About the Authors

Randy J. Larsen received his Ph.D. in Personality Psychology from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana in 1984. In 1992 he was awarded the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award for Early Career Contributions to Personality Psychology from the American Psychological Association, and in 1987 he received a Research Scientist Development Award from the National Institute of Mental Health. He has been an associate editor at the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and has been on the editorial boards of the Journal of Resear ch in Personality, Review of General Psychology, and the Journal of Personality. Randy Larsen has served on several Scientific Review Group for the National Institutes of Mental Health and the National Research Council. He is a Fellow in the Association for Psychological Science and the American Psychological Association. His research on personality has been supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Science Foundation, the McDonnell Foundation for Cognitive Neuroscience, and the Solon Summerfield Foundation. In 2000 h was elected president of the Midwestern Psychological Association. He has served on the faculty at Purdue University and the University of Michigan. Currently Randy Larsen is the chairman of the Psychology Department, and the William R. Stuckenberg Professor of Human Values and Moral Development, at Washington University in St. Louis, where he teaches Personality Psychology and other courses. He lives in St. Louis with his wife and two children.

David M. Buss received Iiis Ph.D. in 1981 from the University of California at Berkeley. He served on the faculties of Harvard University and the University of Michigan before accepting a professorship at the University of Texas at Austin, where he has taught since 1996. Buss received the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology in 1988; the APA G. Stanley Hall Award in 1990; and the APA Distinguished Scientist Lecturer Award in 2001. Books by David Buss include: The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating (Revised

Edition) (Basic Books, 2003), which has been translated into 10 languages; Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind (2nd ed.) (Allyn & Bacon, 2004), which was presented with the Robert W. Hamilton Book Award; The Dangerous Passion: Why Jealousy Is as Necessary as Love and Sex (Free Press, 2000), which has been translated into 13 languages; and The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (Wiley, 2005). Buss has authored more than 200 scientific publications, and has also writte articles for the New York Times and the Times Higher Education Supplement. In 2003, he appeared in the ISI List of Most Highly Cited Psychologists Worldwide, and as the 27th Most Cited Psychologist in Introductory Psychology textbooks. He lectures widely throughout the United States and abroad, and has extensive cross-cultural research collaborations. David Buss greatly enjoys teaching, and in 2001 he won the President's Teaching Excellence Award at the University of Texas.

Preface

We have devoted our lives to the study of personality and believe this field is one o the most exciting in all of psychology . Thus we were enormously gratified to see th volume of e-mails, letters, and comments from satisfied consumers of our First an Second Editions. At the same time, preparing the Third Edition proved to be a humbling experience. The cascade of exciting publications in the field of personality i formidable, requiring not merely an updating, but also the addition of major sections of new material. Moreover, in important ways our First Edition proved prescient.

Rather than or ganize our text around the traditional grand theories of personality, we instead devised a framework of six important domains of knowledge about personality functioning. These six domains are the dispositional domain (traits, trait taxonomies, and personality dispositions over time), the biological domain (physiology, genetics, evolution), the intrapsychic domain (psychodynamics, motives), the cognitive-experiential domain (cognition, emotion, and the self), the social and cultural domain (social interaction, gender , and culture), and the adjustment domain (stress, coping, health, and personality disorders). We believed these domains of knowledge represented the contemporary state of af fairs in personality psychology, and progress in the field since publication of our First Edition has continued to bear out that belief

Our First and Second Editions differed from other texts in the importance placed on culture, gender, and biology, and these are areas of personality that have shown substantial growth in recent years. But we have also been fascinated to witness the growth in each of the six major domains of personality that form the or ganizational core of the book.

We have always envisioned our text as a reflection of the field. Our desire h always been to capture the excitement of what the science of personality is all about. For the Third Edition, we did our best to remain true to that vision. We believe that the field of personality psychology is now entering a golden age of sorts, and hop that the changes we've made to the Third Edition convey a discipline that is vibrant in a way it never has been before. After all, no other field is devoted to the study o all that it means to be human.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Personality Psychology

Chapter 2: Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design

• Expanded coverage on ingredients of identity

• Facial expressions during marital conflict as predictors of marital outcome

• Acts of individuals with a dependent personality

Chapter 3: Traits and Trait Taxonomies

• Act frequencies as predictors of hierarchy negotiation and marital violence

• Conscientiousness as a predictor of workplace achievement

• Neuroticism as a predictor of suicidal ideation and health-impairing coping strategies

• Personality predictors of for giveness and volunteer work

• Personality traits that fall outside of the Big Five

Chapter 4: Theoretical and Measurement Issues in Trait Psychology

• Expanded coverage of the history and legal issues involved in the use of personality tests in employment settings

• A critical examination of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, including a discussion of its utility

• Expanded discussion of personality and integrity testing in business settings

• Expanded discussion of dif ferent types of validity

• Description of Hogan Assessment Systems, Inc., a successful personality testing company providing employment screening and selection

• Expanded description of Person-by-Situation interactions, with examples

• Increase in references to gender and culture in personality assessment

Chapter 5: Personality Dispositions over Time: Stability, Change, and Coherence

• New material on personality stability and change

• New section on longevity and personality

• New longitudinal studies of personality development

Chapter 6: Genetics and Personality

• Updated behavioral genetics concepts

• Latest heritability studies reported (e.g., heritability of religiosity)

• New material on genetics of marriage

• New material on gene-environment interactions

Chapter 7: Physiological Approaches to Personality

• Deleted material on Sheldon's theory of body types

• Added "A Closer Look" on personality and gambling

• Corrected description of Eysenck's lemon juice experiment

• Updated references

Chapter 8: Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality

• More details on how evolutionary psychology accounts for individual differences

• Evolution and life-history strategies

Chapter 9: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Personality

• Added "A Closer Look" on examples of the unconscious: blindsight and the deliberation-without-attention effect

• Deleted "Closer Look" on subliminal psychodynamic stimulation

• New factual material on the case of Anna O. and her relevance to Freud' s overarching theory of personality

• Expanded coverage of theory on how sexual stages can influence personalit

• Reorganized material to achieve better flow in this chapte

Chapter 10: Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues

• Updated contemporary views of the unconscious with material from Bar gh, 2005

• Added "A Closer Look" on the controversy surrounding the Rind et al. (1998) article on childhood sexual abuse

• Cut material on divorce

Chapter 1 1: Motives and Personality

• Distinguish need for af filiation from need for intimac

• Distinguish state levels from trait levels of motives

• Dewck's theory of competence motivation

• Gender differences in need for achievement

• New table on tips for increasing need for achievement in children

• New material on cultural dif ferences in need for achievement

• Introduce the concept of "flow" in discussion of self-actualizatio

Chapter 12: Cognitive Topics in Personality

• New studies on field independence and language learning and decoding facia expressions

• Increased coverage of explanatory style and its three dimensions

• New section on social learning theory (e.g., Bandura, Dweck, Higgins, and Mischel)

• Deleted material on the KF A test, some details on Kelly' s theory, and much of the material on goals

Chapter 13: Emotion and Personality

• New material on the direction of causality between happiness and successful outcomes in life

• New coverage of brain abnormality findings in aggressive and violen persons

Chapter 14: Approaches to the Self

• Reviewed experiments on self-identification in mirror

• New material on development of the self-concept

• A new "Closer Look" on six myths of self-esteem

Chapter 15: Personality and Social Interaction

• Personality and conflict resolution tactic

• Personality predictors of relationships satisfaction

• Narcissism and inability to for give others

Chapter 16: Sex, Gender, and Personality

• Gender differences in temperament in childhood

• Gender differences in valuation of power

• Massive 50-culture study of gender dif ferences in personality

• New findings on real-life correlates of masculinity and femininit

Chapter 17: Culture and Personality

• New section on do cultures have distinct personality profiles

• New cross-cultural research on the Big Five

• New cross-cultural research on possible factors beyond the Big Five

Chapter 18: Stress, Coping, Adjustment, and Health

• Updated AIDS statistics

• Shortened chapter exercises, converted one to an application

• Inserted brain scans of emotion centers

Chapter 19: Disorders of Personality

• New section distinguishing antisocial personality disorder from psychopathy

• New section distinguishing obsessive-compulsive personality disorder from obsessive-compulsive disorder

• New material on borderline and histrionic personality disorders

• New section on gender dif ferences in personality disorders

Chapter 20: Summary and Future Directions

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