Psychosis

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Psychosis is a disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking (13), and is estimated to occur in 20 to 40% of PD patients (14,15). The most common manifestations of psychosis in PD are visual hallucinations (14,16-18). Although visual hallucinations are a common feature of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and may occasionally occur in demented PD patients who are not taking medications, the vast majority of PD patients who develop psychotic symptoms do so on antiparkinsonian therapy, and may return to their nonpsychotic baseline if the PD medications are discontinued (19-21). All antiparkinsonian drugs, not just dopaminergic agents, have been demonstrated to cause psychosis (22-25). Visual hallucinations in PD may occur at any time, and may be vivid and realistic, or out of focus. Patients may experience "presence" hallucinations (the sensation that someone or something is in the room) or "passage" hallucinations (brief visions seen in the peripheral field of vision) (14). Auditory hallucinations are the second

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