The future of PD treatment will be influenced by several innovative therapeutic modalities. Transient or perhaps permanent roles will be played by the techniques of neural stimulation, cellular transplantation, and gene therapy. Considerable research in each of these areas is already underway. In time, the stimulatory interventions that have been so successful in the last decade may give way to more innovative cellular and genetic strategies that can restore and, perhaps, eventually will reverse the degenerative pathology of PD.
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