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FIGURE 2 Poststimulation rasters and histograms of two ventrolateral thalamic neurons recorded in a human, undergoing globus pallidus internal segment (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the raster displays, a DBS pulse occurs at time zero. Each row represents the interstimulus interval between successive DBS pulses.There is an initial highly consistent response at approximately 1 ms, which corresponds to antidromic activation. This is followed by normal baseline activity and then, at approximately 3.4 ms, there is an inhibition of activity consistent with activation of GPi inhibitory effects.The inhibition lasts approximately 2ms.There is a return to baseline activity for approximately 2 ms followed by an increase in activity consistent with postinhibitory rebound increased excitability. The histograms represent the average neuronal activities following DBS pulses.The histograms have been normalized to represent the z-score changes from the prestimulation baseline. Thus, a z score of 1.96 represents an activity level that is 2 standard deviations above the mean discharge rate during the prestimulation baseline. Source: From Ref. 31.

consistent with activation of inhibitory inputs from GPi to VL thalamus (31). However, 24% of the VL neurons demonstrated a significant increase in neuronal activity, following the period of inhibition (Fig. 2). This percentage probably represents an underestimate of the number of neurons demonstrating postinhibitory rebound increased excitability by not detecting those neurons with rebound increased excitability below the threshold needed to generate extracellular action potentials detectable by microelectrode recordings.

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Brain Blaster

Brain Blaster

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