1. Parkinson J. An essay on the shaking palsy [reprint of monograph published by Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, London, 1817]. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002; 14:223-236.
2. Chaudhuri KR, Healy D, Schapira AH. The nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Diagnosis and management. Lancet Neurology 2006; 5(3):235-245.
3. Lees AJ, Blackburn NA, Campbell VL. The nighttime problems of Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1988; 11:512-519.
4. Tandberg E, Larsen JP, Karlsen K. A community-based study of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 1998; 13:895-899.
5. Karlsen K, Larsen JP, Tandberg E, et al. Fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 1999; 14:237-241.
6. Chaudhuri KR. Nocturnal symptom complex in PD and its management. Neurology 2003; 61(suppl 3):S17-S23.
7. Garcia-Borreguero D, Larosa O, Bravo M. Parkinson's disease and sleep. Sleep Med Rev 2003; 7:115-129.
8. Adler CH, Thorpy MJ. Sleep issues in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2005; 64(suppl 3): S12-S20.
9. Karlsen KH, Larsen JP, Tandberg E, et al. Influence of clinical and demographic variables on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66:431-435.
10. Aarsland D, Larsen JP, Tandberg E, Laake K. Predictors of nursing home placement in Parkinson's disease: a population-based, prospective study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48(8):938-942.
11. Findley L, Aujla MA, Bain PG, et al. Direct economic impact of Parkinson's disease: a research survey in the United Kingdom. Mov Disord 2003; 18(10):1139-1145.
12. Bosanquet N, May J, Johnson N. Alzheimer's Disease in the United Kingdom. Burden of Disease and Future Care. Health Policy Review Paper No. 12. London: Health Policy Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, 1998.
13. Boeve BF, Silber MH, Ferman TJ, et al. Association of REM sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease may reflect an underlying synucleinopathy. Mov Disord 2001; 16:622-630.
14. Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P, Schapira AH, et al. An international multicenter pilot study of the first comprehensive self-completed non-motor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's disease: The NMSQuest study. Mov Disord 2006; 21(7):916-923.
15. Hely MA, Morris JG, Reid WG, Trafficante R. Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson's disease: non-L-dopa-responsive problems dominate at 15 years. Mov Disord 2005; 20:190-199.
16. Shulman LM, Taback RL, Rabinstein AA, Weiner WJ. Non-recognition of depression and other non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2002; 8:193-197.
17. Rye DB, Jankovic J. Emerging views of dopamine in modulating sleep/wake state from an unlikely source: PD. Neurology 2002; 58:341-346.
18. Arnulf I, Konofal E, Merino-Andreu M, et al. Parkinson's disease and sleepiness—an integral part of PD. Neurology 2002; 58:1019-1024.
19. Shouse MN, Siegel JM. Pontine regulation of REM sleep components in cats: integrity of the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) is important for phasic events but unnecessary for atonia during REM sleep. Brain Res1992; 571:50-63.
20. Lai YY, Siegel J. Physiological and anatomical link between Parkinson like disease and REM behaviour disorder. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2003; 5:231-139.
21. Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rüb U, et al. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging 2003; 24:197-210.
22. Saper C, Chou TC, Scammell TE. The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends in Neurosci 2001; 24:726-731.
23. Schenck CH, Mahowald MW. REM sleep behavior disorder: clinical, developmental, and neuroscience perspectives 16 years after its formal identification in SLEEP. Sleep 2002; 25:120-138.
24. Abbott RD, Ross GW, White LR, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness and the future risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20(suppl 10):S101.
25. Ross W, Petrovitch H, Abbott RD, et al. Association of olfactory dysfunction with risk of future Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20(suppl 10):P439.
26. Parent A, Hazrati LN. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Brain Res Rev 1995; 20:91-127.
27. Karachi C, Yelnki J, Tande D, Tremblay L, Hirsch EC, Francois C. The pallidosubthalamic projection: an anatomical substrate for non motor functions of the subthalamic nucleus in primates. Mov Disord 2005; 20:172-180.
28. MacMahon D. Why excessive daytime sleepiness is an important issue in Parkinson's disease. Adv Clin Neurol Rehab 2005; 5(2):46-49.
29. Nishino S, Ripley B, Overseem S, et al. Hypocertin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. Lancet 2000; 355:39-40.
30. Ripley B, Overseem S, Fujuki N, et al. CSF hypocretin/orexin levels in narcolepsy and other neurological conditions. Neurology 2001; 57:2253-2258.
31. Drout X, Moutereau S, Nguyen J, et al. Low levels of ventricular orexin/hypocretin in advanced PD. Neurology 2003; 61:540-543
32. Diederich NJ, Vaillant M, Mancuso G, Lyen P, Tiete J. Progressive "sleep destructuring" in Parkinson's disease. Apolysomnographic study in 46 patients. Sleep Med 2005; 6(4):313-318.
33. Chaudhuri KR, Bhattacharya K, Agapito C, et al. The use of cabergoline in nocturnal parkinsonian disabilities causing sleep disruption: a parallel study with controlled-release levodopa. Eur J Neurol 1999; 6(S5):S11-S15.
34. Reuter I, Ellis CM, Chaudhuri KR. Nocturnal subcutaneous apomorphine infusion in Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 1999; 100:163-167.
35. Nosology Committee of The American Academy of Sleep Medicines. Eds. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Rochester, Minn: American Sleep Disorders Association, 1997:177-180.
36. Mahowald M, Schenck C. REM sleep behaviour disorder. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2000:724-741.
37. Schenck CH, Bundlie SR, Mahowald MW. Delayed emergence of a parkinsonian disorder in 38% of 29 older men initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 1996; 46:388-393.
38. Olson EJ, Boeve BF, Silber MH. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in 93 cases. Brain 2000; 123:331-339.
39. Fantini ML, Ferini-Strambi L, Montplaisir J. Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: toward a better nosologic definition. Neurology 2005; 64(5):780-786.
40. Comella CL, Nardine TM, Diederich NJ, et al. Sleep-related violence, injury, and REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1998; 51(2):526-529.
41. Stiasny-Kolster K, Doerr Y, Moller JC, et al. Combination of "idiopathic" REM sleep behaviour disorder and olfactory dysfunction as possible indicator for alpha-synucleinopathy demonstrated by dopamine transporter FP-CIT-SPECT. Brain 2005; 128(Pt 1):126-137.
42. Schenck CH, Garcia-Rill E, Skinner RD, et al. Acase of REM sleep behaviour disorder with autopsy confirmed Alzheimer's disease: post-mortem brain-stem histochemical analyses. Biol Psychiatry 1996; 40:422-425.
43. Benarroch EE, Schmeichel AM. Depletion of cholinergic mesopontine neurons in multiple system atrophy: a substrate for REM behaviour disorder? Neurology 2002; 58(suppl 3):A345.
44. Gjerstad MD, Aarsland D, Larsen JP. Development of daytime somnolence over time in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2003; 58:1544-1546.
45. Ondo WG, Dat Vuong K, Khan H, et al. Daytime sleepiness and other sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2001; 57:1392-1396.
46. Olanow CW, Schapira AH, Roth T. Waking up to sleep episodes in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2000; 15:212-215.
47. Frucht S, Rogers JD, Greene PE, et al. Falling asleep at the wheel: motor vehicle mishaps in persons taking pramipexole and ropinirole. Neurology 1999; 52:1908-1910.
48. Andreu N, Chale JJ, Senard JM, et al. L-dopa-induced sedation: a double-blind cross-over controlled study versus triazolam and placebo in healthy volunteers. Clin Neurophar-macol 1999; 22:15-23.
49. Ferreira JJ, Galitzky M, Montastruc JL, et al. Sleep attacks in Parkinson's disease. Lancet 2000; 355:1333-1334.
50. Fabbrini G, Barbanti P, Aurilia C, Vanacore N, Pauletti C, Meco G. Excessive daytime sleepiness in de novo and treated Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2002; 17:1026-1030.
51. Abbott RD, Ross GW, White LR, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness and the future risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20(suppl 10):S101.
52. Kaynak D, Kinziltan G, Kaynak H, Benbir G, Uysal O. Sleep and sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease before and after dopaminergic treatment. Eur J Neurol 2005; 12(3):199-207.
53. Arnulf I, Bonnet AM, Damier P, et al. Hallucinations, REM sleep and Parkinson's disease: a medical hypothesis. Neurology 2000; 55:281-288.
54. Tan EK, Lum SY, Fook-Chong SMC, et al. Evaluation of somnolence in Parkinson's disease: comparison with age and sex matched controls. Neurology 2002; 58:465-468.
55. Chaudhuri KR, Ellis C, Love-Jones S, et al. Postprandial hypotension and parkinsonian state in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 1997; 12(6):877-884.
56. van Hilten JJ, Weggeman M, van der Welde EA, Kerkhof GA, van Dijk JG, Roos RAC. Sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue in Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm 1993; 5:235-244.
57. Meindorfner C, Korner Y, Moller JC, Stiasny-Kolster K, Oertel W, Kruger HP. Driving in Parkinson's disease: mobility, accidents, and sudden onset of sleep at the wheel. Mov Dis-ord 2005; 20(7):832-842.
58. Ondo WG, Dat Vuong K, Khan H, et al. Daytime sleepiness and other sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2001; 57(8):1392-1396.
59. Lussi F, Peralta C, Wolf E, et al. Restless legs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Parkin-sonism Relat Disord 2005; 11(suppl 2):207.
60. Wetter TC, Collado-Seidel V, Pollmacher T, Yassouridis A, Trenkwalder C. Sleep and periodic leg movement patterns in drug free patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Sleep 2000; 23(3):361-367.
61. Dhawan V, Dhoat S, Williams A, et al. The range and nature of sleep dysfunction in untreated Parkinson's disease. Acomparative clinical study using the Parkinson's disease sleep scale and selective polysomnography. J Neurol Sci 2006; 248:158-162.
62. Diederich NJ, Vaillant M, Leischen M et al. Sleep apnea syndrome in Parkinson's disease. A case-control study in 49 patients. Mov Disord 2005; 20:1412-1418.
63. Stocchi F, Vacca L, Valente M, Ruggieri S. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease. Adv Neurol 2001; 86:289-93.
64. Grandas F, Iranzo A. Nocturnal problems occurring in PD. Neurology 2004; 63:S8-S11.
65. Chaudhuri KR, Pal S, Di Marco A, et al. The Parkinson's disease sleep scale: a new instrument for assessing sleep and nocturnal disability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neu-rosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73:629-635.
66. Martinez-Martin P, Salvador C, Menendez-Guisasola L, et al. Parkinson's disease sleep scale: Validation study of a Spanish version. Mov Disord 2004; 19(10):1226-1232.
67. Jenner PG. Is stimulation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors important for optimal motor functioning in Parkinson's disease? Eur J Neurol 1997; 4(suppl 3):S3-S11.
68. Yoshimura N, Sass M, Yoshida O, Takori S. Dopamine D1 receptor-mediated inhibition of micturition reflex by central dopamine from the substantia nigra. Neurourol Urodyn 1992; 11:535-545.
69. Onofrj M, Thomas A, D'Andreamatteo G, et al. Incidence of RBD and hallucinations in patients affected by Parkinson's disease: 8 year follow up. Neurol Sci 2002; 23:S91-S94.
70. Sinforiani E, Zangaglia R, Manni R, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2006; 21:462-466.
71. Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P. Clinical assessment of nocturnal disability in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson's disease sleep scale. Neurology 2004; 63(suppl 3):S17-S20.
72. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989; 28:193-213.
73. Hoddes E, Zarcone V, Smythe H, Phillips R, Dement WC. Quantification of sleepiness: a new approach. Psychophysiology 1973; 10:431-436.
74. Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): status and recommendations. Mov Dis-ord 2003; 18(7):738-750.
75. Dodel RC, Dubois B, Fahn S, et al. Addressing non-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease: the new version of the UPDRS. Mov Disord 2005; 20(suppl 10):S83.
76. Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep 1991; 14:540-545.
77. Abe K, Hikita T, Sakoda S. Sleep disturbances in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease—comparing with patients in the UK. J Neurol Sci 2005; 234(1-2):73-78.
78. TseW, Liu Y, Barthlen GM, et al. Clinical usefulness of the Parkinson's disease sleep scale. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2005; 11(5):317-321.
79. Marinus J, Visser M, van Hilten JJ, et al. Assessment of sleep and sleepiness in Parkinson disease. Sleep 2003; 26:1049-1054.
80. Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, Sampaio C. Evidence-based medical review update: pharmacological and surgical treatments of Parkinson's disease: 2001-2004. Mov Disord 2005; 20(5):523-539.
81. Schapira AH. Present and future drug treatment for Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neu-rosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(11):147-148.
82. Yoshimura N, Mizuta E, Kuno S, Sasa M, Yoshida O. The dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 suppresses detrusor hyperreflexia in the monkey with parkinsonism induced by MPTP. Neuropharmacology 1993; 32:315-321.
83. Van Den Kerchove M, Jacquy J, Gonce M, et al. Sustained-release levodopa in parkinsonian patients with nocturnal disabilities. Acta Neurol Belg 1993; 93:32-39.
84. Chaudhuri KR, Bhattacharya K, Agapito C, et al. The use of cabergoline in nocturnal parkinsonian disabilities causing sleep disruption: a parallel study with controlled-release levodopa. Eur J Neurol 1999; 6(suppl 5):S11-S15.
85. Ghatani T, Agapito C, Bhattacharya K, Clough C, Ray Chaudhuri K. Comparative audit of pergolide and cabergoline therapy in the treatment of nocturnal "off" periods causing sleep disruption in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol 2001; 8(suppl 1):8-11.
86. Reuter I, Ellis CM, Chaudhuri KR. Nocturnal subcutaneous apomorphine infusion in Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 1999; 100:163-167.
87. Hogl B, Saletu B, Brandauer E, et al. Modafinil for the treatment of daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease: a double blind, randomised, crossover, placebo controlled, polygraphic trial. Sleep 2002; 25(8):905-909.
88. Adler CH, Caviness JN, Hentz JG, et al. Randomised trial of modafinil for treating subjective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18:287-293.
89. Fantini ML, Gagnon J-F, Filipini D, et al. The effects of pramipexole in REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 2003; 61:1418-1420.
90. Tan A, Salgado M, Fahn S. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder preceding Parkinson's disease with therapeutic response to levodopa. Mov Disord 1996; 11:214-216.
91. Dowling GA, Mastick J, Colling E. Carter JH, Singer CM, Aminoff MJ. Melatonin for sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease. Sleep Med 2005; 6:459-466.
92. Krack P, Van Blercom N, Chabardes S, et al. Five-year follow-up of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 1925-1934.
93. Hjort N, Ostergaard K, Dupont E. Improvement of sleep quality in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease treated with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Mov Disord 2004; 19:196-199.
94. Factor SA, McAlarney T, Sanchez Ramos JR, Weiner WJ. Sleep disorders and sleep effect in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 1990; 5:280-285.
95. Nausieda PA, Weiner WJ, Kaplan LR, Weber S, Klawans HL. Sleep disruption in the course of chronic levodopa therapy: an early feature of levodopa psychosis. Clin Neu-ropharmacol 1982; 5:183-194.
96. Smith MC, Ellgring H, Oertel WH. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's patients and spouses. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45:194-199.
97. Gillberg M, Kecklund G, Akerstedt T. Relations between performance and subjective ratings of sleepiness during a night awake. Sleep 1994; 17:236-241
98. Comella CL, Stebbins GT, Bohmer J. Sleep benefit in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1995; 45(suppl 4):A286.
Was this article helpful?