Transcranial and Extradural Brain Stimulation

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Dias et al. (100) studied the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on vocal function in 30 individuals with PD. Stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1)-mouth area induced a significant improvement in voice F0 and intensity. Stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex resulted in subjective improvement of voice-related quality of life, but not in objective measures of voice F0 and intensity. Pagni et al. (101) studied the effects of extradural motor cortex stimulation in three individuals with PD. They reported that unilateral stimulation resulted in improvement in speech and swallowing. Additional research is necessary to confirm these effects.

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