Do viruses cause PD

Viruses have been suspected as a cause of PD since the epidemic of encephalitis lethargica, the sleeping sickness that occurred early in the 20th century and was the basis for Oliver Sack's book Awakenings. In the winter of 1916-1917, a new illness suddenly appeared, and rapidly spread world-wide over the next 10 years. Symptoms of the sleeping sickness were so varied that no two patients ever presented exactly the same, and so strange as to call forth such diagnoses as epidemic delirium,...

Are there tests for PD

No specific test is currently available to determine whether PD is the cause of your symptoms. A disease-specific biological marker for PD has not been found. The only conclusive test for PD is a postmortem examination of the brain. Taking a history of your symptoms, their relationship to one another, their evolution, and performing a neurological examination is, at present, the best way of making a diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will not make a diagnosis of PD. It may reveal...

Do these symptoms mean PD Can they mean something else

The symptoms of PD are called parkinsonism, but not all people with parkinsonism have PD. In fact, some of the symptoms of PD may be present in other diseases, the pathology and causes of which are different from PD. These PD-like disorders initially may be difficulty to distinguish from PD. In time, over several years, the differences become apparent. Occasionally, when doubt persists, a trial of levodopa may be given. Improvement occurs in PD improvement is less consistent, or not present in...

How can I become less anxious

Anxiety is everywhere All around us And, if you have PD, you may be even more anxious. Anxiety, recognized or unrecognized, is an aggravating factor in many diseases, including PD. It's estimated that 95 million Americans, about one-third of us, are sufficiently anxious to seek help from our anxiety through counseling, meditation, alcohol, tobacco, and prescription drugs such as Ativan, Klonopin, Valium, Xanax, Paxil, and Zoloft. It's further estimated that 35 million people, about one-third of...

Cant sleep Is this PD or am I anxious or depressed

Anxiety and depression are common in PD and can interfere with sleep however, insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or difficulty staying asleep or both) is part of PD. It is normal during sleep for people to awaken during the night to roll over, to change positions, and then to fall back to sleep without any problem. People with PD may awaken and find themselves so stiff that they are unable to make such adjustments and then can't go back to sleep. The problem may be that your last dose of...

Have PD What do I do

If you have been diagnosed with PD, you may feel many conflicting emotions. You may fear becoming physically, emotionally, and economically dependent on others, or you may worry because the money that you've saved for retirement may have to go toward paying medical expenses. You may think that you no longer control your future or that you're alone and isolated. All of these concerns are normal however, there are things you can and should do to take control of PD. Your first reaction may be...

Think my PD is worse What do I do

It is not usual for PD to suddenly get worse. Because the progression of PD is slow, changes are barely perceptible and a sudden change is probably is not a result of the PD. Several things should be checked before you assume that it is the PD. First, have you missed any doses of medicine If things have been going smoothly, it is sometimes easy to miss a dose and not have any noticeable effect. Over time, those missed doses will make a difference. When do you take your medications Are the doses...

Urinate all the time

The normal process of bladder filling proceeds in silence as your bladder's walls become distended. You're not conscious of this until the contents of your bladder reach approximately 1,000 ml (1 liter). At this point, your bladder starts signaling your brain that the time for emptying has arrived. Your brain consciously now keeps your bladder from emptying until you find a suitable place to void. Once all is ready, your brain gives the go signal. Your bladder contracts while at the same time a...

If a relative and I have PD does this mean PD is inherited

Heredity or genetic predisposition may play a role. Between 15 and 25 of people with PD report that another relative also has PD. In about 1 of families in whom PD is known to occur in many members over several generations. Studies of the genetics of these families have identified specific, mutated genes that are linked to PD. However, the results cannot be generalized to all people with PD. Genes are the basis for heredity. A gene consists of a long strand of four molecules arranged like beads...

Is Nutra Sweet bad for PD

Aspartame (NutraSweet) is composed of two amino acids, aspartic acid and the methyl ester of phenylala-nine. When aspartame is absorbed, about 10 of the dose is converted to methanol, which is then converted to formaldehyde, then to carbon dioxide and water. All of these conversions occur by normal metabolic processes. These same processes are used in converting the methanol found in many fruits, fruit juices, vegetables, and wine to carbon dioxide and water. Thus, methanol is a natural...

Isnt PD a disease of old people

Although PD is more common in older people, it is not exclusive to them. The peak onset of PD is 60 years of age, hardly old these days however, 15 of PD patients are younger than 50, and 10 are 40 years or younger. For every person diagnosed with PD, at least two more have PD but have not been diagnosed. There are about 1.2 million people with PD in North America, and because the development of symptoms is slow and insidious, the time between onset and diagnosis may be between 2 to 5 years...

PD is progressive What does this mean

PD is a slowly progressive disease, which means that the symptoms worsen with time. The earliest symptoms can be so subtle and vague as to be dismissed or taken for something else. When you and your family look back, you may see that the changes you thought were related to aging were actually part of PD. For example, the stooped posture of PD may be taken as bad posture, or the softening of the voice may be taken as hoarseness. When PD begins, usually only one side is affected, such as...

Should I exercise

Exercise will not stop or reverse the progression of PD, but it can improve your body strength and muscle tone so that you will be less disabled. Regular exercise is important to everyone, including people with PD. It can become one of your best strategies for coping with PD besides the physical benefits, exercise can lift depression and improve your mood. Although even healthy people have difficulty sticking to an exercise program, it is even harder for someone with PD. Stiffness, fatigue,...

System ANS

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), as its name implies, regulates the body's internal environment. The ANS is affected early in MSA and late in PD. If, originally, you did not have ANS symptoms, but they have appeared, this indicates PD has progressed It has involved cells outside the substantia nigra. Shortly after you arrive in a doctor's office or an emergency room, your vital signs are checked temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, and rate of respiration. The vital signs mirror your...

What else can I do to cope with PD

PD does impose major lifestyle changes, and it is easy to feel an overwhelming sense of loss. You can no longer do many things as easily as you did before, or perhaps you may not be able to do them at all. Although PD may define what you can and cannot do, it does not define you. You are not your disease. You can regain a measure of control by making a list of all of the things that you can do. Then make another list of all the things that you can do to care of yourself, such as diet, exercise,...

What is pallidotomy

Pallidotomy is a surgical procedure that can decrease dyskinesia, reduce tremor, and improve bradykinesia. The ideal candidate is a young person who is healthy with no impairment in thinking and memory. The person should have a good response to PD drugs. This is unlike thalamotomy, where a good response to drugs is not necessary. Remember, tremor may not respond to PD drugs, while bradykinesia does, and dyskinesia results from PD drugs (levodopa). Pallidotomy is similar to thalamotomy except...

What is Parkinson disease

Parkinson disease (PD) is a journey a journey that, once started, will last a lifetime. Many people have taken this journey, have described the pitfalls, and have mapped the course. It is not a journey you will take alone Your family, friends, and neighbors will come with you. You will meet many travelers along the way and will have several doctors who will serve as guides to help you through the rough places, to point out the dangers, and to provide assurance and understanding. The many...

What is the goal of treatment

Because there is no cure, the goal of treatment in PD, as in all incurable diseases, is to provide you with the best quality of life that is possible. Successful treatment starts by establishing good working relationships between you, your doctor, and your family. It requires working together to find not only the best drugs but also the best ways to live with PD. To accomplish this, it is important that you know as much as you can about PD and how your drugs work. It is not enough just to take...

Why is PD called a movement disorder

Movement disorder is the term given to a broad category of problems that includes disorders of increased and decreased movement. Movement disorders can involve all parts of the nervous system the majority originate in the brain, although injuries or disorders of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves may also cause problems with movement. Diagnosing these disorders requires specialized training. Knowledge about the causes and mechanisms of movement disorders is growing rapidly, as are advances...

Will I be able to drive

Driving is the one common ritual that measures maturity and independence. As a teen, getting a driver's license is a major milestone of independence. Giving up driving is, for some people, equivalent to losing their freedom and independence. Can a person with PD continue to drive Early in PD driving should pose no problem as long as symptoms are mild and don't interfere with your ability to react to traffic situations. As symptoms progress, however, decreased motor skills and concentration may...

Why am I losing weight

About 10 of people with PD lose weight. This usually happens late in PD, but weight loss may occur early. Weight loss occurs with decreased food intake, increased metabolism, or both. In PD, weight loss may occur for the following reasons Decreased appetite may be caused by anxiety or depression, or by drugs such as Sinemet (which may also cause nausea). A decreased sense of smell (part of PD) often results in decreased sense of taste and less desire for food. Difficulty eating can cause you to...

My partner has PD Were both worn out Should we take a vacation

First, you need to decide what type of a vacation you want. Do you want to travel far Go to a resort Take a cruise Enjoy nature See an exotic part of the world These are all possibilities. It may take a bit of extra planning, but you may be pleasantly surprised at the options that are available. Airlines make special efforts to accommodate people with disabilities. You just need to let them know ahead of time what kind of accommodation you need. If your destination is a particular resort or...

Do I need vitamins

Health foods, nutritional supplements, and high doses of vitamins have not been shown in scientifically conducted studies, as opposed to anecdotal stories and paid testimonials, to help in PD. People with PD have the same requirements for vitamins as anyone, and if you eat a balanced diet, you will get all of the vitamins that you need. Two vitamins are of special interest in PD. Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, was thought to help PD when it was discovered in 1938. In 1950, however, the American...

Cant swallow Is this PD

Depending on how the question is asked, 30 to 95 of people with PD say they have difficulty swallowing. In most, the difficulty is minor, but in some it's major. Swallowing requires the coordinated action of many muscles, both voluntary and smooth. First, your tongue and jaw muscles prepare the food to be swallowed by chewing it and mixing it with saliva. Then, the muscles in the back of your mouth and throat start the swallow. They also seal off your windpipe and nose to keep food and liquids...

What are my chances of developing PD

At this time these questions cannot be answered with certainty. One day, when we understand the genetics of PD, how the environment may affect PD, the cause (or causes) of PD, and how PD progresses, we'll answer these questions with certainty. Then, again, when we understand all of the above, we won't have to answer these questions because we'll have a cure. Since we don't know what causes PD, we can only give approximate answers. To do so we state the following facts and make the following...

My dose of Sinemet no longer works Whats happening

Sinemet has a short half-life (a measure of its duration of action) and is delivered in pulses, irregularly and discontinuously, to the brain. This pulsatile and irregular delivery of Sinemet is partly responsible for wearing off or turning off (usually called on-off). This is also discussed in Question 27. The irregular delivery of Sinemet may be partly improved by adding Comtan. Comtan increases Sinemet's duration of action. The irregular delivery may be improved, in part, by adding a...

What is restorative surgery

Restorative or transplantation surgery transfers or implants dopamine-producing cells into the striatum. The striatum, from the Latin stripped-substance, is named because of the large number of fibers that cross it giving it a stripped or braided appearance. In the striatum fibers project downward from the cerebral cortex, co-mingling with dopamine fibers projecting upward from the substantia nigra. The striatum is composed of two parts the caudate nucleus and the putamen. The putamen is more...

How long before a cure

Before a cure for PD is found, its cause must be known. One problem in finding this cause for PD is that PD may not have a single cause it could have multiple causes. There may be an environmental component, such as exposure to a toxic chemical, but the chemical may affect only those people that have a particular genetic predisposition. There may be an infectious component, exposure to some relatively benign virus that, in time, alters the genetic composition of your brain resulting in a loss...

Move too much Whats happening

The twisting, turning, dance-like movements are called dyskinesia. This is also discussed in Question 27. This is what's happening to Michael J. Fox. Two types of dyskinesia exist dyskinesias that appear as Sinemet reaches its peak effect (called peak-dose dysk-inesia) and dyskinesias that appear at the start or at the end of a dose of Sinemet (before the next dose is due, called diphasic dyskinesias). Most people learn to live with their peak-dose dyskinesia if the dyskinesias don't interfere...

How do I meet other people with PD

You are not alone PD has a large and extensive support network. Several large national organizations, such as The National Parkinson Foundation, the Parkinson Disease Foundation (now merged into The Parkinson Foundation) and the American Parkinson Disease Association, that sponsor support groups throughout the country for PD patients and their families. Many hospitals and regional health centers also have support groups, and many patients have started groups of their own. A support group can be...

Why should I take Sinemet

Carbidopa levodopa (Sinemet) helps reverse most of the symptoms of PD in most people but will not delay the rate of progression of PD. There are, however, concerns about how long the action of Sinemet will last. The levodopa in Sinemet is changed by cells in the substantia nigra into dopamine. As PD progresses, there is a continual loss of cells in the substantia nigra and the remaining cells become less efficient in changing levodopa to dopamine. There is no evidence that levodopa increases...

What are the side effects of agonists

Nausea is the most common side effect of the agonists and can be avoided or minimized by starting with a low dose and gradually building up as tolerance to nausea develops. Some people benefit from an antinausea drug such as Tigan. Tigan, unlike the anti-nausea drugs Compazine or Reglan, does not aggravate the symptoms of PD. By starting with a low dose of an agonist you are not as likely to experience as quick and as dramatic an improvement as on Sinemet. But by starting low, and going...

Can I black out from PD

On February 1, 2002, Janet Reno, the former Attorney General of the United States, blacked out. Ms. Reno was giving a speech. She had been standing and talking for 45 minutes, she felt hot, and (as captured on television), she fell to the floor. She was immediately awakened, taken to a nearby hospital, evaluated overnight, and released the next day. Earlier, in 1998, while standing in church, Ms. Reno blacked out. The blackout occurred after Ms. Reno had completed a strenuous hike. A concern...

Have oily skin Is this PD

In some people, patches of oily, greasy, scaly, inflamed, reddened, and itchy skin develop in response to excess sebum production. Your scalp, the sides of your nose, your eyebrows, your eyelids, the skin behind your ears and the middle of your chest are the most common sites. These areas have the highest concentration of sebaceous glands. Associated with the dermatitis, dandruff may appear as scaling on your scalp without redness. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in infants, where it is called...

As a caregiver how can I cope with my partners PD

As a partner of someone with PD, you never expected to be in this situation, and you may feel unprepared for your new responsibilities. Frustration, anger, resentment, fear, sadness, and hopelessness may all rush over you, and then you may feel guilty for having these emotions Life seems to be spinning out of control. Like your PD partner, you need to accept this situation because PD is something over which you have no control. When you accept this, you can focus on parts of your life over...

Should I take glutathione

Glutathione is known to be an important antioxidant in the body and the brain. Glutathione is a tri-peptide, that is, it is made up of three amino acids strung together. Glutathione and the enzymes related to its metabolism have been reported to be depleted in the substantia nigra of people with PD. Whether this precedes the loss of the dopamine cells, or is a consequence of their loss (fewer cells means less 4Adapted with permission from Parkinson's Disease Guidelines for Medical Nutrition...

Is coffee good for PD

There have been studies that suggest that caffeine protects against PD. Thus, if your drink several cups of coffee a day, and have been doing so for many years, you may be 30 less likely to have PD. However, care must be taken in how these data are interpreted. Although it was found that people who drank coffee or other caffeine containing beverages such as tea, cocoa, and cola had lower incidences of PD, other explanations are possible. It could be that as PD develops, with its tremors and...

Is there surgery for PD

Surgery for PD and other movement disorders was pioneered in the 1940s by Meyers (United States). Large regions of the brain were exposed and using surface landmarks (there were no CT scans or MRIs) the basal ganglia a series of interconnected regions of the brain including the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus were located and ablated (destroyed). In 1947, Spiegel and Wycis developed a crown-like stereotaxic frame that held the head in place and allowed regions inside the brain to be...

Will I lose my mind

Approximately 30 of all people with PD develop a dementia, which is defined as a loss of previously acquired thinking skills. A mild loss of some of these skills is not dementia, but a marked loss of many of them is. Sometimes family members overlook changes in thinking and assume that the patient is exhibiting willful behavior or that the changes are part of a depression. Some patients are good at concealing their problems by deferring questions to other members of the family or by denying...

My husband seespeople in our bedroom Whats happening

Hallucinations may occur in people who are treated with PD drugs. They are usually visual and are often accompanied by delusions. The combination is called a psychosis. It may be difficult or even impossible for you to convince your spouse that there isn't anyone there or that you aren't going to harm him or her. Such symptoms cause distress to families and are the most frequently given reason for placing a patient in a nursing home. Psychosis may occur without dementia as in LSD, amphetamine,...

What are the side effects of Sinemet

Some of the side effects are not entirely side effects of Sinemet. Some (wearing off or on-off) result from progression of PD and the short duration of action of Sinemet some (dystonia, freezing) can be symptoms of PD (unrelated to drugs) or a side effect of Sinemet some (dyskinesia) are side effects of Sinemet and some (psychosis) are the effects of Sinemet and dopamine agonists temporarily unmasking an underlying dementia. Wearing off. After an optimal peak effect from Sinemet is attained the...

Ive been told that because I had a melanoma I cant take Sinemet Is this true

Shortly after levodopa's release, the author of this book, Dr. Abraham Lieberman, saw a person with PD who developed a recurrence of his melanoma after 4 months of treatment with levodopa. Melanoma is a pigmented cancer of the skin. If not recognized and treated, it can metastasize (spread) almost everywhere in the body, which can be fatal. However, even if a melanoma is recognized and removed, years later it can reappear. Melanoma contains an enzyme, tyrosine oxidase, that can use levodopa as...

Why are there two kinds of Sinemet

Carbidopa levodopa, Sinemet, comes in two forms immediate or regular release and controlled release. People with more advanced PD who had shorter responses to regular-release Sinemet were expected to benefit from the slower controlled-release form called Sinemet-CR. The coating surrounding Sinemet-CR slowed the absorption of levodopa into the bloodstream. It was thought this would overcome the wearing off effect that eventually appeared during treatment with regular-release Sinemet. Although...

What do I tell my grandchildren

Sooner or later your children or grandchildren will need to be told. How you tell them will affect how they deal with both you and PD. Keep the conversation light. Don't let your anxiety show. Let them know that it is a natural event, and reassure them that it isn't fatal or something contagious that they can catch. Use language that is appropriate for their age and level ofunder-standing. Encourage them to ask questions and share their concerns. The more accepting that you are of your...

What does a neurologist do

The neurologist will want to know why you came, your medical history, your family history (especially a history of PD or tremor), and what, if anything, in your social and work history may have contributed to your symptoms. Bring a summary of your medical history, including serious and chronic illness, hospitalizations, surgeries, allergies, medications taken, family and personal background, occupational risks, and lifestyle risks. If what you have to talk about is difficult to discuss,...

Does shortness of breath mean Im worse

Breathing is a basic function that occurs automatically, usually without conscious awareness. Breathing is controlled by the respiratory center in the brainstem. When a signal arrives from the respiratory center, the chest wall muscles and the diaphragm contract. This increases the space between the chest wall and the lungs, which in turn decreases the pressure inside the lungs. The lungs inhale to equalize the pressure inside with the pressure outside. As the lungs expand to fill the space in...

Do agonists slow the rate of progression of PD

Two studies strongly suggest that this may be true. One study using pramipexole (Mirapex) recruited 82 newly diagnosed PD patients from 17 movement disorder clinics to participate in a 46-month study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving Mirapex and the other Sinemet. They underwent SPECT using special markers to measure striatal uptake of dopamine at four different times during the study. The first was at baseline. The second was after 22 months. The third was...

Why am I obsessed

Prior to the introduction of L-dopa, doctors described a PD personality a person who was controlling, who had a need to do things just so, who was obsessed with orderliness and cleanliness. Today this person might be diagnosed as having an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). After the introduction of L-dopa there were reports of obsessive-compulsive behavior in many people with PD who were on L-dopa. The behavior included an obsessive fixation on sex. Indeed, at one time, L-dopa was thought to...

Organ Donation

National Neurological Research Specimen Bank VMAC (W127-A)-West Los Angeles 11301 Wilshire Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90073 (310) 268-3536 Francine M. Benes, M.D., Ph.D., Director Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center www.brainbank.mclean.org.8080 Privately sponsored National Disease Research Interchange (NDR) 1880 JFK Boulevard, 6th Floor Philadelphia, PA 191103 (800) 222-NDRI (800 222-6374) (215) 557-7361 University of Miami Brain Endowment Bank Department of Neurology (D4-5) 1501 N. W. Ninth...

Why cant I read anymore

You may have excellent vision, but reading is difficult. In PD, the muscles of your eyes slow down and may be less able to accommodate for the rapid movements that are necessary for scanning a line of print. Occasionally, you may have double vision. This condition, related to PD, may be helped by using specially designed prisms. A second condition related to PD may involve interpretation of the images cast on the retina by the lens of your eye. The retina contains dopamine cells, and when the...

Am seeing a neurologist What should I expect

Although your primary care doctor may have recognized the symptoms of PD, he or she is trained in family medicine or internal medicine and may see few people with PD perhaps 5 a year. Although he or she may recognize the symptoms, a family doctor may not have had the training in neurology to deal efficiently and effectively with PD. General practitioners may not be up to date on developments in PD, just as neurologists may not be up to date on developments in diabetes, heart disease, or cancer....

Should I take a drug holiday

If you're thinking vacation, don't think drug holiday it's not a vacation. Before dopamine agonists were available as alternatives to L-dopa, and before Clozaril, Geodon, and Seroquel, were used to treat the psychiatric complications of L-dopa, drug holidays temporary withdrawal of L-dopa to counteract side effects such as dyskinesia and psychosis were the rage. The holiday purged or cleaned the brain of excess L-dopa, but unfortunately it nearly did in the patient, as well. The holiday was...

What are some of the secondary

Secondary symptoms are often combinations of one or more primary symptoms, or they occur less frequently and consistently than primary symptoms, or they are minor annoyances. However, some secondary symptoms can result in major discomfort and disability. Not everyone with PD even has the same symptoms they vary from person to person. Understanding these symptoms can reduce their impact. There are several such symptoms, and although it's not possible to address them all, the most common ones are...

Is smoking good for PD

Several studies suggest cigarette smoking may protect against developing PD. Thus, if you smoke one or two packs a day and have been doing so for many years, you may be about 50 less likely to have PD. These studies indicate that the degree of protection is related to the number of packs smoked per day, and the number of years of smoking. There is no evidence, however, that once PD begins, smoking is protective. At different times it has been proposed that certain chemicals in cigarette smoke,...

My partner kicks and screams in his sleep Is he crazy

No But he may have a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Vivid and frightening dreams dominate thus, your partner may kick and scream as if running away from something, but after waking, he remembers nothing. REM sleep disorders are more disturbing to you than to your partner. Typically, dreaming occurs during a phase of sleep called REM (when the eyes are moving). Muscle tone during REM sleep is minimal, which stops your partner from acting out his dreams. During disordered REM sleep,...

Why start with a dopamine agonist

Dopamine agonists stimulate the dopamine receptors in the striatum directly, without having to be changed into dopamine. There are at least five types of in PD, the condition of alternating on (asymptomatic) periods with off periods in which symptoms such as freezing or dyskinesia are evident. a measure of the duration of the drug's action. dopamine receptors, labeled D-1, D-2, D-3, D-4, and D-5. The D-1 and D-2 receptors are important in PD. The D-3 receptors may be important in anxiety and...

How do I apply for disability

Many employers offer varying types of disability insurance as part of their benefits package to employees. If you are fortunate enough to be covered by such a policy, the human resources department of your employer will be able to guide you. There are also numerous other insurance policies for long-term disability, and if you have one, the insurance company should direct you as to how to apply. The one benefit that all Americans have paid into is Social Security, which, in addition to...

Why do I drool

Drooling (sialorrhea) results from difficulty in swallowing. Most of the time drooling is an annoyance. However, sometimes it's an embarrassment, and sometimes it's even a hazard Aspiration of saliva (swallowing saliva into your lungs) may result in pneumonia. Swallowing requires coordination of the muscles of your lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. Gravity aids in swallowing. During the day, when your head is erect (while you're seated or standing), saliva, propelled by your tongue, palate, and...

What are the primary symptoms ofPD

There are four primary symptoms of PD. To diagnose PD, at least two primary symptoms must be present. Tremor is the most characteristic symptom of PD and is the first symptom in 75 of people with PD. It appears as a beating or oscillating movement, usually of the hands but occasionally of the feet or chin. The movement is regular (4-6 beats per second) and is rhythmic, with each movement resembling the other. The tremor usually appears when the muscles of the hands or feet are relaxed, when...

Is Agent Orange or the Gulf War Syndrome a cause ofPD

Some studies show that people who work or live in rural, agricultural areas are more likely to develop PD than people who live in urban areas. Rural people are more likely to work with herbicides or pesticides. A few pesticides, such as one called rotenone, can cause PD in mice. At present it is not known if this is so in humans. Agent Orange is the name of a herbicide developed for the military, primarily for use in Vietnam. The purpose of Agent Orange was to deny the enemy cover and...

Is hormone replacement therapy HRT good for PD

Estrogen replacement can relieve hot flashes, which in some people can be debilitating. This is of concern to women with PD, whose risk for osteoporosis is increased. Also, although studies are not conclusive, there is evidence that estrogen may protect against PD. Evidence for this is small but tantalizing. More men than women have PD 55 men for every 45 women. Estrogen may modulate dopamine receptors. Some premenopausal women report that their PD drugs are ineffective during ovulation (the...

Abraham Lieberman MD

100 Questions & Answers About Parkinson Disease Sudbury, Massachusetts BOSTON TORONTO LONDON SINGAPORE Jones and Bartlett Publishers Jones and Bartlett Jones and Bartlett Publishers International Barb House, Barb Mews London W6 7PA UK 40 Tall Pine Drive Sudbury, MA 01776 978-443-5000 6339 Ormindale Way Mississauga, ON L5V 1J2 CANADA Copyright 2003 by Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or...

Cant get an erection

Few men bring up this issue with their doctors, and few doctors ask about it. This doesn't mean it's unimportant. The ability to achieve and maintain an erection is frustrating, embarrassing, and distressing to you and your partner. Achieving and maintaining an erection results from the successful interplay of several different physical and psychological processes. One or more of these may be impaired in PD. Thus, anxiety and or depression may result in a loss of a desire to have or think about...

Who is Abraham Lieberman

If you have Parkinson Disease, you may ask who I am, and why have the authority to write about the disease. I've studied PD for 30 years, and I'm currently the national medical director of The Parkinson Foundation, the largest charitable organization devoted to finding a cure for PD. The Parkinson Foundation TPF was formed in 2003 from the National Parkinson Foundation NPF headquartered in Miami and the Parkinson Disease Foundation PDF headquartered in New York. I am the Harold S. Diamond...