Smart Parenting Guide

Mom Conference

This is a3-day digital event consists of 32 world-class experts in the field of parenting who are sharing their inside secrets, tactics, and other methods they have used in order to be the best possible wife, mother, and person. It is hosted by Lauren and Desi who are two experts on the topic. They will share their secrets and tricks to overcome their issues in the pertinent conversation. In addition to that, you will get full access to talk with some of the best knowledgeable people in the field who will help you with your problems. The other thing about this conference is that it will allow you to connect and network with people you have an interest in. Some of the experts talking are probably also talking about some of your issues outside of the realm of being a mother such as legal issues, politics, how to start a business, the psychology of being a mother and ways to fill your time. It is hosted on a specific time but you can always catch up with the speakers on what they have said at their conference by watching the videos. The people are also very friendly and helpful and that is great because it helps you engage with your local community. Read more...

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Who should tell your child

This is purely a personal decision, influenced by ease of communication within the family, age and temperament of the child, religious beliefs, and sometimes physician recommendation. Young children (ages 1 to 3) primarily fear separation from parents. The presence of strangers in an already unfamiliar situation may cause additional fear. Many parents tell their small child in private, while others prefer to have a family physician, oncologist, social worker, clergy, or other family members present.

Longterm Effects Of Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment On Survivors Family Members

The literature on the effect of cancer diagnosis and treatment on family members is sparse.74 Of studies in this area, most have focused on the impact of cancer soon after diagnosis, during recurrence, or at the terminal phase of the disease.75-77 One study shows that partners of men with prostate cancer, generally from small convenience samples, report more distress than their sick partners, but also believe that their partners are more distressed. The only reviewed study of long-term prostate cancer survivors found that couples' health-related QOL was associated with marital satisfaction.61 Distress was inversely related to levels of family support. The men's focus of concern, on their sexual functioning (i.e., impotence), was not shared to an equal degree by their non-sick partners.78,79 The most relevant study included in our review focusing on family survivorship included families from 1 to 5 years posttreatment,80 thus making specific statements about the long-term effects of...

General Issues Regarding Inclusion of a Family Members in Treatment

We have discussed several ways to include family members in cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. A few final issues cut across the various interventions and bear mentioning. First, whenever multiple family members are involved in a session, even if it is not for formal family therapy, it is useful for the therapist to keep a few principles in mind. It is important to acknowledge that everyone in the room is having different thoughts and reactions, not just the identified patient. All family members need a chance to talk about their reactions and to feel understood. If someone has a lot of reactions, the therapist might ask him her to write them down to avoid interrupting other people as they talk. Also, in terms of pacing, it is important to move with the slowest person and to check continuously to make sure that everyone understands the information being presented. Finally, it is ideal if the family members finish the session with a common understanding of the problem, or...

IL1 Family Members in Inflammatory Skin Disease

The cytokines IL-1a and IL-1 have long been known to play a profound role in inflammation, and in the past decade another cytokine, IL-18 (originally known as IGIF), has also been realized to be an IL-1 family member and to possess significant inflammatory activity. Half a dozen additional members of the IL-1 family have been identified in recent years, and given their relatedness to IL-1 and IL-18, it is tempting to speculate that they too might possess inflammatory potential. We have demonstrated that certain of these cy-tokines can activate MAP kinases and the pathway leading to NFkB, via known IL-1R family members. Moreover, when overexpressed in skin, they are capable of causing an inflammatory skin condition resembling that seen in human disease. The similarities between IL-1, IL-18, and their receptors, on the one hand, and the new IL-1 and IL-1R family members, on the other hand, readily leads to speculation that the latter may, like their previously characterized...

Factors that Affect Parent Child Relationships

Parent-child relationships do not occur in a vacuum, and the context in which the relationships develop are likely to affect the nature of the relationships. Such factors as birth order, financial and emotional stress, social support, gender of the parent, infant temperament, and parent personality may influence qualities of the parent-child relationships and the impact of that relationship on the child's development. Marc Bornstein, in Handbook of Parenting, noted that mothers of first-borns engage with, respond to, stimulate, talk to, and express positive affection for their babies more than mothers of later-borns, even when there are no differences in first- and later-born behavior. Other researchers have found that financial and emotional stresses negatively affect the well being of parents and adversely affect their attentiveness and sensitivity to their children. Bornstein found that mothers who are supported emotionally by their husbands or other adults are less restrictive and...

Child care centers and infectious disease

Still, day care centers don't have to be breeding grounds for infectious diseases. In fact, recent research indicates that after the first year, children in child care get sick at about half the rate as do youngsters who are cared for at home. This is because youngsters at day care are simply exposed to germs sooner, and their immune systems sooner learn to cope with the onslaught of exposure. Before a child care facility can be licensed, they must meet certain hygiene standards, in a variety of areas, as set by local and state licensing authorities. Among other things, centers should clean all surfaces with a safe disinfectant. Surfaces should be dried with paper towels after being sprayed. Adequate ventilation and sanitation are necessary. Chemical air fresheners should not be used because many people are allergic to them. Many infections in child care centers are spread by fecal contamination. When diapers are changed, tiny amounts of feces on hands can be transferred to...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The effects of poverty on children may be mediated not only by parents and the home environment, but by the early care and educational environments in which many children spend time. Most American children from all income levels spend significant amounts of time in nonmaternal care during their early years. A 1999 Survey by the National Survey of America's Families shows that 73 of children under age 5 with employed parents were in nonparental child-care arrangements, primarily center-based care and care by relatives (Sonenstein, Gates, Schmidt, Bolshun, 2002). The work requirements set forth by the 1996 welfare law dramatically increased the number of children who require care while parents are working. Whereas the AFDC-based welfare system was originally intended to allow single mothers to remain at home to care for young children, the new TANF-based system is motivated by the goal of making single mothers economically self sufficient. As a result, low-income parents, especially...

Working with Your Childs Teacher

The school is a key arena where problems can crop up. If your child is constantly saying that he can't do schoolwork or can't participate in gym, teachers may think your child is faking it. What should you do Should you tell your child's teacher that your child has fibromyalgia You may think that the answer is an obvious yes (or, for that matter, an obvious no), but you have to consider some consequences that may occur, whatever you do (or don't do). Discussing the illness with the teacher is really an individual choice, but do keep in mind several factors 1 The teacher may treat your child differently not in a good way if she thinks that your child is disabled, making the workload too easy (or sometimes harder) for the child. You want your child to get a good education and not be given a free pass. Yet, at the same time, you don't want your child to feel overwhelmed or physically ill from trying to reconcile her fibromyalgia symptoms with school demands. As a parent, this path...

Teaching Your Child about Gum Massage

It's easy to prevent gum disease in children, and they have a better cleansing saliva than adults. The saliva is thinner and less acidic, which lessens plaque formation. Still, proper massage of the gums at an early age is important. You can help your children to find their gum line (where the teeth meet the gums). While children rarely get gum disease, they can become candidates for future gum disease if they do not massage their gums effectively. Massaging the gums will lead to healthy tissue. Have your child look at your mouth, and show him or her where your gum line is. Then work with your child to show him how the massage of the gums feels. It's important for children to learn how much pressure to exert on the gum. This process should be followed after tooth brushing. An electric toothbrush might better enable your child to learn the rhythm of the brush style. 1. First work on your child with the manual toothbrush, on the teeth and gums. Do not forget the gums, even on a young...

Child care centers and infectious disease since

Still, there are ways to lessen the risk. in fact, recent research indicates that after the first year, children in child care get sick at about half the rate as do those who are cared for at home. This is because youngsters in day care are exposed to germs sooner, and their immune systems learn to cope with the onslaught of exposure. Before child-care facilities can be licensed, they must meet certain hygiene standards in a variety of areas, as set by local and state licensing authorities. Among other things, centers should clean all surfaces with a safe disinfectant. surfaces should be dried with paper towels after being sprayed. Adequate ventilation and sanitation are necessary. Chemical air fresheners should not be used, because many children are allergic to them. Many infections in child-care centers are spread by fecal contamination. When diapers are changed, tiny amounts of feces on hands can be transferred to countertops, toys, and door handles, so that if one child is...

Talking to your family doctor

Your family doctor is usually the first person you turn to with your concerns. Expect your doctor to However, if the tests your family doctor recommends don't explain why you haven't conceived, or they reveal a problem that requires treatment, you need to move to the next level of care. You need a referral from your family doctor to see a specialist and most doctors are only too happy to provide a referral for infertility issues.

Helpingyour child to compensate

For reasons stemming from CAPD combined with one or more of the following (missing link, e.g. the unlearned behaviour of knowing that we must use language a small verbal working memory difficulties recognising facial detail), your child could behave in any of a number of ways 1. If he is asking you to repeat your questions or verbal instruction (What did you say Say that again. What I did not hear you. I can't remember. I have to think), and if when asking for repetition you detect an 'absentee' look on his face, then it is likely that he is experiencing difficulty focusing on your spoken word. He can hear all the other background noises and your words 'get lost'. Discriminating between what sound is important consumes much energy and most of your child's attention. Therefore a silent environment where only the spoken word is heard will help your child hear your voice and words. A classroom filled with many sounds makes it hard for your child to focus on the teacher's spoken word. By...

Being an advocate for your child

Of course, sometimes it isn't possible to stay with your child if you are a single parent or if both parents work full time. Many families have grandparents or close friends who stay with the hospitalized child when the parents cannot be present. Older children and teenagers may not want a parent in the room at night, but they may need an advocate there during the day just as much as the preschoolers. BEING AN ADVOCATE FOR YOUR CHILD When people are subject to stress, some people cope by focusing on all the details. For these people, being there all the time reduces their stress level. In other words, they would be more stressed if they were at home or work because they would be worrying all the time. Other people cope with stress by blocking out the details and trying to make life normal. I think that you need to think about how your family can best cope with this process and make your decisions based on that. Have a family meeting to sort out these issues, and don't feel bad if you...

Talking To Your Children About Diabetes

Lisa Copen lives with rheumatoid arthritis and has written about parenting with chronic illness. She explains how to talk to your children about your diagnosis during the different developmental stages of childhood. As a parent, if you become ill, your illness has a profound impact on the entire family system. In spite of your own increased stress, confusion, and anger, your children will look to you to maintain or return to normal family routines as soon as possible. If you, or your spouse, present an image of feeling overwhelmed or being consumed with the illness, your children will feel as if life is spiraling out of control.1 To help preschoolers, it is essential to assure them that the illness is not their fault. Returning to a security object should be encouraged, rather than discouraged. Answer all questions honestly, including those about death. This is a good time to rely on books, which helps your child on working through complex and often frustrating feelings about illness.

Child Development With Bibliography

Kaiser, Javaid. ''The Role of Family Configuration, Income, and Gender in the Academic Achievement of Young Self-Care Children.'' Early Child Development and Care 97 (1994) 91-105. Lamorey, Suzanne, Bryan E. Robinson, Bobbie H. Rowland, and Mick Coleman. Latchkey Kids Unlocking Doors for Children and Their Families, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage, 1999. Long, Thomas J., and Lynette Long. ''Latchkey Children The Child's View of Self Care.'' ERIC Database no. ED211229 (1981). Rodman, Hyman, David J. Pratto, and Rosemary S. Nelson. ''Child Care Arrangements and Children's Functioning A Comparison of Self-Care and Adult-Care Children. Developmental Psychology 21 (1985) 413-418. Vandell, Deborah Lowe, and Janaki Ramanan. ''Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Choices in After-School Care and Child Development. Developmental Psychology 27 (1991) 637-643.

Parentchild Relationships

In two significant articles on parenting, W. Andrew Collins and his colleagues, writing in American Psychologist, and Eleanor Maccoby, writing in Annual Review of Psychology, both noted that an enormous body of literature supports the important role of parents in shaping the development of children. Collins and his colleagues and Maccoby were responding in part to the contention ofJudith Harris, author of The Nurture Assumption, that parental influence on child development may not be as great as the influence of genetic predispositions and the influence of peers. Maccoby persuasively argued that such a contention is out of date in view of genetic studies suggesting that experiences children have with parents and others can modify genetic influence and of the substantial body of literature showing the importance of parent-child relationships for a child's development. This large body of literature suggests that it is the quality of the parent-child relationship that is particularly...

Reaping the Rewards of Parenthood

If you're overwhelmed by the demands of caring for your newborn and wonder when life is going to feel 'normal' again, don't despair. After the first crazy few months of new parenthood the dust usually settles and things start to look up. You may get the odd night of decent sleep, your baby has some sort of a routine, you know what your baby wants when she 'calls', you feel confident about caring for her, and you get plenty of rewards for your efforts when your baby giggles and shows her toothless gums. Even if your confidence about caring for your baby is a bit shaky at first, rest assured that you're not alone and very soon you'll be an expert on looking after your baby. Research shows that confidence about caring for the baby grows over time and most IVF mums and dads find parenthood enormously rewarding and fulfilling. Perhaps the long and winding IVF journey, during which you realise that you can't take parenthood for granted, makes you appreciate and value parenting even more...

The Ultimate Responsibility For Your Childs Outcome Rests With

To provide the best possible care for your child, you must do some hard work. You must pick the right team, carefully choosing the doctors who take care of your child. Once you have chosen them, you must follow their advice. If you do not understand or do not like the advice, ask questions. Get answers. If you are not satisfied, get a second opinion. Then ask more questions. Even after you have found a doctor with whom you are comfortable, you have not transferred the responsibility for your child's outcome to the doctor. You must make sure your child takes the medicine, does the exercises, keeps the appointments, gets the blood tests, and gets the treatments needed. It's not easy to find the time, to pay for it, or to take on the responsibility. But if you want the best outcome, it's not optional.

Getting the Best Results for Your Child

There are three major determinants of the outcome of any project your level of effort and knowledge, the effort and knowledge of the people who work with you, and luck. No one can control luck, so it is very important to maximize your efforts and choose the best possible people to work with. First and foremost, you need a primary care physician you trust. If you simply picked your doctor from a book or you go to a group where you get a different doctor every time, make sure someone is listening to your concerns. If you think something is wrong with your child, make sure the doctor listens and examines your child carefully.

Let your childs behaviour teach you about his needs

If during interactive or just protective moments your efforts are directed towards helping your child within the parameters2 of his reality, dictated by his sensory system and his ability to make sense of what you want from him, he will learn at his own pace how to adjust to a larger reality. As for 'getting' everything right, I did not do 'everything right' and I know of no one who was always right. My advice is not to worry if you misinterpret what your child wanted. You can amend and apologise for your actions but you cannot amend inaction. Getting it right is a mixture of attitude, knowledge and desire to learn more If, out of love alone, you don't do to your child what you don't want done to yourself, you have already half'got it right'.

Motivating Your Child

Poorly motivated children are candidates for gum disease. You are their guardian to help them prevent the onset of the disease. Highly motivated children have highly motivated parents those who continue to work with their own hygiene problems help to motivate their children. Make sure to compliment or reward your child for good oral hygiene, and compliment your child's smile. As just discussed, set up a fun and playful work station help your children love their teeth by using fun products such as music to make your children happy and help them increase dexterity and rhythm Also, keep these considerations in mind when selecting a dentist hygienist for your child The cleaning of a child's teeth and gums can be looked on as a way to further his or her total body health. Motivate your children early on in their development.

If your child is physically attacked

Sometimes, other children or adolescents can become physically abusive, and taunting may escalate to pushing and even punching. If this type of violence happens to your child, it's illegal. Report it to the school authorities if it happens at school, and if the abuse is beyond a few minor pushes, report it to the local police as well. Remind yourself that a bullying child who can be stopped and rehabilitated now is less likely to grow up to become an adult who assaults others. But above all, protect your child from physical harm. That's part of your job as a parent.

Teach Your Kids Right

U a nd the child Jesus grew and became strong in spirit. Filled .AA with wisdom, the grace of God was upon him, (Luke 2 40). How were you trained What are you speaking into your children Monkey see monkey do. Spend time with your family. Children yearn to be with mom and dad. I have learned from experience that you need to place your children in an environment in which you wish for them to blossom and grow. I have two brothers. We were not allowed to watch the Three Stooges as children, smart move on my parent's part. Natural Prescription for Health Make an effort to spend quality time with your children.

When to Withhold Your Childs Medication

This is a subject that is frequently overlooked. If your child is sick with the flu or a virus and not keeping anything down, you do not want to give him or her NSAIDs or immunosuppressive medications. The only arthritis medication that is vital to take even when one feels sick is corticosteroids (see below). All the other medications should be avoided, and you should call the doctor for instructions. It is also important not to give your child the medication if something goes wrong every time he or she takes it. If something unexpected is happening, it may be a side effect. The proper course of action is to stop giving the medication and call the doctor. If you keep giving the medication despite problems, you may make the whole situation worse. If you stop the medication because you think it's causing a side effect or not helping but do not tell the doctor, how is the doctor going to help you If the medication the doctor has prescribed does not work for your child, call the doctor,...

Finding Help for Your Child with FMS

Suppose that you're convinced that your child has fibromyalgia. What's the first step When deciding where to get help for your child or teen, start with his pediatrician, even though some pediatricians are wary of diagnosing fibromyalgia in children. If you find that your child's pediatrician is completely unsympathetic and unwilling to seek out the cause of your child's symptoms, you may want to look for another pediatrician. My guidelines for finding a new doctor, in Chapter 7, can be adapted to finding a new pediatrician. Your child's pediatrician may also decide that the child needs to see another physician. In most cases, the child with FMS-like symptoms should see a pediatric rheumatologist or a pediatric neurologist, specialists experienced with treating joint and muscle disorders, including fibromyalgia, in children. If your child needs to see a pediatric rheumatologist, your pediatrician can provide a referral for that.

Cherishing your child

Open your heart to your child and figure out for yourself what your child would want you to provide for him, so the communication bridge between your parallel worlds grows solid and long lasting. This book is dedicated to all the people who wish to befriend and feel the joy of friendship when In Chapter 1 I asked you to imagine autism and autistic as a different culture. Remember that, but do forget it sometimes. Your child's soul, his unspoken love for you and his love for life are the same as yours. Your child is not an alien. He is a human being. His hugs feel just as reassuring as your hugs, his smile is just as powerful as yours and his tears convey just as much pain as yours. Remember that the next time the two of you cannot make sense of each other. No establishment could love your child more than you. Your child's present and future difficulties need not be those of Paradox's, Feather's, Bexxy's, Tom's, Pierce's, Alexander's or other Alexanders of this world. His path is...

Giving Your Childs History

As a parent evaluating your own child, ask yourself these questions and think about the answers. Your physician will want to know the answers to help arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. In addition, knowing the answers to these questions and what diseases they suggest will help you decide whether the physician's diagnosis makes sense to you. If it does not, discuss what you have noticed with your physician. If the physician is not interested in your child's history, something's wrong. The first thing you should have in mind when you go to the doctor's office is your chief complaint. What is it that you want the doctor to fix Do not tell the doctor things other doctors have told you. Tell the doctor what the problem is as clearly as you can, for example, My daughter's left knee hurts. Sometimes the problem is more general My son aches all over and feels very weak. If your child is old enough to explain, let him or her answer the questions in the doctor's office. You may have to help...

Do Child Care Arrangements and Structured Out of School Activities Mediate Poverty Effects

Children from low-income families are most likely to receive home-based and low-quality child care and less likely to participate in center-based care and structured out of school activities. These patterns point to working poor and near-poor families as those whose children may be most at risk for extended exposure to poor-quality care centers and less likely to be involved in structured activities that may lead to the enrichment and development of skills and competencies. Correlational, longitudinal, and experimental research also identifies the quality of child care and participation in organized activities as important contributors to children's intellectual and academic development and probably to social-emotional competence as well. The next step in testing a media-tional model is to determine whether features of child care and the types of out of school activities account for the relations of family poverty to children's outcomes. The evidence available is somewhat conflicting....

How to Tell If Your Children Need Help

Various warning signs may indicate that your child needs professional help in dealing with her or his emotions and with your illness. Of course, your family members, especially children, must have the medical and psychological attention they need as they struggle with the day-to-day issues that arise when a parent has cancer. Treatment should focus on the whole family and is generally more successful for everyone when this is the case. Parents who see their children become casualties of their illness may feel guilty or depressed and have a harder time with their physical recovery than parents who take a proactive role in promoting good mental health and coping skills for their children.

Including Your Children Who Dont Have Fibromyalgia

When your child has a chronic medical problem, and it's one that your other children don't have, you may feel like you're balancing on a tightrope sometimes. You don't want to pay so much attention to the sick child that the healthy children think that they should act sick to be heard and seen. But at the same time, you can't ignore FMS, just as you can't ignore other chronic medical problems your child may have, such as diabetes, asthma, and so on. Try to make sure that every child gets special time with you, tailoring the amount of time and the activity to the child. A teenager may need less time and would probably cringe in horror at the idea of going to a movie with her parents (and sitting next to them), while a younger child may love this idea. A walk with your teenager (far away from where you can be seen by anyone he knows ) may be a good idea instead. And explain that you don't love the sick child more or less than your other children. It's just that, sometimes, the child...

Where should your child receive treatment

After a tentative diagnosis of leukemia, most physicians refer the family for further tests and treatment to the closest major medical center with expertise in treating children with cancer. It is very important that the child with leukemia be treated at a facility that uses a team approach, including pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, specialized surgeons and pathologists, pediatric nurse practitioners, child life specialists, pediatric radiologists, rehabilitation specialists, education specialists, and social workers. State-of-the-art treatment is provided at these institutions, offering your child the best chance for remission (disappearance of the disease in response to treatment) and ultimately, cure. Usually the child is admitted through the emergency room or the oncology clinic, where a physical exam is performed. An intravenous line (IV) is started, more blood is drawn, and a chest x-ray is obtained. Early in your child's hospitalization, the oncologist will perform a...

Getting Your Child to Take the Medication

Getting your child to take his or her medication depends a lot on the age of the child. For babies, all you can do with pills is mash them up and hide them in applesauce or another favorite food and make sure it goes down. Liquid medications can often be put in with formula. A compounding pharmacist can make many medications that do not come in liquid form into liquids, and add a flavor that the child likes. You may have to ask around to find one, and your insurance company may not always pay the cost, but it may be worthwhile just to avoid the aggravation. Each medication is different, so check with your doctor. If your child is little, it's best to make taking medication a positive experience. However, remember to keep the medication well out of reach, as a small child who is rewarded for properly taking medication might take the whole bottle if he or she finds it. Liquid medicines may be combined with something that the child likes (chocolate milk is popular). For children over the...

What Your Childs Therapist Can Offer

Your family may have adapted to your AS-HFA child's social deficits, and therefore you might not consider the problem an enormous one at home in your daily activities. But social difficulties tend to be more pronounced in groups and with peers. So social problems may in fact be fairly significant for your child at school, at the local playground, or in a scout troop. We know that people with AS-HFA have trouble generalizing from one situation to another, so it's important to teach social skills in settings that are similar to those in which the children experience difficulty. When teaching social behavior to a child with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome, the therapist or teacher may be impressed by how fast the child learns new skills, only to be surprised later at how poorly these skills are used with peers. Thus, teaching in a group context is essential. Formal instruction, with specific skills taught sequentially, is also important. Most parents are not equipped to...

Identifying Your Childs Strengths

The six characteristics listed above are a good place to start in identifying your own child's potential strengths. But keep in mind that it's not always easy or simple to identify strengths. Nor is it easy to determine which behaviors that usually manifest themselves as weaknesses can be redirected to make them strengths. When your child's endless discussion of the detailed features of myriad video game characters is getting in the way of social interactions and family plans, it can be a chal lenge to recognize that this behavior is reflective of a great memory. Observe your child's behavior in a variety of contexts and consider the following questions What does your child enjoy When he has free time, what does he choose to do What things does she ask you about What things does he tell you about What kinds of items does she ask you to buy What subjects in school does your child enjoy the most In what types of family activities does he or she have the most fun When is your child most...

Observation of Your Child

The professional will also observe your child and interact with her for some period of time, making note of the same types of symptoms he or she asked you about in the interview. The examiner might set up specific situations to make sure that certain symptoms, if present, are evident during the observation period. Eye contact, for example, is often poor in children with autism spectrum conditions. To be certain that your child's eye contact is limited with the examiner because of an autism spectrum disorder and not just due to shyness or lack of opportunity, the examiner might set up explicit scenarios that powerfully pull for eye contact, such as making it necessary that your child ask for help. In such situations, typical children almost always make eye contact. Similarly, the examiner might ask your child to tell a familiar story, because most typical children will periodically make eye contact to be sure that you are following them or are interested in what they are saying. An...

Helpful Parenting Strategies

Parenting a child with bipolar disorder can be a stressful and frustrating experience. First and foremost, it is important for parents to remember that they are not to blame for their child's difficult behaviors. It is also important to remember that these children are suffering from an illness that can get in the way of their behaving appropriately. Although their behavior in the moment can be quite outrageous, children often feel very remorseful or ashamed once the crisis has passed. In addition, the following general parenting strategies may be helpful. Maintain structure and regularity in activities. As with adults, children with bipolar disorder are vulnerable to disruptions in their schedules. They may benefit from a predictable schedule of activities that is not too hectic but avoids long periods of downtime. This can be particularly important during the weekends or vacation. Relaxing or soothing activities can also help a child during stressful periods or during particularly...

Step 5 Reward Your Child for Using the Strategy by Showing That It Gets His or Her Needs

You must make sure that the new communication strategy you've taught your child is as effective as the old one. If screaming or repetitive complaining is more effective than saying I want to finish this video or holding up a break card, your child will have little motivation to use the new strategy. Whenever possible, immediately reward your child for using the appropriate communication, first by praising him or her ( I'm glad you're using your new words ) and then by honoring the communication and making sure the natural positive consequences occur When your child requests help, immediately assist him or her. If your child asks to leave a situation, provide him or her with a break right away. If your child asks for your attention, stop what you're doing and provide some time, interest in, and engagement with him or her. Your child will learn that these new, appropriate behaviors are just as effective or even more effective in meeting his or her needs than the challenging behaviors...

Induction of Immunity and Inflammation by Interleukin12 Family Members

7.1 Structure of IL-12 Family Members 108 7.2 Expression of IL-12 Family Members and Their Receptors 109 7.4 Biology of IL-12 Family Members 112 7.5 Role of IL-12 Family Members in Host Defense 114 7.6 Antitumor Activity of IL-12 Family Members 116 7.7 Role of IL-12 Family Members in Organ-Specific Autoimmunity . 117 7.1 Structure of IL-12 Family Members

When Your Child Has Braces

When braces are worn, gum tissue can swell and stretch. The tooth movement causes pressure on the gum and this creates stretching of the gum fibers and causes irritation. You may notice blood on your child's toothbrush. If so, make sure that your child massages his or her gums daily with a natural cleansing toothpaste with baking soda. Also, children who wear braces usually keep their mouths open at night. If this is what your child is doing, then use a natural aloe gel on his or her gums, or moisturize the gums at bedtime with Vaseline.

Tips on Finding a Good Dental Professional for Your Child

It is important to find a good professional for your child. An early experience with a good professional can lead to a lifetime of healthy teeth and gums. Please follow the suggestions below to make this experience easier. The office should be a cheerful and friendly place that will help reduce your child's fears. The dentist must have the personal time to answer your and your child's questions. If your child has decay on certain teeth, ask to see the X rays. If the dentist acts impatient about this request, then find another one If the professional office you yourself visit sees children and you are confident in the staff, then use the office for your child. If you feel you would like a specialist (pedodontist), then remember you do not want an overly busy office that has little time for you and your child. Most children's dentists offices have a waiting room filled with toys. This can help relax your child but it is more important that quality care be offered. Do your best to see...

When to tell your child

You should tell your child as soon as possible after diagnosis. It is impossible to prevent a child from knowing that he is seriously ill. The child has been whisked to an unfamiliar hospital by frightened parents, endured painful tests, and received drugs and transfusions. Cards and presents begin to arrive, and friends and siblings are absent or behave in a strange manner. The child may meet other children with a variety of physical problems at the hospital.

Values for healthy children

Each laboratory and lab handbook has slightly different reference values for each blood cell, so your lab sheets may differ slightly from those that appear later in this appendix. (See Figure B-1.) There is also variation in values for children of different ages. For instance, in children from newborn to 4 years old, granulocytes are lower and lymphocytes higher than the numbers listed below. Geographic location affects reference ranges as well. The following table lists blood count values for healthy children. Values for Healthy Children

Step 6 Be Sure That the Challenging Behavior Is No Longer Effective in Getting Your Childs Needs

Leave your child no alternative for getting his or her needs met besides the new, appropriate method you've taught. Ignore the problem behavior whenever it occurs, but provide a prompt for the new communication. For example, if your child screams whenever she wants to avoid a situation, prompt her to use an appropriate phrase, but do not permit her to leave the situation while she is screaming. The steps we've described are straightforward, but it is no easy task to switch your child from challenging behaviors to more appropriate means of attaining the same goals. It will be crucial for you to practice with your child and to ensure that appropriate strategies will be more reinforcing than those based on difficult or inappropriate behaviors. Some parents have lamented that when they try to alter these challenging behaviors, they seem to increase in frequency. Although it may seem counterintuitive, this is actually a good sign. When children find that their old, tried-and-true strategy...

Steps in Finding the Right Program for Your Child

As soon as you receive the diagnosis, contact the principal of your child's school. 2. After determining if your child is eligible for special education, find out about different classroom options in your district. 3. If your child is not eligible for special education, request an appointment with the district's 504 Coordinator. Call your state autism society or the doctor who diagnosed your child for the names of private schools that have worked successfully with AS-HFA children. While these statutes grant specific educational rights to your child, it is important to understand that obtaining these rights involves a very intense process. Many stages and layers of development must be passed through on the way to putting a program into place for an individual child. Through these stages and layers, you may find that your local school is cooperative and open to new ideas, or you may find that the school has a preset agenda and is not willing to compromise. If you reach the latter point,...

Are You and Your Child Alone in This

As you search for answers about how and why your child is so different, you may feel tremendously alone. You may have spent years feeling that no one else has a child just like yours. In fact you may never have heard of high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome before your doctor or someone else raised it. Actually, you're not nearly as alone as you may now feel. Prevalence estimates vary widely, with numbers as high as 1 of the school-age population occasionally suggested for the whole autism spectrum and between 0.2 and 0.5 (or 2 to 5 individuals in 1,000) with Asperger syndrome alone. Many researchers believe these numbers are high, but even more conservative estimates suggest that autism spectrum disorders are much more common than we ini In this first chapter, we described the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and how they influence the lives of affected children and their families. Our goal, at this point, is to help you decide whether the diagnoses of Asperger...

Your Childs Ability to Handle Emotion

In both of these examples, we see children who fail to monitor their level of arousal and encounter social difficulties as a result. There are a few strategies parents can use to help children learn to regulate their emotions better. First, you can encourage your child to use words to express his or her feelings. It is precisely when preschoolers learn to verbalize that their tantrums precipitously decrease. Begin by teaching your child to notice when he or she is experiencing an emotion, such as joy, anger, or sadness. Then verbally label these emotional states for your child and encourage your child to express these feelings in words (for example, I am feeling angry ). If your child needs it, you can also provide visual cues, such as a sheet of paper with several emotions depicted on it, to help your child figure out his or her emotional state (see the Appendix for resources). After your child has expressed his or her feelings in words or by using pictures, provide some ways of...

Involve Your Family

Your loved ones may be puzzled by your failing memory and may not connect it with the same demyelinating process that has you walking with a cane and going to the bathroom every half hour. Family members and friends need to be educated concerning the realities of cognitive dysfunction and MS. Without accurate information, those around you may attribute your cognitive changes to stress, depression, age, menopause, stubbornness, laziness, or any of a myriad of other mistaken notions. In addition, many of the strategies you work out for yourself will require active cooperation on the part of family members, friends, and coworkers. For example, if you establish quiet times and places to do your work, those around you will need to respect those boundaries. If you institute a family calendar and telephone message center, everyone must establish new habits to make the system work. Most important, you need your family and friends to understand your limitations without treating you with...

Feed Your Kids Right

Children are precious and what grandma consumed, smoked, or drank has the potential to impact your child's health. I have observed that the second child often times can have liver congestion or stress because mom and the first child especially with the toxic food and pollution today may have been overburdened. It is not uncommon for me to see female patients have their gall bladder removed after the second child due to an overworked liver from pregnancy. What you feed your kids can overwork their livers leading to liver stress even early in their lives. I have had 8-year-old patients who were told they needed gall bladder surgery. I really believe that breast feeding is best. Goat's milk is a viable option. Do not feed children solid food too soon. Avoid soda and hydrogenated fats. Watch the going out to eat pattern. Avoid milk it causes ear infections and allergies. Use almond, rice, or oat milk. Soda pop depletes calcium and the sodium benzoate can cause food allergies. Use almond...

Your childs pattern

Each child develops a unique pattern of blood counts during treatment, and observant parents can help track these changes. This appendix contains a record-keeping sheet that you can use to record your childs blood values (see Figure B-2). If there is a change in the pattern, show it to your childs doctor and ask for an explanation. Doctors consider all of the laboratory results to decide how to proceed, but they should be willing to explain their plan of action to you, so that you better understand what is happening and can worry less. If your child is participating in a clinical trial and you have obtained the entire clinical trial protocol (discussed in Chapter 4, Clinical Trials), it will contain a section that clearly outlines the actions that should be taken by the oncologist if certain changes in blood counts occur. For example, my daughters protocol has an extensive section which lists each drug and tells when the dosage should be modified. For vincristine it states

Child Care

By the twenty-first century, most infants in the United States experienced some form of child care in their first year of life. This represented an enormous shift in how children in the United States were raised, a shift that led to concerns about whether infant child care disrupts mother-child attachment. Some have argued that infants experience daily separations as maternal rejection, which should lead to avoidance, while others have suggested that separations prevent mothers from having sufficient opportunities to develop sensitive caregiving styles. The results of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, a study of more than 1,000 infants and their mothers, clearly demonstrated that neither security nor avoidance in the Strange Situation was associated with type of care, amount of care, or quality of care. Instead, security was associated with characteristics of mothering, such as sensitivity. Infants who experienced dual risks, for...

Single Parenting

Andrea McDowell is a single mom to her daughter Frances. She says that single parenthood has not been as difficult as she feared But then, there are surprises that can't be described as lovely, such as there is no slack when you are a single mother. Married moms can act carelessly in ways that you can't. You are already assumed to be screwing your kids up just because you do not have a husband you are under more scrutiny and more suspicion, or at least, it feels like it. Things you would never have done when you were married, you do now, even though you have so much less time and energy, because you are single and you need to prove to the world that you can do this. You are not damaging the most important person in your world. He or she will be fine and you will be fine and you can handle all of this. I never mopped when I was married. I changed the sheets on a seasonal schedule when I was part of a couple and now, it is regular as clockwork, every 2 weeks. Sometimes, when I was...

The Shared Asian American Heritage

The role of family as central is another common tenet in most Asian cultures, and this familial devotion is often seen in Asian-American children as well. Brian Leung discusses these deep familial ties, noting that Asian-American parents are often seen as sacrificing their own needs for the needs of their children, and in turn adult children are often expected to care for their elderly parents. Also, respect for elder family members is more common in Asian-American cultures than in Western societies.

History of Attachment Theory

World Wars I and II alerted mental health professionals and the general public alike to the importance of close interpersonal relationships in development. Particularly in Europe, where casualty rates were highest, psychological trauma due to the loss of loved ones was common. Therapists, in fact, reported that death of family members was a frequent reason for individuals to seek therapy during the postwar years. In this context, British psychiatrist John Bowlby, while working with children and adolescents in London orphanages, discovered that the most disturbed children were those who had experienced separations from their caregivers, particularly their mothers. Consider, for example, his account of a seven-year-old girl

The Importance of Spacing

While researchers do not always agree on how spacing (the years between each birth) between siblings influences personality and behavior, there is a general belief that children have an easier adjustment if siblings are not extremely close in age. Sibling rivalry does have a tendency to decrease as the age spread increases, which may result in better-adjusted children. Research indicates that this rivalry is at a peak when there is two year's difference between children. Other variables such as parenting styles, gender, and physical mental characteristics of the child seem to have more influence on behavioral outcomes than spacing.

Distinguishing Two Types Of Narrative

Two common forms of narrative discourse during the preschool years are personal narratives and fantasy stories. In personal narratives children report their personal experiences in contexts like parent-child conversation and dinner-table talk (Aukrust & Snow, 1998 Blum-Kulka, 1997 Ochs, Taylor, Rudolph, & Smith, 1992 Peterson & McCabe, 1992). In fantasy stories children narrate fictional happenings in the context of everyday pretend play, initially with the support of mothers or other older family members, but with increasing autonomy as children get older (Haight & Miller, 1993 Sachs, Goldman, & Chaille, 1984). Competent renditions of these two forms of narrative generally share some important features a focus on a protagonist or protagonists and a set of related actions that these actors carry out the reporting of supportive details such as setting or character attributes the use of a range of strategies for linking events together and tying actions to consequences and the inclusion...

Influence of Friends on One Another

Friends can have negative effects on children if they engage in problematic behaviors. For example, aggressive children tend to have aggressive friends. Similarly, adolescents who smoke or abuse alcohol or drugs tend to have friends who do so. However, because children tend to chose friends who are similar to themselves in behaviors, attitudes, and identities, it is difficult to determine whether friends actually affect one another's behavior or if children simply seek out peers who think, act, and feel as they do. Some research suggests that friends do influence one another's behavior, at least to some degree or for some people. For example, some investigators have

The Children Left Behind

In the United States there are specific groups of children that are at an especially high risk for being without health insurance. A national survey in 1998 found that teens, children of color, and children in single-parent families were at a particularly high risk for being uninsured. Other research also indicated that the educational status of adult family members is a good predictor of a child's insurance status. For in

Emotional or Internalizing Disorders

Some children develop depression and anxiety, disorders that involve not only maladaptive thoughts and emotions but also maladaptive behaviors. It is important to distinguish these disorders from common depressed mood or childhood worries and fears. Knowledge of normal development of emotions and cognitions is helpful in making these distinctions.

Summary of the Family Context

Previous social learning based studies and our own research show parental monitoring and guidance to be linked with better perceptions of friendship quality. Extending this research, our concurrent and longitudinal findings indicate that adolescents' perceptions of their parents' rules and or attitudes about friendships are also important components of how parents influence their children's friendships. The association, however, between parents' attitudes and the quality of adolescent friendships appears mediated by adolescents' perceptions of parental closeness. Those adolescents who reported feeling closer to their parents were more likely to heed the warnings of their parents about friendships than those who felt less close to their parents. Additional qualitative research is needed to further understand how adolescents, despite warnings by family members of the hazards of peer relationships, continue to find and maintain close friendships with non-familial peers.

The Neighborhood Context

Our research also indicates that adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood shape the quality and characteristics of their friendships. In our qualitative studies, Black and Latino boys often report choosing not to spend time with neighborhood friends because doing so meant being stopped and harassed by policemen or by groups of boys looking for trouble (Way, 1998). As a consequence, some of the boys chose instead to spend time alone or with family members. For example, one male Puerto Rican sophomore stated in his interview that he did not have friends from the neighborhood because he did not like hangin' with people getting killed (Way, 1998, p. 119) instead preferring to stay at home during non-school hours. Similarly, when a Black 11th-grade male was asked why he thought he had not found a close friend he could trust, he replied that backstabbing which was typical in his neighborhood led people to further diss one another in order to feel important (Way, 1998, p. 118). After...

Summary of the Neighborhood Context

Strikingly, our quantitative analyses have suggested few gender or ethnic differences in the association between various contextual-level variables and adolescent friendships. However, our qualitative data has indicated that gender and ethnicity shape the ways in which adolescents experience contexts such as schools, neighborhoods, and friendships. For example, our interviews suggest that Black and Latino students' frustration with the preferential treatment by teachers shown toward Asian American students in school creates a hostile peer climate for Asian American students. Furthermore, boys, particularly Black and Latino (the boys who are most likely to be the victims of violence in urban areas), express frustration with the violence and backstabbing in their neighborhoods and respond by keeping to themselves rather than spending time with their friends outside of school. Finally, the wariness of adolescents' parents toward non-familial friends may be influenced by being a part of...

Infancy and Preschool An Emphasis on Biology and Parenting

Even before a child is born, much has occurred in terms of social development. Genetic and prenatal biological factors play a large, persistent role in determining later social behavior. After birth, parents and other family members are the key socializing agents of the preschooler's development. Although it is clear that genetic makeup plays a crucial role in social development, it is less certain exactly what biological mechanisms account for this influence. Certainly, many innate factors affecting social behavior are common to nearly all infants. For instance, infants will cry when distressed, and they actively attend to and seek attention from caregivers. Infants have differences, however, in their genetic makeups, and researchers have searched for ways in which these differences are expressed. Perhaps the most widely studied aspect is temperament, which consists of several components related to emotional reactivity and regulation. Infants described as having ''difficult...

Research and Good Fathering

See also PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS Cox, M. J., M. T. Owen, V. K. Henderson, and N. A. Margand. ''Prediction of Infant-Father and Infant-Mother Attachment.'' Child Development 28 (1992) 474-483. Hetherington, E. M., and S. H. Henderson. ''Fathers in Stepfami-lies.'' In Michael E. Lamb ed., The Role of the Father in Child Development, 3rd edition. New York Wiley, 1997. Pleck, E. H. ''Paternal Involvement Levels, Sources, and Consequences.'' In Michael E. Lamb ed., The Role of the Father in Child Development, 3rd edition. New York Wiley, 1997. On average, firstborn children have been cited as having higher intelligence levels than later-born children. For example, one study examined scores on the 1965 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test and, regardless of family size, the scores tended to be higher for firstborns. The confluence model has been proposed to explain the superior intellectual rankings of firstborns. In this paradigm, a child's intellectual level depends on the...

Marika N Ripke Aletha C Huston

POVERTY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT Poor children are more likely to experience problems with school readiness and academic performance, and are at least twice as likely to be kept back in school as children from higher income families (see Corcoran, 1995 Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997a Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 National Center for Children in Poverty, 1999). Material deficiencies related to poverty (e.g., malnutrition, inadequate health and child care, homelessness or unsafe housing conditions and neighborhoods, and insufficient schools) have detrimental effects on children's motivation and ability to learn, and can contribute to social and emotional difficulties, hamper learning, academic performance, and cognitive development (Korenman, Miller, & Sjaastad, 1995 Kotch & Shackelford, 1989). In adolescence, poverty or economic hardship predicts delinquency (Sampson & Laub, 1994) and depression and loneliness (Lempers, Clark-Lempers, & Simons, 1989). There are several problems with the threshold. A...

Developmental Perspectives of Child Maltreatment

It is very important to have an understanding of the relationship between child development and child maltreatment. Childhood is typically a time of rapid change and growth. Each stage of development brings new challenges and changes in the physical, cognitive, and behavioral makeup of a child. These changes are reflected in the epidemiology of maltreatment, which is the pattern of abuse and neglect that is commonly seen. Child development affects all of the following the precipitating factors that lead to maltreatment the susceptibility of a child to different types of maltreatment at different ages the physical findings of abuse or neglect the treatment options following maltreatment and the likelihood of long-term sequelae (secondary effects) from abuse or neglect.

Young Peoples Conceptions of Adulthood

Another source of evidence comes from Condon's (1987) ethnography on Inuit adolescents in the Canadian Arctic. Condon explored conceptions of the transition to adulthood by asking young people in their teens to assign life stage categories to various people in the community and explain the reason for their designations. Their responses reflected a variety of criteria for the transition to adulthood, including marriage, parenthood, chronological age, and employment. Most important was establishing a permanent pair-bond by moving into a separate household with a prospective spouse a marriagelike relationship, but not necessarily involving a formal ceremony or legal tie. Chronological age also mattered young people living with a prospective spouse but remaining in the parental household of one partner or the other were considered adults if they were beyond their teen years.

Niobe Way Bronwyn E Becker Melissa L Greene

Over the past decade, there has been a surge of research directed at understanding the ways in which multiple settings or contexts influence child development (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, & Sealand, 1993 Burton, Allison, & Obeidallah, 1995 Seidman, 1991). This research has indicated that contexts such as families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods exert an important influence on For the assessment of the quality of closest same-sex friendship and the quality of relationships with mother and father, we used a 20-item version of Furman and Buhrmester's (1985) Network of Relationships Inventory. This measure investigates multiple dimensions of relationship quality (i.e., intimacy, affection, reliable alliance, satisfaction, companionship, conflict and antagonism) using a 5-point Likert Scale. The positive dimensions (i.e., intimacy, affection, reliable alliance, satisfaction, and companionship) were highly correlated with each other and thus, for the purposes of our study, were summed...

The Organismic Worldview

It is ironic that Freud's theory, one of the most controversial theories of child development, is based not on a careful examination of children but rather on clinical interviews he conducted with adult patients in the course of his psychiatric practice in Vienna at the turn of the twentieth century. Freud, the clinician, believed that his adult patients' problems stemmed from their early childhood experiences, and as a result his approach to therapy was to help them regress to those early experiences so that the traumatic nature of the experiences could be uncovered and therefore resolved. By adolescence, individuals are asked to form a sense of identity, which is seen as forming the foundation for the establishment of a sense of intimacy, the defining event of the early years of adulthood. Intimacy typically leads to some form of permanent bond, which in turn often leads to parenthood and the opportunity to develop a sense of generativity, or concern for the next generation....

Conclusion Of Youth Risk Behavior

Poverty, violence, and child development Untangling effects of family and community. In C. Nelson (Ed.), Threats to optimal development Integrating biological, psychological, and social risk factors. The Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 27, pp. 229-272). Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum. Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based Allison, K. W, Burton, L., Marshall, S., Perez-Febles, A., Yar-rington, J., Kirsh, L. B., & Merriwether-DeVries, C. (1999). Life experiences among urban adolescents Examining the role of context. Child Development, 70, 1017-1029. Attar, B. K., Guerra, N. G., Tolan, P. H. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391-400. Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Neighborhood...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering social interaction and a context for engaging with children who are unlike the self. The first of these functions has received the most research attention research on the third function is just emerging. We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence...

Cindy Faith Miller Hanns Martin Trautner Diane N Ruble

Gender serves as one of the most significant identifying labels throughout the life span. While originally a child's sex is based primarily on chromosomal and genital distinctions, this category will follow the child from the birthing room, operating as a life-long functional tag that will influence virtually every aspect of her or his experience. Our society uses sex categories to divide names, public restrooms, pronoun usage, school lines, toys, room decor, clothing and appearance options, hobbies, and occupations. Given societies' insistence on the functional use of sex categories (Bem, 1981), a child's physical, social, cognitive, and emotional milestones will all develop under a gendered umbrella. During some aspects of development, a child's gender tag will be at the forefront of experience while, other times, it will fade into the background providing minimal cues and effects to the situation. Regardless of the degree of salience, an individual's gender1 has meaningful...

Emotional Self Regulation in Infancy and Toddlerhood

How do young children calm themselves when they are upset What factors contribute to children's abilities to modulate distress and to rev up when it is playtime What are the consequences for adaptive behavior of being facile at managing distress These questions fall under the broad rubric of emotion regulation, and, more particularly, the development of emotional self-regulation. This topic cuts across traditionally separate areas in psychology such as temperament, neurophysiology, motivation, and personality. One of the reasons the area has become popular in the field of child development is that it is a broad rubric that can account for how and why emotions organize and facilitate various psychological processes such as attention and problem solving, or, alternatively disrupt such processes (Cole, Martin, & Dennis, 2004). In addition, emotion regulation applies to the life span (Cicchetti, Ganiban, & Barnett, 1991) While clearly the capacity to regulate emotion changes with age,...

ADHD and the Impact on the Family

It is important to be aware of the challenges that exist in the home when one or more children (or a parent) have ADHD, as this disorder significantly impacts the entire family (Rief, 2003). Unfortunately, teachers are generally unaware or underestimate the struggles that families face. Typically, in homes of children with ADHD there is a much higher degree of stress than the average family has, along with depression or other pathology in one or more family members. As any parent of a toddler knows, when your child needs constant supervision and monitoring, it is very time-consuming and interferes with one's ability to get things done as planned (housework, chores). Frequently, the family must deal with social issues, such as the exclusion of the child from out-of-school activities and so forth. It is painful when your child is not invited to birthday parties or has difficulty finding someone to play with and keeping friends. Siblings are often resentful or jealous of the central role...

Carollee Howes Linda

In this chapter we argue that, it is only within groups of peers that children develop both social interaction skills particular to peer interaction and construct social relationships particular to peers friendships. The social interactions and relationships of the children within the group become the basis of that peer group's shared understandings and practices and a base for individual children's development. Through experiences within many different and at times overlapping in membership peer groups, children internalize representations of social relationships and of practices within peer groups that we assume influence their individual orientations to the social world as older children, adolescents, and adults. and friendships within cultural communities will help in resolving some of the contradictions that have persisted within the empirical literature on the topic. Take for example such a basic question of whether infants and toddlers engage in peer interaction. As we will...

Promotion of Mistrust

Few empirical studies have distinguished promotion of mistrust from preparation for bias, perhaps because the distinction is so subtle. However, in available studies, the incidence of explicit cautions or warnings about other ethnic groups seems to be quite low. For instance, based on analysis of the National Survey of Black Americans, Thornton and colleagues' (Thornton et al., 1990) reported that in response to open ended questions about strategies parents use to teach children about race, only 2.7 of parents reported instructing their children to maintain social distance from Whites. Hughes and Chen (1997) found that about 18 of African American parents reported promotion of mistrust using survey items in which parents indicated whether or not they cautioned children about interactions with Whites or encouraged them to maintain social distance. Although these percentages are low, there are still a significant number of children receiving such messages.

L Oriana Linares Nicole A Morin

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe levels of violent occurrences (Richters & Martinez, 1993 Osofsky, Wewers, Hann, & Fick, 1993). School-aged children exposed to community violence are at risk for an array of problematic behavior including lower self-competence (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), high levels of distress (Martinez & Richters, 1993), depression (Durant, Getts, Cadenhead, Emans, & Woods, 1995), post-traumatic stress disorder (Fitzpatrick & Boldizar, 1993 Jaycox, Stein, Kataoka, Wong, Fink, Escudero, & Zaragoza, 2002),...

How Are Children Affected by Television

Social cognitive theory, developed by psychologist Albert Bandura, stresses that children learn many social behaviors by observing those modeled by others. Children are more likely to try a behavior if they can identify with the person modeling the behavior and the model is successful at achieving a goal or obtaining a reward. Heavy exposure to television characters who succeed by behaving in aggressive, violent, or stereotypical ways may encourage children to use similar strategies in their own lives. Numerous studies provide evidence that heavy exposure to televised violence is linked to increased aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

Overall, the results showed that children's understanding of display rules for anger is complex and related to context, gender, and age. Children reported masking anger more often with teachers than with peers. Boys' masking of anger increased with age, but girls' reported use of display rules decreased with age. Contrary to hypotheses, this study found that aggressive children did not differ consistently from nonaggressive peers in their understanding of display rules for anger even highly aggressive children reported frequently that they would mask expressions of anger. Understanding of display rules may not account for individual differences in aggressive behavior, perhaps because aggressive children fight impulsively when they are furious and are unlikely to invoke display rules even if they know exactly what those rules are.

Marion K Underwood Lara Mayeux Mikal Galperin

Confer developmental advantages for children, but also that some children come to have enemies and that these mutual antipathies also influence children's development in important ways (Hartup & Abecassis, 2002). We continue to acknowledge the importance of understanding children's status in their peer groups at school, but we now know that being popular may not be the same as being well-liked (LaFontana & Cillessen, 1998, 2002 Parkhurst & Hopmeyer, 1998), and that there is heterogeneity among both popular (Rodkin, Farmer, Pearl, & Van Acker, 2000) and rejected children (French, 1988, 1990). Still, despite these challenges, recent advances suggest that progress is possible in understanding children's peer relationships in light of emotion regulation and gender development. Increased attention to emotional development has resulted in refinements in models of emotion regulation, and a powerful, testable theoretical framework has emerged to guide research on gender and peer relations,...

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

In one version of gender schema theory, Bem (1981) proposes that children develop gender schemas by virtue of the pervasive gender messages in society and that sex-typing occurs when children's self-concept and self-esteem gets assimilated into gender schemas. Interestingly, Bem's theory also focuses on individual differences in the degree of being sex-typed. She asserts that individual differences schemas and sexism schemas can replace gender schemas when children are encouraged to process information according to the variability within groups and the historical roots and consequences of sex discrimination (Bem, 2000).

Gay And Lesbianheaded Families

Openly gay and lesbian people are choosing to have children in increasing numbers, although the largest group of lesbian- and gay-headed families is still comprised of those parenting children from prior heterosexual relationships. Methods for creating ''intentional'' families include adoption, foster parenting, alternative insemination, and surrogacy. Laws regarding adoption and foster parenting vary by state as well as by country (in the case of international adoption). The exact number of lesbian- and gay-headed families is difficult to ascertain. Secrecy is still a fairly common practice because of the risk of losing children and employment as a result of sexual orientation. One study reported that in 1999, 3.9 million children age nineteen and under had gay or lesbian parents. Gay- and lesbian-headed families experience a variety of forms of discrimination, including under-representation in governmental policy, legal protection, educational environments, communities of faith,...

The Well Being of Children Raised in Single Parent Homes

Finally, children from all family types are at risk when they experience parenting that is inadequate in terms of warmth, control, or monitoring. Less than optimal parenting is more likely to be observed in families that are experiencing economic stress and among adolescent mothers (although a large part of this association may be explained by the greater likelihood that adolescent single mothers will experience economic disadvantage). Psychologist Mavis Hether-ington has found that the parenting skills of mothers tend to diminish in the years immediately following divorce, and children who are exposed to such disruptions in parenting experience concurrent psychological, behavioral, and academic difficulties. As mothers adjust to their new single-parent status, however, their parenting improves, as does their children's well-being.

Conclusion and Future Directions

N. (1989). Developmental changes in children's awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress. Child Development, 60, 1337-1349. Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A.Collins (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39-101). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. Bridges, L.J., Denham, S.A., & Ganiban, J.M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child Development, 75, 340-345. Buss, K. A., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1998). Fear and anger regulation in infancy Effects on the temporal dynamics of affective expression. Child Development, 69, 359-374. Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2-3, Serial No. 240), 53-72. Calkins, S. D. (1997a)....

What Affects Childrens and Adolescents Adjustment to Stepfamilies

Step Familys

Cive consequently, boys may appreciate new stepfathers as alternative supportive parents and masculine role models. In stepfamilies that include the child's biological father and a stepmother, the stepmother may be seen as an intruder in the previously close father-child relationship. Girls may have trouble adjusting to the new stepmother, particularly because most girls maintain a close relationship with their noncustodial mother, but girls generally adjust to the new stepmother and benefit from the new relationship. In contrast, stepmothers often immediately become more involved in discipline. If the biological father supports the stepmother's discipline attempts, children generally receive more effective parenting from both parents. Stepmothers perceive parenting as more challenging than mothers in intact families, although research suggests that stepmothers are actually less negative and coercive in their interactions with their stepchildren than mothers in intact families....

Ainsworth Mary Dinsmore Salter 19131999

Mary Dinsmore Ainsworth

When Ainsworth accepted a position at the University of Virginia in 1974, her work was becoming increasingly influential, stimulating longitudinal studies of attachment in the United States and other countries that are still ongoing. In the late 1970s she was elected president of the Society for Research in Child Development. At the same time, many graduate students interested in attachment continued to flock to her (among them Jude Cassidy, Deborah Cohn, Virginia Colin, Patricia Crittenden, Carolyn Eichberg, Rogers Kobak, and Ulrike Wartner). After reluctantly retiring as Professor Emerita in 1984 at the required age of seventy, Ainsworth remained professionally active until 1992. In her later years, until her health began to fail, she retained a deep interest in the work of her former students who had begun to study attachment beyond infancy. A year before her death, she received one of the highest honors psychology can bestow, the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the...

Childrens and Adolescents Adjustment in Stepfamilies

One would expect that children and adolescents in stepfamilies would be better adjusted than children and adolescents in single-parent divorced families. Stepfamilies have more resources than single-parent divorced families, including two parents to share child rearing and more financial resources. Surprisingly, a large body of research indicates that children and adolescents in stepfamilies have the same level of adjustment problems as children and adolescents in divorced single-parent families. One reason for this similarity between the adjustment of children in step-families and single-parent divorced families may be that stepfamilies experience significant stresses within their family interactions. It may take five to seven years for a new stepfamily to stabilize and begin to function smoothly. From a family systems perspective, stepfamilies begin with a weak family system. Instead of a healthy family system (a strong, well-established marital bond, strong child bonds to both...

Three Common Elements of Temperament Characteristics

As early as 1699, the philosopher John Locke maintained that children are born with different behavioral tendencies. He also believed that the environment was the strongest force in development. To Locke, social experiences, not temperamental differences, shaped behavior across development. This was the predominant view of children's development until the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess published their classic books about the role of temperament in parent-child relationships and children's social and emotional development. Thomas and Chess argued that children's behavioral problems do not always stem from bad parenting. Instead, some children come into this world with temperament styles that make disciplining them a challenge. Even competent, caring parents may have difficult children and these parents need help learning how to manage their sons and daughters.

Cattell James 18601944

Alfred Binet

James Cattell's contribution to the discipline of child development can be seen through his early appreciation of individual differences and their measurement. (Psychology Archives, University of Akron) James Cattell's contribution to the discipline of child development can be seen through his early appreciation of individual differences and their measurement. (Psychology Archives, University of Akron) Cattell's contribution to the discipline of child development can be seen through his early appreciation of individual differences (differential psychology) and

Single Fathers Compared to Single Mothers

Number of single fathers has increased since the 1970s (9 of all single-parent homes were father-headed in 1970). The circumstances surrounding the single-parent status of men versus women differ. The greatest percentage of single fathers gained custody of children as the result of parental divorce. Single fathers are more likely to gain custody of children when mothers have either chosen not to retain custody or are perceived to be incompetent. Single fathers are more likely to have custody of older rather than younger children and of boys rather than girls. By and large, the challenges for single fathers and single mothers are similar and include the difficulties of combining parenting responsibilities and employment, and economic disadvantage. On average, single fathers have higher standards of living than do single mothers, which decreases potential stresses within the family. Yet single mothers have been reported to have warmer and more structured relationships with their...

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

The empirical literature on racial ethnic socialization has, in part, focused on understanding the nature and content of the racial ethnic socialization messages that parents transmit to their children. Many of these studies have utilized in-depth interviews with African American and other ethnic minority parents to identify the most prominent themes that emerge when parents are asked to consider the role of race and ethnicity in their parenting practices (e.g., Marshall, 1995 Thornton, Chatters, Taylor, & Allen, 1990). In this section, we attempt to describe more fully the different types of racial ethnic socialization messages that parents may communicate and the consequences of such messages for children's adaptation and well being. These include (a) emphasizing racial and ethnic pride, traditions, and history (termed cultural socialization ) (b) promoting an awareness of racial prejudice and discrimination (termed preparation for bias ) (c) issuing cautions and warnings about...

Assessment of Gross Motor and Fine Motor Development

SOURCE Information for tables modified from Anne V. Gormly, and David M. Brodzinsky. Life Span Human Development. Sixth Edition. Fort Worth, TX Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1996 Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (Early LAP) Birth to Thirty-Six Months. Chapel Hill Chapel Hill Training-Outreach Project, 1988 and 1995 Including Your Child. Appendix A Developmental Progress Chart. In the Illinois State Board of Education's Child Find web site . Illinois, 2000. Available from http INTERNET Developmental Milestones. In the University of Maryland Medicine web site . Maryland, 2000. Available from INTERNET Jane Case-Smith, and Susan Shortridge Denegan. The Developmental Process. In Jane Case-Smith, Anne S. Allen, and Pat Nuse Pratt eds., Occupational Therapy for Children. Third Edition. St. Louis, MO Mosby, 1996.

Longitudinal versus Cross Sectional Studies

By the very nature of their field of study, child development researchers are concerned with change that occurs over time. This fact brings to light another research design choice that must be considered longitudinal research versus cross-sectional research. Longitudinal studies involve studying the same group of participants over a particular time period. Cross-sectional studies involved studying groups of participants in different age groups at the same point in time. It would seem that longitudinal research would be the developmental researcher's first choice, but because of some of the disadvantages of that method, developmental researchers must sometimes use the cross-sectional method.

Psychological Meaning Of Pubertal Change Meaning of Pubertal Changes to Girls

Brooks-Gunn and colleagues have also examined the significance of breast and pubic hair development to adolescent girls in the fifth and sixth grades (Brooks-Gunn, 1984 Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). The majority of girls (82 ) reported that breast growth was more significant to them than pubic hair growth because other people can tell. Girls also reported that mothers talked to them more about their breast than their pubic hair development. Onset of breast growth was associated with positive peer relationships, greater salience of sex roles linked with reproduction, and a positive body image, while the onset of pubic hair growth was not (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). However, girls were likely to experience teasing by family members and boys about their breast development (Brooks-Gunn, Newman, Holderness, & Warren, 1994 Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988).

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

Memory Reminder Chart

A very significant development in reminding also occurs around 3 years of age which allows for even greater flexibility in memory reinstatement. In addition to physical and representational reminders, by three years of age children are engaging in verbal conversations about past events with their parents (Fivush, 1991 Hudson, 1990b Nelson, 1993 Nelson & Fivush, 2000, 2004). Although children begin talking about the past sometime between 16 and 20 months (Eisenberg, 1985), children under three years of age show little evidence of being able to use language alone to reinstate event memories. When they engage in joint reminiscing between the ages of 2 to 3, however, conversations about past events provide an important reinstatement context for autobiographic memories. Several studies have shown that participation in parent-child conversations about past events enhances children's event recall, especially when parents provide complex and elaborate accounts of events (McCabe & Peterson,...

Principles of Development

The process of motor development depends heavily on the maturation of the central nervous system and the muscular system. As these systems develop, an infant's ability to move progresses. The sequence of motor development follows an apparently orderly pattern. Arnold Gesell, a noted researcher in the field of child development, indicated through his studies that development does not proceed in a straight line. Instead, it swings back and forth between periods of rapid and slower maturation. Gesell and his colleagues also discovered from their infant observations made in the 1930s and 1940s that infant growth does indeed follow distinct developmental directions cephalocaudal, proximal-distal, and general to specific. First, most children develop from head to toe, or cephalocaudal. Initially, the head is disproportionately larger than the other parts of the infant's body. The cephalocaudal theory states that muscular control develops from the head downward first the neck, then the upper...

Characteristics of Neighborhoods and Schools that Impact the Mental Health and Risk Behavior of Children and Youth

Positive Affirmations Youth

Child care (particularly the availability, quality, and cost of child care) Each of these resources can affect children's social-emotional development, either directly or indirectly. Neighborhoods with adequate learning activities will attract children in off-school hours, thereby both engaging them intellectually and keeping them under adult supervision and off the streets where they would be more likely to join in antisocial activities. Similarly, social and recreational activities provide children with typically adult-monitored opportunities to structure after-school and weekend times, again diminishing opportunities to engage in antisocial activities or risk behaviors. Quality child care for preschool children and quality schools and after-school programs for school-aged children foster both social-emotional as well as cognitive development. Adequate health care services can promote social-emotional development by providing mental health counseling and preventive services...

Hall Granville Stanley 18441924

Around 1870 Hall traveled to Germany, where he was influenced by Nature-philosophy, especially by its genetic (i.e., developmental) approach. After obtaining his doctorate at Harvard University under the supervision of William James in 1878, he visited Germany again to study experimental psychology (with Wilhelm Wundt and others) and physiology. In 1883 he founded the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Johns Hopkins University, and became president of Clark University in 1889. There he began to develop a systematic theory of child development. By that time he had been involved in educational theory and practices that were based on progressivism and ancestral recapitulation theory proposed by German biologist Ernst Haeckel. Hall believed that curricula should be attuned to sequentially emerging children's needs that reflect the evolutional history of humankind. In addition, by studying the natural, normative course of child development, one could construct an...

Psychological and Social Service Issues in Adoption

Today, a growing number of children are entering adoptive homes after experiencing life within the foster care system. Typically, they are older at the time of adoption placement and have histories of neglect and or abuse. Some have significant medical problems. Others manifest serious psychological and learning difficulties. Prior to the early 1980s, these special-needs children were considered unadoptable. As a result, agencies did little to find permanent homes for them. Starting in the early 1980s, however, adoption agencies, guided and supported by federal legislation and financial incentives, became much more successful in placing these children with adoptive families. Although research has shown that special-needs adoptions are associated with less placement stability and greater adjustment problems among family members than are infant adoptions, the more remarkable and encouraging finding is that the vast majority of these placements remain intact and family members report a...

Stress Reduction Relaxation Strategies Leisure Activities and Exercise

Students with ADHD are often in a state of stress from trying to cope with the challenges and daily struggles in their lives. When one is hyperactive, emotionally over-reactive, and or anxious, it helps to learn relaxation and stress-reduction strategies, as well as find positive outlets to channel one's energy. It is therapeutic to teach children ways to calm their minds and bodies and release inner tension, which can also empower them with a feeling of self-control. The ideas discussed here have health and psychological benefits that are good for all of us, but may be of particular importance for youngsters with ADHD.

Types of Day Care and Demographic Information

Family income was also related to type of care used. Children of parents in poverty were more likely to be in relative (41 ) than nonrelative care (32 ). One factor that may contribute to this difference is that relatives are often not paid while nonrelatives are usually paid for their services. Children not in poverty were equally likely to be cared for in both types (about 53 each). In addition, poor families spent on average 35 percent of their annual income on day care nonpoor spent only 7 percent on average. In 1997, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care found that mother's income, in particular, was associated with use of day care. Families that relied more on the mother's income placed their infants in day care at an earlier age and used it for more hours per week than families less dependant on the mother's income.

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