Changes in Self Esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood

In a unique longitudinal study , Block and Robbins (1993) examined self-esteem and the personality characteristics associated with those whose self-esteem had changed over time. Self-esteem was defined as the extent to which one perceives oneself a relatively close to being the person one wants to be and or as relatively distant from being the kind of person one does not want to be, with respect to person-qualities one positively and negatively values (Block & Robbins, 1993, p. 91 1)....

Key Terms

Cultural Variations 555 Cultural Personality Psychology 555 Evoked Culture 556 High-Variance Conditions 556 Egalitarianism 557 Culture of Honor 558 Transmitted Culture 559 Balkanization 563 Interdependence 564 Independence 564 Individualism 565 Collectivism 565 Acculturation 565 Holistic 567 Analytic 567 Self-Enhancement 569 Within-Culture Variations 571 Social Class 571 Historical Era 571 Cultural Universals 572 Whorfian Hypothesis of Linguisti Relativity 576 Lexical Hypothesis 581

Summary And Evaluation

Personality does not exist solely inside the heads of individuals. The personality characteristics we carry with us af fect the outside world. Perhaps most important, personality affects the ways in which we interact with other people occupying our social world. Indeed, the reciprocal influences of personality and social interactions hav brought the fields of personality psychology and social psychology closer together i recent years (Swann & Seyle, 2005). This chapter described three key...

E

Effect size An effect size in meta-analysis indicates how large a particular difference is, or how strong a particular correlation is, as averaged over several experiments or studies. 526 effective polygyny Because female mammals bear the physical burden of gestation and lactation, there is a considerable sex difference in minimum obligatory parental investment. This difference leads to differences in the variances in reproduction between the sexes most females will have some offspring, while a...

Evolution and Natural Selection

All of us come from a long and unbroken line of ancestors who accomplished two critical tasks they survived to reproductive age, and they reproduced. If any one of your ancestors had failed at reproduction, you would not be here today to contemplate their existence. In this sense, every living human is an evolutionary success story. As descendants of these successful ancestors, we carry with us the genes for the adaptive mechanisms that led to their success. From this perspective, our human...

R

Table 1.1 Three Levels of Personality Analysis Variation in need to belong (individual difference) Men more physically aggressive than women (group Letisha's unique way of expressing her love Santino's unique way of expressing aggression part of general human nature. There are many ways in which each person is like every other person, and by understanding those ways we may achieve an understanding of the general principles of human nature. The second level of personality analysis pertains to...

Personality Traits

The most commonly studied personality traits in behavioral genetic designs have been extraversion and neuroticism. Recall that extraversion is a dimension containing people who are outgoing and talkative at one end and people who are quiet and withdrawn at the other (introverted) end. Neuroticism is a dimension with one end characterized by people who tend to be anxious, nervous, and emotionally volatile and the other end having people who tend to be calm and emotionally stable. Henderson...

Closer Look Adult Outcomes of Children with Temper Tantrums

In a longitudinal study spanning 40 years, Caspi et al. (1987) explored the implications of childhood personality for adult occupational status and job outcomes. He identified a group of explosive, undercontrolled children, using interviews with their mothers as the data source. When the children were 8, 9, and 11, their mothers rated the frequency and severity of their temper tantrums. Severe tantrums were defined as behaviors involving biting, kicking, striking, throwing things, screaming,...

The Intrapsychic Domain

Intrapsychic

We now turn to the intrapsychic domain. This domain concerns the factors within the mind that influence behavio, thoughts, and feelings. The pioneer of this domain was Sigmund Freud. Freud was a medical doctor and neurologist and was highly influenced by biolog . He often applied biological metaphors to the mind for example, proposing that the mind had separate organ systems, which operated independently from each other yet that influenced each othe . His goal was to analyze the elements within...

Electrodermal Activity Skin Conductance

The skin on the palms of the hands (and the soles of the feet) contains a high concentration of sweat glands. These sweat glands are directly influenced by the sympa thetic nervous system, the branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for action that is, the fight-o -flight mechanism. When the sympathetic nervous system is activated (such as during episodes of anxiety , startle, or anger), the sweat glands begin to fill with salty wate . If the activation is suf ficiently...

Rank Order Stability

Rank order stability is the maintenance of individual position within a group. Between ages 14 and 20, most people become taller , but the rank order of heights tends to remain fairly stable because this form of development affects all people pretty much the same, adding a few inches to everyone. The tall people at 14 fall generally toward the tall end of the distribution at age 20. The same can apply to personality traits. If people tend to maintain their positions on dominance or extraversion...

Supplements for the Instructor

The supplements listed here accompany Personality Psychology. Please contact your McGraw-Hill representative for more information. Todd K. Shackelford, Florida Atlantic University The Instructor's Manual includes chapter outlines, lecture topics and suggestions, ideas for classroom activities and demonstrations, questions for use in classroom discussions, ideas for student research papers, and lists of current research articles. The Instructor's Manual is organized by chapter, and has been...

Nature Nurture Debate Clarified

Clarifying the meaning of the term heritability what it is and what it is not allows us to think more clearly about the nature-nurture debate (the arguments about whether genes or environments are more important determinants of personality), even before we examine the methods and findings from the field of behavioral genetic The clarification comes from clearly distinguishing between two levels of analysis the level of the individual and the level of a population of individuals. At the level of...

Content versus Style of Emotional Life

Another distinction that is useful to personality psychologists is that between the content of a person' s emotional life and the style with which that person experiences and expresses emotion. Content is the specific kind of emotion that a person expe riences, whereas style is the way in which an emotion is experienced. For example, saying that someone is cheerful is to say something about the content of the person' s emotional life, because this refers to the specific kind of emotions a...

Traits and Trait Taxonomies

What Is a Trait Two Basic Formulations Traits as Internal Causal Properties Traits as Purely Descriptive Summaries The Act Frequency Formulation of Traits An Illustration of the Descriptive Summary Formulation Act Frequency Research Program Critique of the Act Frequency Formulation Identification of the Most Important Traits Lexical Approach Statistical Approach Theoretical Approach Evaluating the Approaches for Identifying Important Traits Eysenck's Hierarchical Model of Personality Cattell's...

Case of Personal Stability

Mohandas Karamchan Gandhi was born in 1869 into a family of modest means in India. His mother was devoutly religious, and she impressed young Mohandas with her beliefs and practices. The Gandhi family not only practiced traditional Hinduism but also practiced Buddhist chants, read from the Koran, recited verses from Zoroastrianism, and even sang traditional Christian hymns. Young Mohandas developed a personal philosophy of life that led him to renounce all personal desires and to devote himself...

Sex Differences in Desire for Sexual Variety

Another sex difference predicted by evolutionary psychological theories is a dif ference in the desire for sexual variety (Figure 8.7). This prediction stems from parental investment and sexual selection theory . The members of the sex that invests less in offspring, according to this theory, are predicted to be less discriminating in their selection of mates and more inclined to seek multiple mates. In ancestral times, men could increase their reproductive success by gaining sexual access to a...

Eoiy

One of the central aims of this book is to highlight the interplay between personality theory and research. In each domain of knowledge, there are some prevailing theories, so we will close this chapter with a discussion of theories. Theories are essential in all scientific endeavors, and they serve several useful purposes. A good theory is one that fulfills three purposes in science Provides a guide for researchers. One of the most important purposes of theories is that they serve as a guide...

Beware of Barnum Statements in Personality Test Interpretations

Barnum statements are generalities statements that could apply to anyone though they often appear to the readers of astrology advice columns to apply specifically t them. Astrology predictions are very popular in newspapers and magazines. For example You sometimes have doubts about whether you have done the right thing or You have a need for others to like or admire you or Although you are able to deal with confrontation in a pinch, you typically like to avoid it...

Independence and Traditional Roles

The longitudinal study of Mills College women (Helson & Picano, 1990) yielded another fascinating finding. The women were divided into four distinct groups (1) homemakers with intact marriages and children, (2) working mothers with children (neotraditionals), (3) divorced mothers, and (4) nonmothers (Helson & Picano, Means on the Competence cluster of the Adjective Check List (ACL) for women and their partners at the early parental (n 65) and postparental (n 48) periods, and for a...

Object Relations Theory

Other changes to Freud' s original ideas have been so sweeping that one new approach drops the term analytic altogether object relations theory . Recall that Freud emphasized sexuality in the development of personality . He viewed the adult personality as the result of how people accommodate the inevitable conflicts between their desires for sexual pleasure from various body parts and the constraints of parents, social institutions, and civilized society . Freud' s emphasis on sexuality has...

Twin Studies

Twin studies estimate heritability by gauging whether identical twins, who share 100 percent of their genes, are more similar to each other than are fraternal twins, who share only 50 percent of their genes. Twin studies, and especially studies of twins reared apart, have received tremendous media attention. The Jim twins, described at the beginning of this chapter , are identical twins given up for adoption at birth. Because they were adopted into dif ferent families, they were unaware that...

An Integrated Theoretical Perspective

The theoretical accounts we have examined seem very dif ferent, but they are not necessarily incompatible. Indeed, to some extent, they operate at dif ferent levels of analysis. Evolutionary psychology suggests why the sexes dif fer, but it does not specify how they became different. Hormonal and socialization theories specify how the sexes became different but do not specify why the sexes are dif ferent. An integrated theory of sex dif ferences would take all of these levels of analysis into...

Faking on Questionnaires

Faking involves the motivated distortion of answers on a questionnaire. When personality questionnaires are used to make important decisions about people's lives (e.g., hire them for a job, promote them, decide that they are not guilty by reason of insanity, or allow prisoners to be paroled), then there is always the possibility of faking. Some people may be motivated to fake good in order to appear to be better of f or better adjusted than they really are. Others may be motivated to fake bad...

Physiological Measures Commonly Used in Personality Research

Most of the common physiological measures in personality research are obtained from electrodes, or sensors placed on the surface of a participant' s skin. They are nonin-vasive in that they do not penetrate the skin, and these electrodes cause practically no discomfort. One drawback to such measures is that the participant is literally wired to the physiological recording machine (often called a polygraph), so movement is constrained. A new generation of electrodes will, however , overcome this...

Individual Differences

The study of individual differences, which is central to personality psychology, has been the most challenging and dif ficult level of analysis for evolutionary psychologists Unlike sex dif ferences, for which scientists have accumulated a lar ge empirical foundation, there is far less of a foundation for adaptive individual dif ferences. Thus, this section must necessarily be more speculative and preliminary than the previous sections. There are a variety of ways in which individual dif...

Standards for Evaluating Personality Theories

As we explore each of the six domains, it will be useful to bear in mind five scientifi standards for evaluating personality theories Compatibility and integration across domains and levels. The first standard is comprehensiveness does the theory do a good job of explaining all of the facts and observations within its domain Theories that explain more empirical data within their domains are generally superior to those that explain fewer findings A second evaluative standard is heuristic value...

Personality and Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis, besides being a theory of personality , is also a method of psychotherapy, a technique for helping individuals who are experiencing a mental disorder or even relatively minor problems with living. Psychoanalysis can be thought of as a method for deliberately restructuring the personality . The connection between the psychoanalytic theory of personality and psychoanalytic therapy is very strong. Principles of psychoanalytic therapy are based directly on the psychoanalytic theory...

Three Levels of Personality Analysis

Although the definition of personality used in this book is quite broad and encom passing, personality can be analyzed at three levels. These three levels are well summarized by Kluckhohn & Murray , in their 1948 book on culture and personality , in which they state that every human being is, in certain respects, 1. Like all others (the human nature level). 2. Like some others (the level of individual and group dif ferences). 3. Like no others (the individual uniqueness level). Another way...

Hie Social and Cultural Domain

Personality and Social Interaction 494 Personality Characteristics Desired in a Marriage Partner 497 Assortative Mating for Personality The Search for the Similar 499 Do People Get the Mates They Want 501 Personality and the Selective Breakup of Couples 503 Shyness and the Selection of Risky Situations 504 Other Personality Traits and the Selection of Situations 505 Evocation 506 Aggression and the Evocation of Hostility 506 Evocation of Anger and Upset in Partners 507 Evocation through...

The Big Three Motives Achievement Power and Intimacy

Although Murray proposed several dozen motives, researchers have focused most of their attention on a relatively small set. These motives are based on the needs for achievement, power, and intimacy. Research with the TAT, and on motives in general, has tended to focus on these three primary motives. Let' s review what we know about each of these fundamental human motives. Behavior that is motivated by the need for achievement has long interested psychologists. Because it has received the most...

Attributional Style

Attributional Exercise

Recall that attributional style is a dispositional way of explaining the causes of bad events. One way to think about attributional style is in terms of the following question Where does the person typically place the blame when things go wrong You will also recall that the three important dimensions of attribution are external versus internal, unstable versus stable, and specific versus global. Various measures have been developed for assessing people' s typical attributional style. Recall...

Stress Response

When a stressor appears, people typically experience a pattern of emotional and physiological reactions, such as if someone were to startle you by honking an automobile horn as you walked in front of the car . You experience some startle, your heart beats faster and your blood pressure goes up, and your palms and soles of your feet begin to sweat. This pattern of reaction has commonly been called the fight-o -fligh response. This physiological response is controlled by an increase of...

Tonality Psychology

Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogot Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY DOMAINS OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HUMAN NATURE Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright 2008, 2005, 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No...

Flexibility and Impulsivity

Another example of personality change can be found in a study of creative architects. In this study, researchers measured personality twice, with the testings separated by 25 years (Dudek & Hall, 1991). Two large personality inventories were administered at each testing the CPI (California Psychological Inventory) and the ACL (Adjective Check List). The architects were tested at the beginning of their careers and again 25 years later. Some of the architects turned out to be very successful...

Panning Back An Overview of Personality and Social Interaction

The most important message from this chapter is that personality does not reside passively within an individual, but rather reaches out and profoundly af fects each person's social environment. The three processes by which personality can influence a individual's social environment selection, evocation, and manipulation are highlighted in Table 15.6. These fundamental mechanisms operate in the physical as well as the social environment. Let's consider selection first. In the physical domain, an...

M

Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is a manipulative strategy of social interaction referring to the tendency to use other people as tools for personal gain. High Mach persons tend to tell people what they want to hear, use flattery to get what they want, and rel heavily on lying and deception to achieve their own ends. 514 major life events According to Holmes and Rahe, major life events require that people make major adjustments in their lives. Death or loss of a spouse through divorce or...

Varieties of Stress

Stress is a physical and psychological response to perceived demands and pressures. In the stress response, people mobilize physical and emotional resources to cope with the demands and pressures. A stress response that is frequent, extreme, or prolonged can place a lar ge demand on, or even deplete, a person' s physical, social, and psychological resources. Strong stressors also generate feelings of distress. Our bodies express this distress in a variety of ways, often in the form of...

For the Student

This extensive Web site, designed specifically to accompany Personality Psychology, offers an array of resources for both instructor and student. The student side of the Online Learning Center provides a variety of learning tools, including a chapter outline, learning objectives, multiple-choice questions, true-false questions, essay questions, and Web links for each chapter . These resources and more can be found by logging on to the text site at www .mhhe.com larsen3.

Response Sets

When participants answer questions, psychologists typically assume that they are responding to the content of the questionnaire items. For example, when participants are confronted with the question I have never felt like smashing things, psychologists assume that participants think of all the times when they were angry or frustrated and then recall whether on those occasions they have ever felt like smashing or actually did smash something. Psychologists also assume that participants make a...

Id Reservoir of Psychic Energy

Freud taught in the beginning there was id, the most primitive part of the human mind. Freud saw the id as something we are born with and as the source of all drives and urges. Using the plumbing metaphor , the id is the plumber who wants to let of f all pressure at the slightest hint of strain or tension. The id is like a spoiled child selfish impulsive, and pleasure-loving. According to Freud, the id operates according to the pleasure principle, which is the desire for immediate...

Integration Personality in the New Millennium

The domains of knowledge should be viewed as complementary , not as conflicting People have many facets, and these facets can be observed and studied from many different perspectives. To say that people have evolved psychological mechanisms to solve social problems does not imply that the principles of psychoanalysis are wrong. Similarly, to say that a portion of the variance in personality traits is due to genetics does not in any way imply that people do not develop or change their...

Genotype Environment Interaction

Genotype-environment interaction refers to the dif ferential response of individuals with dif ferent genotypes to the same environments. Consider introverts and extraverts, who have somewhat dif ferent genotypes. Introverts tend to perform well on cognitive tasks when there is little stimulation in the room, but they do poorly when there are distractions, such as a radio blaring or people walking around. In contrast, extraverts do just fine with the stereo blasting, the phone ringing, and peopl...

Prevalence of Personality Disorders

Figure 19.1 indicates the prevalence rates of the 10 personality disorders. Prevalence is a term that refers to the total number of cases that are present within a given population during a particular period of time. The data in Figure 19.1 are based on summaries of several community samples (Mattia & Zimmerman, 2001) and refer to prevalence rates at the time of sampling, e.g., at any given time, how many people are diagnosable with paranoid personality disorder These results show that...

Cardiovascular Activity

The cardiovascular system involves the heart and associated blood vessels, and examples of measures of cardiovascular activity include blood pressure and heart rate. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the inside of the artery walls, and it is typically expressed with two numbers diastolic and systolic pressure. The systolic pressure is the lar ger number, and it refers to the maximum pressure within the cardiovascular system produced when the heart muscle contracts. The...

Interaction of the Id Ego and Superego

The three parts of the mind id, ego, and superego are in constant interaction. They have different goals, provoking internal conflicts within an individual. Consequentl , one part of a person can want one thing, whereas another part wants something else. For example, imagine that a young woman is last in line at a fast-food counter . The man in front of her unknowingly drops a 20 bill from his wallet and does not notice. The woman sees the money on the floor in front of he . The situation sets...

Photo Credits

PO1, CO1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Royalty-Free Corbis PO2, CO2, 6, 7, 8 Getty Images Steve Allen PO3, CO1, 2, 9, 10, 11 Don Farrall Getty Images PO4, CO1, 2, 12, 13, 14 Digital Vision Getty Images PO5, CO1, 2, 15, 16, 17 Stockbyte Punchstock Images PO6, CO1, 2, 18, 19, 20 Digital Vision Getty Images Page 3 Chuck Savage Corbis p. 5 (clockwise from left) Michael Newman PhotoEdit PhotoDisc Getty PhotoDisc Getty PhotoDisc Getty PhotoDisc Getty PhotoDisc Getty PhotoDisc Getty A. Ramey PhotoEdit PhotoDisc...

Limitations of Evolutionary Psychology

Like all approaches to personality , the evolutionary perspective carries a number of important limitations. First, adaptations are forged over the long expanse of thousands or millions of generations, and we cannot go back in time and determine with absolute certainty what the precise selective forces on humans have been. Scientists are forced to make inferences about past environments and past selection pressures. Nonetheless, our current mechanisms provide windows for viewing the past. Our...

Misconceptions about Heritability

One common misconception about heritability is that it can be applied to a single individual. It can' t. It is meaningful to say that individual dif ferences in height are 90 percent heritable, but it makes absolutely no sense to say , Meredith' s height is 90 percent heritable. You cannot say , for example, that the first 63 inches of he height are due to genes and the other 7 inches are due to the environment. For an individual, genes and environment are inextricably intertwined. Both play a...

Personality Changes across Cohorts Womens Assertiveness in Response to Changes in Social Status and Roles

One of the fascinating issues in exploring personality change over time is trying to determine whether the changes observed are due to true personal change that all people undergo as they age, as can be determined by longitudinal studies of the sort just presented, or, conversely, changes in the cohort effects the social times in which they lived. Jean Twenge (2000, 2001a, 2001b) has been at the forefront in exploring personality change that is likely to be caused by cohort. She ar gues that...

The Biological Domai

Brain imaging techniques have enabled researchers to learn more about the brain's role in behavior and personality than previously thought possible. lliot was a successful businessman, a proud father , and a good husband. At his firm, he was a role model for his younger colleagues. Personall , he was charming and pleasant. His social skills were such that he often was called on to settle disputes at work. Elliot was respected by others. His position in the community, his satisfying personal...

Extraverted Sensor And

Introversion Extraversion Percentage

Table 4.3 Eight Fundamental Preferences Measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Draws energy from the outside involved with people likes action and activity Prefers taking in information through all Prefers information derived from a sixth five senses attends to what actually exists sense notices what's possible rather than Prefers logic, organization, and clean Prefers a person- and value-oriented way Prefers living a well-ordered and controlled Prefers to live spontaneously, with room for...

Table 197 Characteristics of Paranoid Personality Disorder

Is distrustful of others Misinterprets social events as threatening Harbors resentments toward others Is prone to pathological jealousy Is argumentative and hostile Typical Thoughts or Beliefs Associated with the Paranoid Personality Get them before they get you. Other people always have ulterior motives. People will say one thing but do another. Don't let them get away with anything. I have to be on guard all the time. When people act friendly toward you, it is probably because they want...

Closer Look Fit for the

Harvey Horowitz applied for the job of probation officer in New York City. He had an excellent record of employment as a social worker with the New York Department of Social Services. Becoming a probation officer would have been a real step up in his career. When he applied for the probation officer position, he was given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Officials in the New York City personnel office decided not to hire Mr. Horowitz because the test suggested that he was...

The Eccentric Cluster Ways of Being Different

A second cluster of personality disorders contains traits that combine to make people ill-at-ease socially and just plain dif ferent. Most of the oddness in these disorders has to do with how the person interacts with others. Some people have no interest in others some are extremely uncomfortable with others and some are suspicious of others. When carried to extremes, these interpersonal styles form the three personality disorders known as the schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personalities....

Table 192 Characteristics of Persons with Antisocial Personality Disorder

Fails to conform to social norms, e.g., breaks the law Repeated lying or conning others for pleasure or profit Impulsivity Irritable and aggressive, e.g., frequent fights Reckless disregard for safety of others and self Irresponsible, e.g., truant from school, cannot hold a job Lack of remorse, e.g., indifferent to pain of others, rationalizes having hurt or mistreated others Typical Thoughts Associated with the Antisocial Personality I'll say whatever it takes to get what I want. I think I'll...

Molecular Genetics

The most recent development in the science of behavioral genetics has been the exploration of molecular genetics. The methods of molecular genetics are designed to identify the specific genes associated with personality traits. The details are quite technical, but the most common method, called the association method, is to identify whether individuals with a particular gene (or allele) have higher or lower scores on a particular trait than individuals without the gene. These methods have been...

Controversy about Genes and Personality

Perhaps no other area of personality psychology has been fraught with as much controversy as the study of behavioral genetics. Researchers in this field attempt to deter mine the degree to which individual dif ferences in personality are caused by genetic and environmental dif ferences. Scientific reports on behavioral genetic studies ofte make headlines and cover stories. On January 2, 1996, for example, The New York Times caused a stir with reports of a scientific breakthrough ariant Gene Is...

Empirical Testing of Evolutionary Hypotheses

In order to understand how evolutionary psychologists test hypotheses, it is necessary to consider the hierarchy of levels of evolutionary analysis depicted in Figure 8.1. At the top of the hierarchy is evolution by selection. The theory has been tested directly in many cases. New species can be formed in the laboratory by its application, and dogs can be selectively bred using its principles. Since there has never been a single case in which the general theory has been proved to be incorrect,...

Theoretical Issues

Trait theories of personality of fer a collection of viewpoints about the fundamental building blocks of human nature. As we saw in Chapter 3, there are dif ferences among the various theories concerning what constitutes a trait, how many traits exist, and what are the best methods for discovering basic traits. Despite their differences, trait theories share three important assumptions about personality traits. These assumptions go beyond any one theory or taxonomy of personality traits and,...

S

Safety needs At the second to lowest level of Maslow's need hierarchy are the safety needs. These needs have to do with shelter and security, such as having a place to live and being free from the threat of danger. Maslow believed that building a life that was orderly, structured, and predictable also fell under safety needs. 371 schizoid personality disorder The schizoid personality is split off (schism) or detached from normal social relations. The schizoid person simply appears to have no...

O

Objectifying cognitions Processing information by relating it to objective facts. This style of thinking stands in contrast to personalizing cognitions. 393 objective anxiety Objective anxiety (fear) occurs in response to some real, external threat to the person. For example, being confronted by a large, aggressive-looking man with a knife while taking a shortcut through an alley would elicit objective anxiety (fear) in most people. 298 objective self-awareness Objective self-awareness is...

Why Is Psychoanalysis Important

Throughout much of the twentieth century, Freud's ideas had a profound influence o how the mind was understood to operate. His continuing influence can be seen in sev eral areas. First, psychoanalytic ideas influence the practice of psychotherapy eve today. The second lar gest division of the American Psychological Association is the Division of Psychoanalysis. The basic idea of the talking cure can be traced back to Freud. Even if a psychotherapist does not engage in classic psychoanalysis,...

The Process of Psychoanalysis

With the help of free association, dream analysis, and projective techniques, the psychoanalyst gradually comes to understand the unconscious source of the patient' s problems. The patient must also come to understand the unconscious dynamics of his or her situation. Toward this end, the psychoanalyst of fers the patient interpretations of the psychodynamic causes of the problems. The patient is led to view problematic thoughts, dreams, behaviors, symptoms, or feelings as all having unconscious...

Superego Upholder of Societal Values and Ideals

Around the age of 5, a child begins to develop the third part of the mind, which Freud called the superego. The superego is the part of the mind that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society . Usually, these are instilled into the child by society' s various socializing agents, such as parents, schools, and or ganized religions. Freud emphasized the role of parents in particular in children' s development of self-control and conscience, suggesting that the development of the...

Dayto Day Changes in Self Esteem

Most personality psychologists who study self-esteem focus on a person's average level, whether the person is generally high, low, or average in terms of his or her self-esteem. A few studies have been done on changes in self-esteem over long time spans in people's lives for example, in the years from adolescence to adulthood. However, with some reflection, most of us would realize that we often change from day to day in how we feel about ourselves. Some days are better than other days when it...

Unconscious Motivation Sometimes We Dont Know Why We Do What We Do

According to Freud, the human mind consists of three parts. The conscious mind is the part that contains all the thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that you are presently aware of. Whatever you are currently perceiving or thinking about is in your conscious mind. These thoughts represent only a small fraction of the information available to you. You also have a vast number of memories, dreams, and thoughts that you could easily bring to mind if you so desired. What were you wearing yesterday...

Table 193 Characteristics of Borderline Personality Disorder

Instability of relationships, emotions, and self-image Typical Thoughts or Beliefs Associated with the Borderline Personality I'm nothing without you. I'll just die if you leave me. If you go, I'll kill myself. I hate you, I hate you, I HATE YOU. I love you so much that I'll do anything or be anything for you. I feel empty inside, as if I don't know who I am. difficulty with relationships, they may form stable relationships if given enoug structure and support. If they find someone who is...

Closer Look Narcissism and Social Interaction

Narcissism is a personality dimension that involves, at the upper end, high levels of self-absorption and conceited-ness, placing one's own wants and needs above those of others, displaying unusual grandiosity, showing a profound sense of entitlement, and lacking empathy for other people's feelings, needs, and desires (see Chapters 10 and 14 Raskin & Terry, 1988). Those high on narcissism tend to be exhibitionistic (e.g., flaunting money to impress others), grandiose (e.g., talking about how...

Helping and Altruism

An evolutionary perspective provides a relatively straightforward set of predictions about the human nature of helping and altruism (Burnstein, Crandall, & Kitayama, 1994). One group of authors proposed a set of hypotheses directly derived from Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness. Specifical , they hypothesized that helping others is a direct function of the recipients' ability to enhance the inclusive fitness of th helpers. Helping should decrease, according to this hypothesis, as the...

Cultural Violations An Illustration

One of your family members eats beef regularly . (your beef-eating family member) 2. A young married woman goes alone to see a movie without informing her husband. When she returns home, her husband says, If you do it again, I will beat you black and blue. She does it again he beats her black and blue. (the wife-beating husband) 3. A poor man goes to the hospital after being seriously hurt in an accident. The hospital refuses to treat him because he cannot af ford to pay. (the refusing...

Basic Concepts

Motives are internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects o goals. A motive is often caused by a deficit, a lack of something for example, if a per son has not eaten for many hours, he or she is motivated by hunger . Motives dif fer from each other in both type and amount. Hunger dif fers from thirst, for example, and both of these differ from the motive to achieve and excel. Motives dif fer in intensity, depending on the person and his or her circumstances. For...

Evolutionary Psychology Theory

According to the evolutionary psychology perspective (recall Chapter 8), men and women differ only in some domains of personality and show lar ge similarities in most domains. In particular, the sexes are predicted to be essentially the same in all the domains in which the sexes have faced the same adaptive problems over human evolutionary history. Similarly, the sexes are predicted to dif fer only in the narrow domains in which men and women have confronted different adaptive challenges over...

Gender Stereotypes

Much of this chapter so far has been concerned with the ways in which men and women differ. An important related topic pertains to the beliefs that we hold about the ways in which the sexes dif fer, regardless of whether these beliefs are accurate reflections of the sex di ferences that empirically exist. The beliefs that we hold about men and women are sometimes called gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes have three components (Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1993). The first is cognitive and deals...

Early Childhood Attachment

Work on early childhood attachment has drawn on a couple of lines of research in developmental psychology. The first line of research was the work by Harry Harlo and others on infant monkeys. Harlow' s well-known experiments involved taking infant monkeys away from their real mothers and raising them with models of mother monkeys made of wire or cloth. These fake mothers did not provide the grooming, cuddling, holding, or social contact of the real mothers. The infant monkeys raised with the...

Other Dimensions of Personality

Several dimensions of personality are related to, but not directly subsumed by , the five-factor model of personalit . We will examine three self-esteem, sexuality and mating, and the people-things dimension. A topic of major interest to women and men is self-esteem, or how good we feel about ourselves. This is reflected in the many popular books on the topic, such a Schoolgirls Young Women, Self-esteem, and the Confidence Ga (Orenstein, 1994). Although researchers have explored many facets of...

Exercise

Have a look at the TAT picture presented earlier, on page 357. Write a short story about what is happening in this picture. However, instead of writing off the top of your head, try to write a story that would score high on the need for achievement. What themes would you put in such a story What actions and outcomes might be interpreted as indicating high nAch What you consciously try to put into such a story are the themes and acts that psychologists look for in the stories of people writing...

The Science and Politics of Studying Sex and Gender

Few topics generate as much controversy as the study of sex dif ferences. This is especially true when it comes to examining the possibility that men and women dif fer. As noted in a recent discussion on gender, public debates about the nature of women and men are frequently in the spotlight, whether in media reports on the latest sex dif fer-ence findings or in highly publicized legal cases involving single-sex educational insti tutions or sexual harassment (Deaux & LaFrance, 1998). Some...

Intelligence

No discussion of individual dif ferences in cognition and information processing would be complete without at least some mention of intelligence. Intelligence has been define in many ways, and there may be many dif ferent kinds of intelligence. One definition o intelligence is associated with educational attainment, how much knowledge a person has acquired, relative to others in his or her age cohort. This is an achievement view of intelligence. Other definitions view intelligence less as the...

Masculinity Femininity Androgyny and Sex Roles

Women and men dif fer in a few dimensions assertiveness, tender -mindedness, and anxiety, as well as in aggression, sexuality , and depression. But do these dif ferences mean that there is such a thing as a masculine or feminine personality This section explores the conceptions of masculinity and femininity and how the treatment of these topics has changed over time. Starting in the 1930s, personality researchers began to notice that men and women differed in their responses to a number of...

Transmitted Culture

Transmitted culture consists of ideas, values, attitudes, and beliefs that exist originally in at least one person's mind that are transmitted to other people's minds through their interaction with the original person (T ooby & Cosmides, 1992). The view that it is wrong to eat beef, for example, is an example of transmitted culture. This value presumably originated in the mind of one person, who then transmitted it to others. Over time, the view that eating beef is a serious violation came...

Primary and Secondary Appraisal

Not all people respond to stressors in the same way . Two people can experience the same event, yet one is devastated and completely overwhelmed, whereas the other accepts the event as a challenge and is mobilized into positive action. Dif ferences between people in how they respond to the same event are possible because stress is not out there in the environment. Rather, stress is in the subjective reaction of the person to potential stressors (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This is worth...

The Adjustment Domain

Stress, Coping, Adjustment, and Health 586 Models of the Personality-Illness Connection 589 The Concept of Stress 593 Stress Response 594 Major Life Events 595 Daily Hassles 597 Varieties of Stress 598 Primary and Secondary Appraisal 599 Coping Strategies and Styles 600 Attributional Style 600 Optimism and Physical Well-Being 604 Management of Emotions 607 Disclosure 610 Type A Personality and Cardiovascular Disease 612 Hostility The Lethal Component of the Type A Behavior Pattern 615 How the...

Closer Look Personnel Selection in Other Cultures

At a recent meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), there was a panel discussion of issues in cross-national employee selection, chaired by psychologists from Hogan Assessment Systems. The discussion focused on how, as corporations shift from domestic to global markets, the frequency of interactions across borders and countries expands. Knowledge of international business practices and employment laws become important, as do basic principles in employee...

Closer Look Sexual Orientation

Sexual orientation refers to the object of a person's sexual desires, whether the person is sexually attracted to those of the same sex or of a different sex. Although not all personality researchers consider individual differences in sexual orientation to be part of personality, a reasonable case can be made that this is an important way in which individuals differ from each other. And these differences tend to be relatively stable over time. Moreover, these differences are associated with a...

The Dispositional Domain

The dispositional domain concerns those aspects of personality that are stable over time, relatively consistent over situations, and make people dif ferent from each other. For example, some people are outgoing and talkative others are introverted and shy. The introverted and shy person tends to be that way most of the time (is stable over time) and tends to be introverted and shy at work, at play , and at school (is consistent over situations). As another example, some people are emotionally...

The Neo Analytic Movement

As proposed by Freud, classical psychoanalysis is a detailed and comprehensive theory, developed in the early 1900s, of the totality of human nature. Many of Freud' s ideas are out of date however , contemporary psychoanalyst Drew Westen (1998) argues that they should be out of date after all, Freud died in 1939 and he has been slow to undertake further revisions (p. 333) of his theory . Westen goes on humorously to note that Freud, like Elvis, has been dead for a number of years but continues...

Evoked Culture

Evoked culture is defined as cultural di ferences created by dif fering environmental conditions activating a predictable set of responses. Consider the physical examples of skin calluses and sweat. There are undoubtedly cultural dif ferences in the thickness and distribution of calluses and in the amount people sweat. The traditional Kung Bushmen of Botswana, for example, tend to have thicker calluses on their feet than most Americans, since they walk around without shoes. These differences...

Consistency across Situations

The third assumption made by trait psychologists is that traits will exhibit some consistency across situations. Although the evidence for consistency in traits over time is substantial, the question of consistency in traits from situation to situation has been more hotly debated. Trait psychologists have traditionally believed that people's personalities show consistency from situation to situation. For example, if a young man is really friendly , he is expected to be friendly at work,...

Self Schemata Possible Selves Ought Selves and Undesired Selves

So far, we have considered some of the main steps in the development of a self-concept. Once formed, the self-concept provides a person with a sense of continuity and a framework for understanding the past and present and for guiding future behavior. In adults, the self-concept is a structure made up of building blocks of knowledge about the self, a multidimensional collection of knowledge about the self Am I responsible, athletic, cooperative, attractive, caring, and assertive The self-concept...

Aggregation

We've seen how their debate with Mischel led trait psychologists to appreciate that behavior is an outcome of the interaction between personality traits and situations. Another important lesson learned by trait psychologists is the value of aggregation when it comes to measuring personality traits. Aggregation is the process of adding up, or averaging, several single observations, resulting in a better (i.e., more reliable) measure of a personality trait than a single observation of behavior ....

Name Index

American Psychiatric Association, 446, 624-627, 629, 655 American Psychological Association, 191 Amin, Z., 213 Anastasi, A., 97 Ando, J., 187, 199 Andrews, J. D. W., 362 Angelides, M., 162 Angier, N., 268 Angleinter, A., 66 Angleitner, A., 64, 186, 187, 195, 199 Ashton, M. C., 68, 86, 89, 90, 554, 581 Bacon, M., 285, 286 Bailey, J. M., 190, 191, 271 Bailey, S. L., 232 Bain, J., 453 Baumeister, R. F., 253, 300, 301, 305, 373, 467, 473, 479-481, 483, 485, 486, 517, 524, 535, 569 Bauserman, R.,...

Stability of Temperament during Infancy

Many parents of two or more children will tell you that their children had distinctly different personalities the day they were born. For example, Albert Einstein, the Nobel prize-winning father of modern physics, had two sons with his first wife. These two boys were quite dif ferent from each other. The older boy, Hans, was fascinated with puzzles as a child and had a gift for mathematics. He went on to become a distinguished professor of hydraulics at the University of California at Berkeley...

Personality Defined

Establishing a definition for something as complex as human personality is di ficult The authors of the first textbooks on personality Gordon Allport (1937) and Henry Murray (1938) struggled with the definition. The problem is how to establish a definition that is suf ficiently comprehensive to include all of the aspects mentioned i the introduction to this chapter, including inner features, social effects, qualities of the mind, qualities of the body, relations to others, and inner goals....

References

M., and Alansari, B. M. (2004). Gender differences in anxiety among undergraduates from ten Arab countries. Social Behavior and Personality, 32, 649-656. Abe, J. A. A. (2005). The predictive validity of the Five-Factor Model of personality with preschool age children A nine year follow-up study. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 423-442. explanation paradox When a little is a lot. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 129-133. Abrahamson, A. C., Baker, L. A., and Caspi, A. (2002)....

Personality Dispositions over Time Stability Change and Coherence

Conceptual Issues Personality Development, Stability, Change, and Coherence What Is Personality Development Rank Order Stability Mean Level Stability Personality Coherence Personality Change Population Level Group Differences Level Individual Differences Level Stability of Temperament during Infancy Stability during Childhood Rank Order Stability in Adulthood Mean Level Stability in Adulthood Changes in Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood Flexibility and Impulsivity Autonomy, Dominance,...

Introduction to Personality Psychology

Personality Is the Set of Psychological Traits . . . And Mechanisms . . . Within the Individual . . . That Are Organized and Relatively Enduring . . . Three Levels of Personality Analysis Individual and Group Dif ferences Individual Uniqueness Grand Theories of Personality Contemporary Research in Personality Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature Dispositional Domain Biological Domain Intrapsychic Domain Cognitive-Experiential Domain Social and Cultural Domain Adjustment Domain Standards...

Current Status of the Field

This is an exciting time for the field of personality psycholog . Recent advances have led to a certain degree of consensus regarding the nature, structure, and development of personality, resulting in several decades of sustained growth (Robins, 2002). Recent evaluators have concluded that the field is thriving (Diener & Scollon, 2002 Funde , 2002). One hallmark that a field is hitting its stride is the existence of a handbook Personality psychology has several handbooks (e.g., Hogan,...

Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud's model of human nature relied on the notion of psychic energy to motivate all human activity . What were the forces that motivated people to do one thing and not another or that motivated people to do anything at all Freud proposed a source of energy that is within each person and used the term psychic energy to refer to this wellspring of motivation. Freud believed that psychic ener gy operated according to the law of conservation of ener gy The amount of psychic ener gy an individual...

Socialization and Social Roles

Learning Theory Gender

Socialization theory, the notion that boys and girls become different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers, and the media for being masculine, and girls for being feminine, is probably the most widely held theory of sex dif ferences in personality The theory can be summarized as follows Boys are given baseball bats and trucks. Girls are given dolls. Boys are praised for engaging in rough-and-tumble play. Girls are praised for being cute and obedient. Both socialization and social...