an electrical signal, activating other neurons. 198, 230 daily hassles The major sources of stress in most people's lives are what are termed daily hassles. While only minor, daily hassles can be chronic and repetitive, such as having too much to do all the time, having to fight th crowds while shopping, or having to worry over money. Such daily hassles can be chronically irritating though they do not initiate the same general adaptation syndrome evoked by some major life events. 597 deductive and inductive reasoning

The deductive reasoning approach to scientific investigation is the top down theory-driven method of empirical research. The inductive reasoning approach to scientific investigation i the bottom-up, data-driven method of empirical research. 251 defense mechanisms Strategies for coping with anxiety and threats to self-esteem. 298

defensive pessimism Individuals who use a defensive pessimism strategy have usually done well on important tasks but lack self-confidence in thei ability to handle new challenges. A defensive pessimist controls anxiety by preparing for failure ahead of time; they set low expectations for their performance and often focus on worse-case outcomes. This strategy overcomes anticipatory anxiety and transforms it into motivation. 479 deliberation-without-awareness The notion that, when confronted with a decision, if a person can put it out of their conscious mind for a period of time, then their "unconscious mind" will continue to deliberate on it, helping them to arrive at a "sudden" and often correct decision sometime later. 295

denial When the reality of a particular situation is extremely anxiety-provoking a person may resort to the defense mechanism of denial. A person in denial insists that things are not the way they seem. Denial can also be less extreme, as when someone reappraises an anxiety-provoking situation so that it seems less daunting. Denial often shows up in people's daydreams and fantasies. 300 dependent personality disorder The dependent personality seeks out others to an extreme. The hallmark of the dependent personality is an excessive need to be taken care of, to be nurtured, coddled, and told what to do. Dependent persons act in submissive ways so as to encourage others to take care of them or take charge of the situation. Such individuals need lots of encouragement and advice from others, and would much rather turn over responsibility for their decisions to someone else. 648 depression Depression is a psychological disorder whose symptoms include a depressed mood most of the day; diminished interest in activities; change in weight, sleep patterns, and movement; fatigue or loss of energy; feelings of worthlessness; inability to concentrate; and recurrent thoughts of death and suicide. It is estimated that 20 percent of Americans are afflicted with depression at som time in their lives (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). 433 developmental crisis Erikson believed that each stage in personality development represented a conflict, or developmental crisis, that needed to be resolved before the person advanced to the next stage of development. 334 diathesis-stress model of depression The diathesis-stress model suggests that a pre-existing vulnerability, or diathesis, is present among people who become depressed. In addition to this vulnerability, a stressful life event must occur in order to trigger the depression, such as the loss of a loved one or some other major negative life event. The events must occur together—something bad or stressful has to happen to a person who has a particular vulnerability to depression—in order for depression to occur. 446 differences between groups See group differences. 12 differential diagnosis A differential diagnosis is arrived at when, out of two or more possible diagnoses, the clinician searches for evidence in support of one diagnostic category over all the others. 654 differential gene reproduction

According to modern evolutionary biologists, evolution operates by the process of differential gene reproduction. Differential gene reproduction is defined by reproductiv success relative to others. The genes of organisms who reproduce more than others get passed down to future generations at a relatively greater frequency than the genes of those who reproduce less. Since survival is usually critical for reproductive success, characteristics that lead to greater survival get passed along. Since success in mate competition is also critical for reproductive success, qualities that lead to success in samesex competition or to success at being chosen as a mate get passed along. Successful survival and successful mate competition, therefore, are both part of differential gene reproduction. 246

differential psychology Due to its emphasis on the study of differences between people, trait psychology has sometimes been called differential psychology in the interest of distinguishing this sub-field fro other branches of personality psychology (Anastasi, 1976). Differential psychology includes the study of other forms of individual differences in addition to personality traits, such as abilities, aptitudes, and intelligence. 97 dimensional approach The dimensional approach to understanding the complexity of emotion has been based on empirical research rather than theoretical criteria. In this approach, researchers have gathered data by having subjects rate themselves on a wide variety of emotions, then apply statistical techniques (mostly factor analysis) to identify the basic dimensions underlying the ratings. Almost all the studies suggest that subjects categorize emotions using just two primary dimensions: how pleasant or unpleasant the emotion is, and how high or low on arousal the emotion is. 425

dimensional view The dimensional view approaches a personality disorder as a continuum that ranges from normality at one end to severe disability and disturbance at the other end. According to this view, people with and without the disorder differ in degree only. 627

directionality problem One reason why correlations can never prove causality is known as the directionality problem. If A and B are correlated, we do not know if A is the cause of B, or if B is the cause of A, or if some third, unknown variable is causing both B and A. 51

disclosure Disclosure refers to telling someone about some private aspect of ourselves. Many theorists have suggested that keeping things to ourselves may be a source of stress and ultimately may lead to psychological distress and physical disease. 610

discriminant validity Discriminant validity is often evaluated simultaneously with convergent validity. Whereas convergent validity refers to what a measure should correlate with, discriminant validity refers to what a measure should not r correlate with. The idea behind discriminant validity is that part of knowing what a measure actually measures consists of knowing what it does not measure. 42 disorder A disorder is a pattern of behavior or experience that is distressing and painful to the person, leads to some disability or impairment in important life domains (e.g., work, marriage, or relationship difficulties) and is associated with increased risk for further suffering, loss of function, death, or confinement 624 disparate impact Any employment practice that disadvantages people from a protected group. The Supreme Court has not defined the size of th disparity necessary to prove disparate impact. Most courts define disparit as a difference that is sufficientl large that it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. Some courts, however, prefer the 80 percent rule contained in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures. Under this rule, adverse impact is established if the selection rate for any race, sex, or ethnic group is less than four-fifths (or 80 percent) of th rate for the group with the highest selection rate. 121 displacement Displacement is an unconscious defense mechanism that involves avoiding the recognition that one has certain inappropriate urges or unacceptable feelings (e.g., anger, sexual attraction) toward a specifi other. Those feelings then get displaced onto another person or object that is more appropriate or acceptable. 300 dispositional domain The dispositional domain deals centrally with the ways in which individuals differ from one another. As such, the dispositional domain connects with all the other domains. In the dispositional domain, psychologists are primarily interested in the number and nature of fundamental dispositions, taxonomies of traits, measurement issues, and questions of stability over time and consistency over situations. 16 dispositional optimism The expectation that in the future good events will be plentiful and bad events will be rare. 603

distortion A defense mechanism in Roger's theory of personality, distortion refers to modifying the meaning of experiences to make them less threatening to the self-image. 380 dizygotic twins Dizygotic twins, or fraternal twins, are not genetically identical. They come from two eggs that were separately fertilized ("di" means two; so dizygotic means "coming from two fertilized eggs"). Such twins share only 50 percent of their genes with their co-twin, the same amount as ordinary brothers and sisters. Fraternal twins can be of the same sex or of the opposite sex. 182 domain of knowledge A specialty area of science and scholarship, where psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspec of human nature, often with preferred tools of investigation. 15 domain specifi Adaptations are presumed to be domain-specific in th sense that they are "designed" by the evolutionary process to solve a specialized adaptive problem. Domain specificity implies that selection tend to fashion specific mechanisms for eac specific adaptive problem 249 dopamine Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that appears to be associated with pleasure. Dopamine appears to function something like the "reward system" and has even been called the "feeling good" chemical (Hamer, 1997). 229 dream analysis Dream analysis was a technique that Freud taught for uncovering the unconscious material in a dream by interpreting the content of a dream. Freud called dreams "the royal road to the unconscious." 311 dynamic Dynamic refers to the interaction of forces within a person. 354

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