Although the transplantation of human embryonic mesencephalic cells into patients with PD has not yet shown clear clinical efficacy, these studies demonstrate that neural integration of foreign cells into the basal ganglia is both possible and potentially therapeutic. In comparison, stem cell therapies attempt to treat advanced PD through the transplantation of neurons that are not harvested from fetal tissue but produced through molecular manipulation of cultured cells. The field is both sophisticated and complex. The principal lines of investigation are examined subsequently. For a more complete discussion, the reader is referred to several reviews (65-67).
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