Pandemic Survival Guide

Pandemic Survival

This eBook shows you what it takes to survive the next pandemic. There is no doubt that in the future, the world will be hit with a huge pandemic, either from natural causes or from a terrorist attack. As you look through history, you will be hard-pressed to find any pandemic in history that has killed less than 1 million people. You do not want you or your family to be among those millions. And with the help of the information in this eBook, you have a way to survive the global pandemic that will come. Wishing it won't happen doesn't do anything Preparing for it gives you the tools to survive AND thrive. This book contains the two-pronged approach of John Hartman's years of research in figuring out how pandemics work and living through a dangerous flu outbreak. This gives you the methods to both avoid getting a virus in the first place, and how to strengthen your immune system should you come down with a virus. You don't have to lay down and die. You can fight the next pandemic. Read more here...

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The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

New Tools to Fight SARS

If or when SARS does make a comeback, scientists are banking on new tools with which to fight it. Although experts predict a vaccine will not be available until at least 2006, there are other things that could be valuable in saving lives. One would be an accurate test for SARS. Tests at the current time are not accurate unless a patient has been infected for at least twelve days. In that time, that patient will have infected dozens of other people. Doctors are working to develop a vaccine against SARS and are researching the use of antibodies to help infected patients fight the disease. Doctors are working to develop a vaccine against SARS and are researching the use of antibodies to help infected patients fight the disease. SARS As yet, there is not a surefire drug to cure SARS, but some progress has been made. Doctors know, for example, that a combination of the antiviral drug Ribavirin combined with an AIDS drug called Kaletra has great promise. Ribavirin tries to damage the virus,...

Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS A

Severe respiratory illness that was first reported in 2002 in China, and quickly spread throughout Asia, North America, and Europe. Most of the U.S. cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred among travelers returning to the United States from other parts of the world with SARS. There have been very few cases as a result of spread to close contacts such as family members and health-care workers. Currently, there is no evidence that SARS is spreading more widely in the United States.

SARS and Developing Nations

Another ongoing worry among international health officials is that if SARS does recur, its effect in developing countries will be SARS Should the SARS epidemic recur, it could be devastating to AIDS patients like this African man, and to others with severely weakened immune systems. Should the SARS epidemic recur, it could be devastating to AIDS patients like this African man, and to others with severely weakened immune systems. frightening. Scientists know that patients whose immune systems were already weakened from other conditions were more likely to die from SARS. In fact, more than two-thirds of the deaths in every age category were people suffering from chronic diseases. For many people in developing nations, chronic disease is a way of life. treatment, since the majority of sufferers are poor. State hospitals are overwhelmed with the numbers of people needing care, and often must turn people away. We are already living a nightmare here, says one South African doctor. Six...

The Faces of SARS

It seemed, in the early months of 2003, that the disease came out of nowhere. No one could pinpoint the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) it probably occurred in November 2002 but by early 2003 it was roaring through hospitals in China and other parts of Asia, as well as in Toronto, Canada, striking down hundreds of doctors and nurses as they tried to care for their patients. It was a ghastly illness one Hong Kong resident says that watching someone with SARS gasp and fight for breath was like watching a man drown to death on dry land. 1 Thousands of those infected died, and doctors were panicking, for there seemed to be little progress in fighting the new disease, and it continued to spread. As people quickly learned, a dangerous new disease in the age of jet travel rapidly becomes everyone's problem. By June 2003 there were SARS victims on six continents. Of course, those primarily affected by the disease were people who became infected with SARS. Henry Likyuen...

SARS and the Future

On july 6, 2003, the World Health Organization announced that SARS had been contained, as no new cases of the disease had been reported anywhere in the world since June 15. Although the announcement was a relief to many people, medical experts tended to be less optimistic. For instance, some felt that the disease could easily return. Because SARS is a coronavirus, it may be seasonal like other coronaviruses such as those that cause the common cold. Michael Osterholm, director of the Center of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, felt a recurrence of SARS was not only possible, but likely. I am convinced with the advent of an early winter in the Northern Hemisphere in just six short months, he told Congress, we will see a resurgence of SARS that could far exceed our experience to date. 76 Other infectious disease experts concurred, saying that it would only take one case of SARS to spark a new outbreak. And since it was impossible to know whether or not a person with...

More Questions than Answers

But stability was hard to maintain as the disease continued to spread. Doctors had believed that SARS was spread only by close human contact from inhaling the spray of a cough or sneeze of an infected person. In Hong Kong, however, that theory proved false. In less than a week, 250 residents of a thirty-three-floor housing development contracted SARS, and most of those people had never met one another. Clearly, close human contact had As in other cities around the world, quarantine seemed the only method of containing SARS, although doctors were not even certain whether that would work. Meanwhile, hospitals were running out of space, people were fleeing affected areas, and those who had been exposed to the disease were herded into seclusion until doctors felt that they were no longer at risk of coming down with SARS. As doctors and researchers struggled for answers, they were met with more questions. Where did the disease come from, and how exactly was it spread Was there any...

The Psychological Toll

Hong Kong 1948

As months went by in SARS-affected countries, many learned that there were often psychological effects on residents. In Hong Kong, for example, many people complained of feeling mentally fatigued each day. There was no comfort of routine. There were no concerts to attend, no social get-togethers with neighbors. Altar boys attend Catholic mass in Hong Kong. Churches throughout areas impacted by SARS welcomed parishioners struggling with the emotional effects of the epidemic. Altar boys attend Catholic mass in Hong Kong. Churches throughout areas impacted by SARS welcomed parishioners struggling with the emotional effects of the epidemic. Others in SARS-affected regions missed the support they normally received from their families. Since many foreign business people in Asia had moved their families to other continents in an attempt to avoid SARS, they weathered the ordeal without the comfort of their spouse and children. Karl Taro Greenfield, a Time magazine reporter living in Hong...

We Didnt Take Any Preventive Measures

A doctor treats a SARS patient in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2003. The first cases of the disease appeared in November 2002 in rural areas of China's Guangdong Province. A doctor treats a SARS patient in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2003. The first cases of the disease appeared in November 2002 in rural areas of China's Guangdong Province.

Trying Out a New Tool

Why Called Corona Virus

Investigating SARS Investigating SARS The SARS virus is pictured inside a human cell. Scientists used a new tool called a DNA microarray to study the coronavirus that causes SARS. The SARS virus is pictured inside a human cell. Scientists used a new tool called a DNA microarray to study the coronavirus that causes SARS. SARS

Trouble for Hong Kong

Hong Kong 1948

Mainland China has been hard hit by the economic effects of the SARS epidemic, but Hong Kong has had even worse trouble. As fear of SARS intensified, tourists canceled trips to Hong Kong, leaving the city's airport (pictured) empty and causing severe economic distress. As fear of SARS intensified, tourists canceled trips to Hong Kong, leaving the city's airport (pictured) empty and causing severe economic distress. Hong Kong, far and away the most modern part of China, had been experiencing economic difficulties even before the SARS crisis. It is a very expensive city foreign firms with branches in Asia had found it so expensive for its employees to live there that many of the firms had relocated to the mainland. WHO's warning about visiting Hong Kong was even more damaging. international flights each day to Hong Kong cut service drastically. The largest carrier to Hong Kong, Cathay Pacific, reduced its weekly flights by 45 percent almost immediately after news of the SARS outbreak...

The Whole Region Contracts

The SARS epidemic has not only affected Chinese workers but also many foreigners who live and work in China. For example, more than 25 percent of American employees in Beijing sent their families out of the country because of the disease. One Australian bank with branch offices in Asia gave its employees in Hong Kong the option of returning to Australia and were surprised when the majority said yes. A bank officer predicted that even when SARS is no longer a threat, many of those employees may decide to stay in Australia rather than risk working in Asia again. You've got most of the foreign population away from Asia already, the families at least, he said, and if this goes on, people will start to say, 'Why don't you relocate me out of Asia where their families are ' 71 More than thirty-four hundred miles away, Australian fishermen have been affected by the economic calamity in China, too. Those who fish along the Great Barrier Reef are feeling the loss of a great deal of their...

The Medical Equivalent of Shock and

Stohr set up a website with a secure password for the participating epidemiologists. He also arranged twice-a-day conference calls so the team could discuss any new theories or ideas, results of lab tests, and so on. The results were beyond anything Stohr could have anticipated. Not only did the team identify the cause of the disease, but it did so in less than seven weeks. The speed at which the battle against SARS was waged, says one researcher, was the medical equivalent of shock and awe the phrase President George W. Bush had used to describe the U.S. attack on Baghdad in March 2003 . 28

The Government Doesnt Care

Of course, in busy cities like Shanghai and Beijing the ballooning rate of infection from SARS was hard to keep secret. As more and more people learned of friends and coworkers who had become infected, it became clear to the public that they had been lied to. Many were furious with their government. It's really bad, says a relative of a SARS victim, that the government doesn't care about ordinary people's lives. 60 As the disease moved into the more remote parts of China, the response was no less angry. The tiny remote villages have limited hospital facilities a shortage which is troublesome under normal circumstances. They lack around-the-clock staff, X-ray machines, and even bed space for more than two or three patients at a time. When people infected with SARS began appearing at these rural hospitals, health workers were forced to turn many patients away. This experience showed residents the inadequacies of their health care system. In one village, five or more SARS patients were...

The Crossroads of the World

Another lesson of the SARS crisis was how important a part Hong Kong played in the epidemic, and how vulnerable to disease the region is. Hong Kong lies at the very edge of southern China, a region that is historically where many flu viruses and Hong Kong is also vulnerable because the crowded, heavily populated conditions in the city make any contagious disease difficult to control. There are many housing projects like the Amoy Gardens, and a broken sewer pipe or a faulty ventilation system could easily spread a virus to hundreds of thousands of people within a few days. Doctors agree that in the SARS epidemic of 2003, Hong Kong was fortunate to keep the number of infections at 1,755 and the death count at 295.

The Black Box or the Sunshine

Hu's supporters were very pleased by his actions. They believed that his decision to be more open about SARS would benefit the nation. Perhaps, they said, this episode forced China to turn a corner, allowing much-needed reforms. This is Hu's chance to grab the support of the people and stand up on his own, said one former party official. China can keep living in a black box, or it can live in the sunshine. If he can't take advantage of the situation and move into the sun now, then when 66 There is strong opposition to Hu's openness, however. Some Communist Party officials are critical of Hu's more liberal views. They predicted that his more open dealing with SARS would backfire, causing panic among the Chinese people. The former president of China, a conservative named Jiang Zemin, is one of the most adamant critics of Hu, and experts in Chinese politics predicted that if the SARS epidemic had not been controlled, Jiang might have regained power. If that had happened, say experts, it...

Suddenly Theyre Rock Stars

Mob Hit Crime Scene Real

The scientific community realized that the dangerous unknown coronavirus was a problem. While there are many researchers who study viruses, there were not many who specialized in coro-naviruses. One doctor says that because coronaviruses had never been a serious threat to people and were difficult to grow or study in a laboratory, the topic had become a sleepy little corner of virology. 30 Far more researchers were interested in studying viruses that cause Ebola, West Nile disease, or AIDS all of which are known killers. With the discovery of this particular virus, however, coronaviruses became a hot topic, and anyone A man suffers from Ebola in a hospital. Before discovering SARS, researchers neglected coronaviruses, focusing instead on the viruses responsible for such epidemics as Ebola and AIDS. A man suffers from Ebola in a hospital. Before discovering SARS, researchers neglected coronaviruses, focusing instead on the viruses responsible for such epidemics as Ebola and AIDS....

Returning to Guangdong

To find answers to the virus's beginnings, some researchers went to Guangdong Province, where the first cases of SARS occurred. Scientists noted that the first victims of the disease were people who worked in the many live animal markets throughout the province. A visit to a market just an hour south of the province's capital showed reporter Elizabeth Rosenthal a place that seemed rife with germs Investigating SARS Investigating SARS A scientist studies the SARS virus for clues about how it spreads from person to person. Scientists discovered that close contact is not necessary for transmission of the pathogen. A scientist studies the SARS virus for clues about how it spreads from person to person. Scientists discovered that close contact is not necessary for transmission of the pathogen.

Police and Health Officials

WHO officials are convinced that health agencies throughout the world would be wise to see how Hong Kong was able to contain the spread of SARS, given its high vulnerability to contagious diseases. It was successful, say experts, because once Hong Kong's public health department realized the danger, it began a thorough tracking of all personal contacts of each SARS patient who had been seen in a hospital there. Not only did public health workers do the tracking, but police officers helped, too. All family members or friends who had been in contact with a person infected with SARS were found and confined to their homes. Some worried that this zealous tracking partnership might be an infringement of civil liberties, but most health care workers in Hong Kong and elsewhere were pleased with the system and other nations have taken note. I'm convinced that the way that the health authorities, the Department SARS

Organizations to Contact

The CDC's goal is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease. The organization has developed vital partnerships with public and private medical groups that can provide information and assistance to people in the United States and throughout the world. One of the CDC's functions is to investigate outbreaks of new and dangerous diseases such as SARS.

Its the Dumbest Thing in the World

Toronto's health officials say that one lesson they learned from their experience with SARS was the woeful state of their patient-tracking system. As Toronto's outbreak worsened in April and May, the public health system was overwhelmed by the task of keeping track of thousands of people who had been exposed to the virus and were at risk of developing SARS, as well as the many people in quarantine. Because of underfunding, the public health office had to rely on a paper-based tracking system far more time-consuming and prone to errors than a computer-based one. The tracking system was so inaccurate, for example, that some people who were at risk for developing SARS were never called and warned, while others were called several times. Two families were not called until after their relatives had died of SARS.

It Feels like Being in Prison

Quarantine was often far different for people in Asia. Shortly after it was discovered that more than 250 residents of the large Hong Kong housing complex, the Amoy Gardens, had become infected with SARS, health officials descended on Block E of the complex and bused the 240 remaining residents to quarantine facilities. In the eastern mainland province of Zhejiang, SARS patients were quarantined in a government office building. Not only were those quarantined angry at the lack of facilities no beds, for example but nonquarantined residents staged violent protests at the use of those buildings. Breaking windows and smashing furniture, townspeople were furious that such buildings were used, calling the quarantine a danger to everyone. They worried that

Impossible to Enforce

If it is true that a wider variety of animals carries the virus, it would create a number of new problems. Since it is almost certain that the SARS virus is a crossover from an animal virus, it would mean that there were many carriers of the coronavirus that could possibly infect humans. In that case it is not merely a matter of warning consumers about one or two types of animals, but rather most of the species sold at the markets in southern Guangdong Province. It is believed that the animal virus invades a human host during the handling, slaughtering, or cooking of infected animals. (Researchers do not think that eating animals once they are cooked poses any threat.) Soon after the link was identified between wild animals and SARS, the Chinese government tried to crack down on the animal markets, banning the sale, capture, transport, or purchase of almost all wild animals dead or alive. In addition, provincial government officials warned that they would conduct unannounced visits to...

From Person to Person

As some researchers concentrated on the beginnings of the virus and its probable jump from animals to people, others tried to understand how it spread from person to person. At first doctors believed that for someone with SARS to infect another person required fairly close proximity, with the infected person sneezing or coughing and those droplets coming into contact with an un-infected person. However, as doctors began seeing more patients with SARS, they noticed that in all cases, the disease affects the lower part of a patient's lungs. That means that close contact is not necessary. Viruses that arise from the lower lungs tend to come out in a fine aerosol, rather than heavy droplets from sneezes and bronchial coughs. The aerosol is so light that it can linger for a much longer time in the air. SARS In addition, scientists found that the SARS virus can live outside the body for up to twenty-four hours, which means that it might be possible for an infected person who touches a...

For the Sake of the People

Students quarantined at Beijing University do morning exercises. Many students defied government orders and left the campus to avoid contracting SARS. Students quarantined at Beijing University do morning exercises. Many students defied government orders and left the campus to avoid contracting SARS. chose to deal with the disease in more traditional ways in this case, being secretive about the severity of SARS. It was only when WHO and the international media became involved that Hu realized that he and his government were rapidly losing the trust of the people in addition to that of the international community. On April 20, 2003, Hu abruptly fired his health minister, replacing him with a no-nonsense former trade minister, Wu Yi. Wu's job was one-dimensional to head the anti-SARS fight in China. It seemed clear that for the first time in memory, China's government was serious about openly confronting a crisis.

Fear Among Health Workers

While the constant worry about SARS was hard on almost everyone, it was especially troubling for health care workers. They were the ones most at risk, and in the early weeks of the disease, it was doctors and nurses in mainland China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Toronto who were infected more than any other group. One of the American doctors who traveled to Canada says that the atmophere in the Toronto hospital where she worked was both angry and frightened. So little was known about SARS especially how it was transmitted that health workers felt vulnerable even with protective gear. The healthy members of the staff were burned-out because they had to work more shifts to cover for their colleauges who had caught SARS or who were in quarantine. Many were working double or even triple shifts. They're not getting enough sleep, they struggle with putting on their protective gear, said the chief of infectious diseases at the University of Toronto, and they are worried about getting infected...

Diseases and Disorders

Summary Describes SARS, its effects on the world's economy, treatments for the disease, and what may happen if it was to return. Contents The Secret Killer Investigating SARS SARS, Politics, and the Economy Life with SARS SARS and the Future.

Clean Tires and Disinfectant

Once the Chinese government realized that it was necessary to openly confront the SARS epidemic, life changed quickly for the Chinese people. Interestingly, China's authoritarian system, which has been widely criticized as repressive, proved to be very useful in fighting the epidemic. In a country where the government rules by fist, notes observer Kathy Chen, its orders to fight SARS have been carried out in spades. 39 One man from a town in central China learned how strongly the government felt about containing SARS. Yang Jie, a twenty-two-year-old who worked for a home-improvement company in Beijing, decided to return home for a visit during the height of the epidemic. However, before being allowed on the train Yang had to undergo a thorough physical to make sure that he was not infected with SARS. During the fourteen-hour train trip, railroad workers came through his car several times to spray disinfectant. And when he arrived in his home town, Yang and several other passengers who...

Canada Disagrees with WHO

While Asia was hit hardest by the political and economic fallout from SARS, Canada suffered, too. Because of the outbreak in SARS Although the travel alert was lifted after one week, Canadian officials felt that the damage had already been done. Like China, Canada's economy depends on tourism, and economic analysts estimated that the SARS threat cost Canada a minimum of 30 million per day of the alert. A milder caution by WHO, listing Toronto as a SARS-impacted area, remained until July 2, 2003, and that definitely hurt not only Toronto's economy, but that of the entire nation. Even in places such as Montreal and western Canada's Lake Louise and Banff National Park, where there were no cases of SARS, there were sharp declines in the number of visitors. One hotel official says that it is unfortunate that the public had the impression that Canada was dangerous because of SARS, when in reality, Toronto's health officials did a good job of containing the threat. Perception versus reality...

Bambi and Teddy Bear Masks

More than anything else, however, it was the presence of face masks that served as a constant reminder of the threat of SARS. People rushed to medical supply stores to buy them, hoping to keep airborne germs away from their noses and mouths. In Hong Kong, stores were selling more than one thousand masks each day some people were buying hundreds at a time. When only a few were left on store shelves, shouting matches often broke out among customers. Masks seemed to be everywhere SARS was. They were worn by bank tellers, flight attendants, and waiters. Even on television, talk show hosts (and their guests) wore masks, too. But the mask-wearing has brought up some new issues of etiquette that have never been considered before. For example, business people debate whether masks make their clients more or less afraid. Should one remove one's mask when meeting someone for the first time And since touching and handshakes are frowned upon in the age of SARS, how best to greet a valued customer...

An Impact on Baseball

Although baseball officials agreed that most likely the chance of a player catching SARS in Toronto was small, they maintained it was important for players to be careful. One player agreed, saying that as long as people were still contracting SARS, it made sense for players to be cautious. I think right now we have to back off a little bit, he said, and make sure everybody stays safe until they find out what's going on. I think fans should understand what's going on, because people are dying from this thing. It's not like people are just sick. People have died. 75

Difficult Job for a Crisis Team

The scramble to learn about the mystery disease began in mid-March, when WHO doctors were alerted that a Toronto woman had become infected. Apparently, SARS had hopped continents. WHO issued its first global warning, alerting travelers that what appeared to be a very dangerous contagious disease had become a worldwide health threat. On March 17, 2003, WHO officials called the top epidemiologists throughout the world to form a crisis team that would tackle the problem of identifying the cause of the disease. Doctors in China had easily ruled out bacteria as the cause of SARS. SARS SARS Researchers were able to deduce that a virus is responsible for SARS because the pathogen did not respond to antibiotics and was invisible under a microscope. Researchers were able to deduce that a virus is responsible for SARS because the pathogen did not respond to antibiotics and was invisible under a microscope. Investigating SARS

Frustrating Mutations

SARS This constant mutation is frustrating to scientists who are searching for a reliable tool for doctors to diagnose patients. In some diseases, doctors can perform blood tests to look for antibodies the body's response to a particular germ that contains the genetic code of the virus. With an ever changing code, however, the coronavirus makes diagnosis tricky, for the antibodies in one patient may look different from those of another patient. You look for symptoms like a cough, fatigue, a low-grade fever, says one doctor. But that pretty much sums up a case of the flu, doesn't it It's no wonder that so many SARS patients have been hospitalized in regular hospital wards, when they should have been isolated. 34

Why Didnt the Government Say Anything

Two women try to keep SARS out by blocking the entrance to their village. Such remote rural areas lacked the facilities and resources to properly treat SARS patients. Two women try to keep SARS out by blocking the entrance to their village. Such remote rural areas lacked the facilities and resources to properly treat SARS patients. But people have been outspoken many for the first time about their government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic. One young woman who became infected after tending to her mother and father in the hospital when they had the disease was angry. If we had known about this disease, we would have stayed away from the hospital, she says. Why didn't the government say anything I blame them for my parents' death. 62 Many Chinese, fearing for the health of their families, felt that the government was less interested in preventing SARS than in keeping up the pretense that all was well in China's cities. In Beijing, for example, people were frantically trying to find...

Hungry Ghosts

SARS has not only changed the routine for doctors and hospitals, but for the families of the victims of SARS. For instance, the disease has forced a change in the cultural rituals associated with death. In China, for example, people are expected to remain with a dying family member. A family vigil, known as you zi song zong, is considered extremely important to ensure that after death, the spirit is happy. However, when SARS spread to Hong Kong, doc- Because scientists were initially uncertain how SARS spreads, finding funeral homes to perform services for people who died from the disease was difficult. Because scientists were initially uncertain how SARS spreads, finding funeral homes to perform services for people who died from the disease was difficult. SARS lives. 52 And because of the hospitals' need to keep family members separated from the dying SARS patients, people do not know the emotional state in which their loved ones died.

Worst in China

In early April SARS hit Beijing, infecting ninety people at a large downtown hospital seventy of them nurses and doctors. Yet when asked if it was safe for tourists to come to the city, one government representative minimized the risks, stating that there had been only thirty-seven cases, and the disease had been contained by Chinese health care workers. Of course tourists can travel, he said. We think it's very safe. 15

Works Consulted

Lawrence Altman, Behind the Mask, the Fear of SARS, New York Times, June 24, 2003. -, The SARS Enigma, New York Times, June 8, 2003. -, Isolation, an Old Medical Tool, Has SARS Fading, New -, SARS Declared Contained, with No Cases in Past 20 Gordon Chang, SARS Crisis New Disease, New Leaders, Same Old Regime, China Brief, Jamestown Foundation, April 22, 2003. Marilyn Chase and Antonio Regalado, Search Continues for SARS Drugs, Wall Street Journal, September 17, 2003. Kathy Chen, China Is As Good at Fighting SARS As at Hiding It, Wall Street Journal, June 4, 2003. Geoffrey Fowler, In China, SARS Robs Families of Chance to Say Goodbye, Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2003. SARS Geoffrey Fowler and Ben Dolven, If SARS Stages a Comeback, Is the World Ready Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2003. Claudia Kalb, The Mystery of SARS, Newsweek, May 5, 2003. -, Tracking SARS, Newsweek, April 28, 2003. James Kelly, Making News on the SARS Front, Time, May 5, 2003. Clifford Krauss, SARS Abates in...

Were Frustrated

International health officials, however, were not convinced. One WHO representative was adamant that the stonewalling had to stop. We have clearly told the government, he said, the international community doesn't trust your figures. 16 Many doctors around the world demanded more information in case SARS appeared among their citizens. In the United States, Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson also expressed his exasperation with the Chinese government for being overly concerned about their image and insisted that WHO and the CDC only wanted to help China contain the disease. We're frustrated, he said. We want to work in greater collaboration with them. 17 By the end of April, however, the government finally acknowledged that SARS was not completely contained and that an accurate count of those with SARS in Beijing was 339, rather than 37, as previously announced. Within a week, the figure had jumped to 900 confirmed cases. To try to contain the disease, the government...

We Didnt Believe It

Though Chinese officials had tried to keep SARS a secret, bits and pieces of information about the disease had spread via the Internet to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) both international public health organizations. When WHO's Outbreak Center, which investigates any new and potentially hazardous diseases in the world, made official inquiries to China, they were told that the oubreak was a new type of flu and that the Chinese health authorities could handle it without outside help.

Unsettling Questions

The emergence of SARS and its spread throughout the world has raised unsettling questions about contagious disease and medicine's ability to prevent it. More than ever before, researchers are eager to understand how viruses arise. How can they mutate, and why do some viruses cause so much damage to the human body, while others have only faint effects While some strides have been made in understanding the nature of the SARS virus, a great deal is left unanswered. In a world that has recently begun to consider bioterrorism a very possible threat, the SARS virus has demonstrated how vulnerable life is in the face of a new and contagious disease, and how societies, governments, and economies can be rattled by the tiniest of microbes.

Trickling Down

In China and other Asian countries affected by SARS, the huge decrease in factory orders resulted in layoffs of millions of workers. Many of the factories affected were foreign-owned assembly plants that had moved their operations to Asia to save money, for factory workers in Asia are paid only a small fraction of what


Another puzzling aspect of the SARS epidemic are those people known as superspreaders those who seem to be able to infect SARS On the other hand, researchers believe that some people who have had SARS have been able to fight off the virus without becoming ill. I'm quite convinced that some people might have contracted the infection but not the disease, says one Hong Kong researcher. Some may develop mild symptoms, like a little bit of cough and no fever some may just feel a little tired for a day or two. 38 This phenomenon is a mystery, just as the existence of super-spreaders. Having people with the virus who do not become ill, however, is far more beneficial to the public. Scientists know that mild cases of SARS, where people do not exhibit any serious symptoms, are a good thing, because they act as natural vaccines. People lucky enough to get only a mild infection will have immunity from the virus in the future.

Ripe for an Epidemic

South Africa is one of many places on the planet where impoverished people could be decimated by SARS. Many researchers at WHO were nervous about the consequences of an outbreak in India, whose 1 billion people live in the most crowded of conditions. Since scientists believe that the outbreak in Hong Kong's Amoy Gardens housing complex was caused by feces of a person with SARS, the likelihood of a major outbreak in India where only one-fourth of the citizens have toilets is very strong. SARS Some health care systems are so impoverished that they lack even the basics necessary to treat someone with SARS or any other contagious disease. Kenya, which is one of the better-equipped African nations, has only ten respirators in the entire country. The Philippines, which spends only 2 percent of its annual budget on its citizens' health, cannot even afford to buy Experts fear that a SARS outbreak in poor countries like India and the Philippines would be catastrophic. Most citizens of such...

Reminders Everywhere

Though SARS patients and others quarantined were most affected, daily life even for healthy people changed drastically during the SARS crisis in China and other Asian countries. For children in Singapore and China, it meant that school was canceled until the threat of infection had passed. For parents of very young children, it meant babysitting services, daycares, and preschools were closed, too. That presented a problem for people who had no older children or other family members to watch their young children while they went to work. In Singapore alone, more than six hundred thousand young children were affected by the closing of child care services. SARS Children in Hong Kong wear masks to protect against SARS. These masks were in high demand in China as people took precautions to avoid contracting the disease.

No Cure in Sight

But for the majority of people, a case of SARS is a very serious threat and one for which scientists have yet to find an effective cure. Treatment or prevention of the disease is an ongoing challenge, but doctors admit that there is much to be learned about the virus before cures are found. Until then, researchers hope that an existing drug for a different virus might give some relief. In Hong Kong, for example, doctors have been giving some patients a combination of steroids and an antiviral drug called Ribavirin. Though they say it has had promising results in some cases, other researchers are doubtful because the drugs do not have an effect on the SARS virus in their labs. In other labs, re- Investigating SARS Investigating SARS Doctors treat a SARS patient in a Chinese hospital. Researchers continue to investigate new and effective ways to treat patients infected with the SARS virus. Doctors treat a SARS patient in a Chinese hospital. Researchers continue to investigate new and...


But it is not just medical workers who are angry at the government's secrecy. It is almost certain that thousands of Chinese people became ill, some fatally, because they were not told about the seriousness of the disease. One man says that the government had assured everyone that the risk of SARS was long over, even when health officials knew that the disease was spreading out of control. As a result of the misinformation, the man says, his wife was ill and highly contagious for days with SARS and the family was certain it must be something else. Chinese journalists, who are largely under the control of the Communist Party, admit that they were used by the government to convince the public that SARS was not a problem. In Shanghai, for example, journalists were told that the number of people in the city with SARS was highly classified and were warned that they would be fired or jailed if they attempted to interview SARS patients or their families. At the same time, however, health...

Many Effects

Sars Virus Toronto

SARS. 2 But the effects of SARS have been felt by more than the patients and their families. In hundreds of smaller ways, people all over the world had their routines altered because of the disease. Students who had planned on studying in China were told by the Centers for Disease Control to cancel their plans. One twenty-one-year-old law student from Virginia had just begun an internship in Hong Kong when the outbreak hit, and he was called home. In SARS-affected regions, businesses that rely on travelers and tourists struggled and were often forced to cut their work force to meet payrolls. Airlines with flights to Hong Kong and mainland China were especially hard-hit. In Toronto a girls' soccer team had won the right to compete in an exhibition match in Pennsylvania, but the team's coach was told not to come after all. One of the players, a sixteen-year-old, had hoped to show her skills and perhaps get a college scholarship. It was my one big chance, she says. I was literally...

Life in Quarantine

Some of those in quarantine were relatives and friends of people who had developed SARS. Many spent the required two-week period (the longest time known between being exposed to the disease and showing symptoms of it) at their homes. Besides being told to take their temperatures often and to stay away from their families, they had to resist the temptation of dashing out to do an errand or see a friend. A New York man kisses his Chinese bride through a surgical mask. Some visitors to China and to other countries impacted by SARS were forced to spend up to two weeks in quarantine. A New York man kisses his Chinese bride through a surgical mask. Some visitors to China and to other countries impacted by SARS were forced to spend up to two weeks in quarantine. been exposed to SARS at North York General or Scarborough Grace Hospitals the two facilities that treated the SARS patients during the epidemic and which later transferred all patients except those with SARS to other hospitals in the...

Learning Lessons

One of the most important aspects of the SARS crisis is that it has shown the weaknesses in the health care systems around the world. If the disease returns, as many researchers believe it will, it is important that governments and health agencies learn from the mistakes that were made during the 2003 outbreak of the disease. For one thing, it is clear that honest, prompt, accurate reporting of the disease is vital to containing it. China's coverup of its first cases directly led to the worldwide spread of SARS. Barry R. Bloom, the dean of the Harvard School of Public Health, says that SARS it is pointless for any nation to use deception when it comes to a virus like SARS. In infectious diseases, it helps no one to either deny you have a problem, or to be dishonest in reporting it, he says, because if you do, and you do have spread, you are going to get caught. 85 But inaccuracy can be just as devasting as deceit, and China is only one of several nations where botched diagnoses...

Is the World Ready

Hong Kong is not the only place where strategies have been mapped out in the event that SARS returns. In the United States, where only a handful of confirmed cases were verified, health officials have taken inventory in various cities, making certain that there are enough respirators and other tools needed to care for victims. Many experts say that even before the SARS outbreak worldwide, the United States was already fairly organized for a large outbreak of some infectious disease. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, had alerted the nation that its procedures for a bioterrorist attack needed to be shored up.

Guessing Wrong

Investigating SARS One of the early assumptions about SARS was that it would prove to be a new type of influenza, or flu virus. After all, many strains of flu have originated in rural areas of China, where people and livestock often live very close to one another. Epidemiologists, doctors who study the transmission of diseases, say that many viruses that cause disease in humans actually originate with animals. Ducks, because they have weak immune systems, seem to be breeding grounds for new viruses. In a duck's body, such viruses can mutate and then are able to jump to pigs, and from pigs to people. Many strains of flu have originated this way in southern China, where the living conditions of ducks, pigs, and people create what one researcher termed a toxic stew. 25 Other news gave researchers even more support for their theory of a new strain of flu. They heard of a new bird flu in China that had made some people sick. Perhaps, doctors reasoned, the strange new SARS disease was...

For Further Reading

Ooi, eds., SARS War Combating the Disease. Singapore World Scientific, 2003. Although much of the material is incomplete, the book does contain some helpful information on the history of emerging diseases in China. Fred Ramen, Influenza. New York Rosen, 2001. Very good section on the 1918 epidemic, to which SARS researchers refer as the nightmare of contagious diseases. Helpful index. CDC ( This is the official site of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and it contains a wealth of information about SARS, its spread, and what is being done to combat it. World Health Organization ( This site has up-to-the-minute articles and bulletins about any SARS news from around the world, including travel warnings about the virus or any other communicable disease.

Economic Disaster

Politics is not the only thing that has been affected by SARS. In SARS-stricken countries, the epidemic has had a great economic impact especially in China. Having recently won the rights to host the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, as well as the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, Chinese economists were very pleased with the prospects for higher employment rates and rising stock prices. However, on April 2, 2003, when WHO declared Guangdong Province and Hong Kong danger zones, that optimism evaporated almost overnight. SARS The first setback was the sharp drop in the number of tourists. China depends on tourism, for it accounts for 9 percent of the economy. In both 2000 and 2001 the tourist industry accounted for 67 billion. After word of the SARS outbreak spread, however, tourists looked elsewhere for places to visit. In April 2003, alone, there were ten thousand cancellations for flights and hotel bookings because of people's fear of becoming infected with SARS. By July 2003 it was estimated...

Coming to the City

But it was difficult for the people in Guangdong to remain silent about SARS when it was obvious that the disease was not under control at all. In fact, there was a growing problem as some rural patients frightened because they were not getting better in their local hospitals traveled to Guangzhou, the large capital city of the province. Because of the lack of information on the disease, the large metropolitan hospitals of Guangzhou were unaware of the seriousness and highly contagious nature of SARS. While the local hospitals had learned to isolate SARS patients to keep them from infecting others, the metropolitcan hospitals found out the hard way. A Hong Kong shopkeeper prepares an herbal remedy for a SARS patient. Many Chinese turned to folk remedies to protect themselves from the disease. A Hong Kong shopkeeper prepares an herbal remedy for a SARS patient. Many Chinese turned to folk remedies to protect themselves from the disease. SARS knew enough about SARS to isolate the man in...

Cold and Empty

Because people were unsure of how SARS was spread, families had a great deal of difficulty finding funeral parlors that would accept a SARS victim's body and even those refused to hold traditional funeral services. Throughout Asia, funerals are almost always held with the body displayed, but the threat of SARS changed that. Funeral directors, worried about spreading the disease from the dead body to funeral guests, insisted on using a framed photograph of the deceased, instead. Another funeral custom that has been suspended because of SARS is the ceremonial water buying, in which a family mem-ber usually the oldest son or male relative purchases water with which to wash the dead person's face. This symbolic ritual is extremely important to many Asian people so much so, says one funeral director in Hong Kong, that among the older generation in Hong Kong, the greatest insult would be to say, 'When you die, I hope you have no sons to buy you water.' 53 Not surprisingly, the funerals for...

Angry Doctors

Similarly, many people feel that China's government may suffer because of its lack of openness with its citizens about the SARS virus. Once word of the disease began to leak out, many Chinese Healthcare workers like this man were angry with the Chinese government for its initial refusal to provide information about the extent of the SARS epidemic. Healthcare workers like this man were angry with the Chinese government for its initial refusal to provide information about the extent of the SARS epidemic. SARS To make the numbers of infected people seem low, government health officials decreed in March 2003 that doctors could no longer diagnose SARS instead, for a diagnosis to be official, it must be made by a medical researcher. But because researchers were unable to see even one-fourth of the patients suspected of having the disease, many patients whom doctors suspected of having SARS went undiagnosed. One doctor in Shanghai recalls a patient he saw whose symptoms almost certainly...

An Official Alert

The warning to health professionals was apt, for doctors and nurses were among the hardest hit by SARS. By the middle of March 2003 the emergency room at Scarborough Grace Hospital, where Tse was treated, had to shut down because of a shortage of healthy staff members. Thousands of Toronto citizens who had At the entrance to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, a bust of French chemist Louis Pasteur wears a surgical mask. From China, SARS quickly spread into neighboring Vietnam. At the entrance to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, a bust of French chemist Louis Pasteur wears a surgical mask. From China, SARS quickly spread into neighboring Vietnam. SARS SARS World Health Organization officials visited China to research the extent of the SARS outbreak. Initially, the Chinese government refused to cooperate with the officials. World Health Organization officials visited China to research the extent of the SARS outbreak. Initially, the Chinese government refused to cooperate with the officials.

Global Threat

Tse was placed in a bed of an observation ward and infected two men in nearby beds, who in the days ahead infected dozens of others with whom they had contact. At that point, says one Toronto doctor, there was no concept of how infectious Tse was. 12 By May 15 there would be at least 145 cases of SARS, with nineteen people dead of the disease.

Psychiatric Study

For people who have survived SARS, the psychological toll has been documented. In a study of 150 SARS patients in Hong Kong, it has been found that 45 suffered from psychiatric problems when they were discharged from the hospital. The problems have ranged from anxiety and mild depression to episodes of posttrau-matic stress and severe panic attacks. Some doctors suggest that the psychiatric problems may stem from a reaction to the steroids and other drugs given in the hospital, but no one is certain. The fear of SARS became an overriding factor in the lives of many Chinese, who paid anxious attention to news reports, hoping for promising news about the disease. The fear of SARS became an overriding factor in the lives of many Chinese, who paid anxious attention to news reports, hoping for promising news about the disease. Health care workers who survived SARS, experts say, tend to be more fearful than before they were infected, and that as a result, they have not returned to their...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Sin Nombre virus The newest strain of hantavirus (virus carried by rodents) that caused an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Four Corners area of the United States. The virus, originally named after the Muerta Canyon on the Navajo Reservation of New Mexico, has killed more than 100 patients across the United States (mostly in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado). Hantavirus is the third most deadly virus ever found in the United States, after hiv and rabies.

Infectious parotitis See mumps

History Influenza is as old as human history the mysterious 430 B.C. deadly plague in Athens may have been caused in part by deadly flu viruses. Historians also suspect that the mighty army of Charlemagne was destroyed by a flu epidemic of A.D. 876. The first true recorded flu pandemic occurred in the 16th century. In 1647, the flu was causing havoc in North America up through New England, where it was known variously as jolly rant, grippe, and the new acquaintance. Its current name was bestowed after the 1732 epidemic in the American colonies, when English doctor John Huxham linked the disease with an old Italian folk word that linked colds, cough, and fever to the influ ence of the stars. About every 20 to 50 years, another pandemic (worldwide epidemic) sweeps across Earth, with yearly local epidemics in between. Major pandemics occurred in 1627, 1729, 1788, 1830, 1847, 1872, 1890,1918,1957, and 1968. Several times in this century, influenza has appeared as a much more serious...

Garlic allium sativum l liliaceae

(my flippant term for, as examples, anthrax, bird flu, SARS, or West Nile virus). However, I have never heard them recommend boosting the immune system with antiseptic garlic to improve one's odds against these very diseases. That is a ponderous paradox. Back during our first anthrax scare, there was no clinical proof that Cipro or garlic was useful against anthrax. Garlic is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, not liable to lead to multiple drug resistance. And now garlic has been shown in vitro to help slow anthrax (X14598920). Will the phytochemical politicians again advise us not to suggest that garlic can help with the disease of the year I can get garlic immediately in case of anthrax attack but I might need several days, a doctor's appointment, a prescription, and a few dollars to get Cipro. Garlic would help Cipro would help resistance will emerge to pure Cipro resistance would be less likely to develop to the synergic mix of dozens of antiseptic compounds in whole garlic. The year...

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC epidemiologists continue to study microbes, from EBOLA in Africa to CRYPTOSPORIDIUM in Milwaukee, but the agency also combats health threats such as gun violence, poverty, and poor nutrition. In so doing, it has been criticized by those who believe the agency should stick to bugs and keep out of social policy.

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

Anti-fat warriors still cite the insurance charts . . . See, for example, Michael Fumento, Quit Living in the Fat Lane, Washington Times, June 30, 2002, p. B-5. Fumento's obsession with the supposedly deadly effects of excess weight, illustrated by his voluminous journalism on the subject, is a particularly interesting example of the distorting effects this topic has on many media figures. In other contexts, Fumento has been at the forefront of those who denounce the distortion of public health information and agendas by ideological factors. For instance, his book The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS exposed how statistics are manipulated by government agencies to foment concern about a largely imaginary epidemic. More recently, his writings regarding the panic over SARS have struck the same note. Yet when the subject is fat, the very same agencies that Fumento elsewhere treats with well-warranted skepticism are presented to readers as if they were infallible sources of objective scientific...

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Like V. cholerae (and several other aquatic organisms described later), V. parahaemolyticus is an aquatic organism that thrives in shallow coastal waters. Deep-sea fish do not tend to harbor the organism and usually become contaminated in fish markets. Precooked frozen shrimp may be contaminated and cause FP if served without further cooking, as in a seafood cocktail. Vibrio parahaemolyticus FP is associated with raw, undercooked, or contaminated seafood and is especially common in Japan and probably other countries in which seafood is a staple of the diet. Contamination from raw to cooked seafood is a common cause. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus FP has increased in many Asian countries and the United States since 1996, and this is thought to be caused by a pandemic clone. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea are the predominant symptoms. The diarrhea can be severe, with blood or mucus in the stool. Vomiting is a less common feature, but fever can occur. The incubation period...

Sexually transmitted diseases

Researchers at Chinese University in Hong Kong have released preliminary findings that suggest SARS is much milder in children and teens than in adults. Scientists found that while teens had symptoms similar to those of adults (muscle aches and chills) younger children tended to have milder symptoms, such as coughs and runny noses, and recovered sooner. The first case of SARS was diagnosed in November 2002 in southern China's Guangdong province, and within one month the province reported 300 cases. The disease quickly spread to 20 other countries, including parts of Asia, Europe, and North America by April 2003 there were 3,000 cases of SARS reported and more than 100 deaths worldwide. To put things in perspective, however, flu-related complications kill more than 36,000 people every year in the United States alone. The SARS epidemic had faded away by the end of summer 2003. A few new cases appeared in 2004. SARS is caused by a previously unrecognized coro-navirus these viruses are a...

Postencephalitic Parkinsonism

Parkinsonism following encephalitis lethargica during the influenza pandemic between 1916 and 1926 is known as postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP). During the recovery phase of the acute viral encephalitis, parkinsonian rigidity developed with the most characteristic clinical features being oculogyric crises. The PEP brain has NFTs in the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, brainstem tegmentum, and cerebellar dentate nucleus (48). The distribution of the pathology overlaps with PSP and, in some studies, it has not been possible to distinguish the two disorders by histopathologic analysis alone (48). Biochemical studies of abnormal insoluble tau in PEP have features similar to AD with three major bands (68, 64 and 60 kDa) on western blot studies, and electron microscopy shows paired helical filaments similar to those in AD (49).

Current Vegetarian Eating Patterns and Practices

Meatless and vegetarian eating patterns and life styles are growing in popularity today. They continue to be fostered by a greater availability and variety of meat alternatives and analogs for animal products. There is also a good deal of favorable publicity about phytochemicals with supposedly beneficial health effects. At the same time, concerns about the healthfulness of animal foods have been triggered by publicity on the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the UK, a later epidemic of hoof and mouth disease in cattle, and most recently an epidemic of SARS spread from animals to people. Worries about saturated fat trans fat coronary artery disease links, dietary fat and cancers, food safety, and other factors probably also contributed to the increased prevalence of vegetarian eating.

Caveats for the Diagnosis of Secondary Undernutrition

Undernutrition due to disease and dysfunction obviously requires establishment of the following (1) the existence of deficiencies and (2) that factors other than underconsumption are influencing the deficiency states. The body composition standard is a body mass index (BMI) of

Chlamydial pneumonia See pneumonia

For centuries cholera thrived only in northeast India, where outbreaks still occur regularly, but as the world trade routes opened in the 1800s, cholera became pandemic, spreading throughout the world and killing millions of people in a series of epidemics. It was London physician John Snow who correctly identified sewage-contaminated drinking water as the source of the epidemic of 1853-54. In his research, he compared the incidence of cholera in a neighborhood with two different sources of water, one of which was contaminated with sewage. cholera-infected bilgewater into the Lima harbor. The bacteria contaminated the fish and shellfish, which peruvians ate raw from there the bacteria got into the sewers and from there into the water supply. The disease then spread throughout South and Central America where the epidemic continues to this day. The particular bacterium responsible for the pandemic El tor (V. cholerae 01) can survive in water for long periods. By September 1994 more than...

Epidemiologic factors

Surveillance data from Europe and the United States indicate that novel virulent NoV strains may emerge and cause pandemics. Why pandemics are caused by certain strains and not others is not understood. For example, in 1995 to 1996, a norovirus strain, belonging to genogroup II 4, was detected in the United States and spread throughout South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.95 In 2002, the European surveillance network detected a rise in norovirus outbreaks among ten European countries caused by the emergence of a new genogroup II 4 norovirus strain.96 This strain had a consistent mutation in its polymerase region that set it apart from other genogroup II 4 strains detected in Europe. The factors that contribute to norovirus genetic diversity are also not understood. Several groups have suggested that within-genogroup recombination gives rise to hybrid strains capable of causing outbreaks in human populations. For example, the strain Arg320 was suggested to be a recombinant of...

Confronting the Childhood Obesity Epidemic

Obesity in U.S. children and youth is an epidemic characterized by an unexpected and excess number of cases on a steady increase in recent decades. The epidemic is relatively new but widespread, and one that is disproportionately affecting those with the fewest resources to prevent it. Although it does not have the exotic nature or immediate mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome, anthrax, or Ebola virus, it is harming a much broader cross section of our young people and may significantly undermine their health and well-being throughout their lives. Obesity can affect a child's health immediately through physical or psychological conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, steatohepatitis, depression, and stigma. Obesity can also affect a child's health in the longer term with additional illnesses that include arthritis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Dna Vaccines For Infectious Diseases And Cancer

Finally with the advent of recent bioterrorism scares, much interest has focused on the development of rapid mass stocks of vaccines to immunize the general public (79). In view of this, DNA vaccines' simplicity and ease of mass production effectively overcomes such obstacles. In addition, plasmid immunization against the protective antigen and lethal factor of anthrax effectively induced complete protection in preliminary mice experiments (80,81). Similar results were also achieved against the Ebola virus in both mice and primate experiments (82). These preliminary results highlight the potential efficacy of DNA vaccines for generating mass immunizations against potential bioterroristic weapons.

Preclinical Studies A Genetic Immunization

Using particle bombardment, a polyclonal immune response against various pathogens such as Ebola virus (60), hepatitis B and C (61-64), herpes simplex (65,66), malaria (51,67), mycoplasma (58,68), papillomavirus (69), prions (70), rotavirus (71), and tuberculosis (72,73) has been reported. Two diseases with a major impact on socioeconomic health served as a model influenza and HIV. Pioneering work has been performed by Johnston et al. and Liu et al., who

Vectors For Cancer Gene Therapy

Gene silencing as a reason for limited duration of gene expression despite vector integration has been described extensively for retrovirus and also for AAV (161), but, with the inclusion of MARs or SARs, matrix or scaffold attachment regions can improve the problem (162).

Vibrio cholerae

Background Cholera appears to have originated in India. It first spread to Asia in 1817-1823, the first pandemic. The second pandemic reached Europe in 1826-1837, and subsequent to this there were five additional pandemics. The most recent began inexplicably in 1961 with a mild strain, the el Tor biotype, which had been endemic in Indonesia since 1937. More recently, it has become endemic in areas of South America. Vibrio cholerae 0139 is a new strain that emerged in the Indian subcontinent in 1992.


Oral iodized oil Although efficacious, injections of iodized oil have largely been replaced by oral iodized oil owing to the concern over the AIDS pandemic and use of needles as well as the higher cost of supplies (syringes) and personnel (skilled injectors). Oral delivery of iodized oil appears to be as effective as intramuscular injection but is less costly, carries no infection risk (through a contaminated needle), is painless, and can be administered by untrained personnel. Oral iodized oil is considered to be safe for pregnant women and can be given at any time during pregnancy however, it appears to protect against moderate and severe neurological abnormalities in the infant only when given during the first two trimesters. The best outcomes are likely to occur when supplementation is given during the first trimester, but even if it is given in late pregnancy or to the infant after birth slight improvements in brain growth and developmental quotients, but not neurological status,...


However, this virus does not affect people and was different from a 1997 strain that killed six people. What worried authorities was the fact that the 2001 infection was a new and highly virulent strain of avian flu that killed almost 800 chickens in cages in three separate markets during its first 24 hours. To prevent a possible jump to humans, all the chickens, ducks, geese, and quail in the territory's markets, along with all mature poultry on its farms, were slaughtered. The appearance of the avian virus in Hong Kong in humans in 1997 prompted fears of a worldwide epidemic, since a study showed similarities between the virus and Spanish flu, an outbreak of which killed between 20 and 40 million people in 1918. A less serious strain infected two children in 1999, and there were unconfirmed reports of further cases in China's southern provinces. Most bird flu viruses do not replicate efficiently in humans.

Viral Infections

The antiviral activity demonstrated in animal and in vitro trials provide a theoretical basis for its use in the treatment of SARS-associated CV (Cinatl et al 2003), HIV (Hattori et al 1989, Sasaki et al 2002-03), influenza (Utsunomiya et al 1997), EBV (Lin 2003a) and HSV-1 (Pompei et al 1979, Sekizawa et al 2001). Until controlled studies are available, the clinical effectiveness of this treatment remains unknown.

Diagnostic Issues

Symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention were suspected to be caused by the influenza epidemic that occurred after World War I, when postencephalitic behavior manifestations in children included extreme examples of hyperactivity and inattention. This led to the suggestion that these symptoms were due to organic brain damage. The concept of inattention and hyperactivity being part of a spectrum with less intense manifestations secondary to subtle injuries became known as the syndrome of 'minimal brain damage' in the 1960s. However, the lack of clear evidence for brain damage eventually resulted in a shift to a more descriptive labeling of the disorder. This is reflected in the American Psychiatric Association classification system (DSM) defining the 'hyperkinetic reaction of childhood.' The same disorder was


The cancer patient and their community face many medical and nonmedical challenges of cancer survivorship. As cancer therapy continues to improve, survivorship will become even more important leading to the pandemic of cancer survivorship. Urgently required are additional investment into research resources for better understanding, training of health care personnel, and provision for the complete management of both medical and nonmedical issues of cancer survivorship.34

Obesity Epidemic

It can, of course, be applied to any disease, no matter what its cause, all injury (including gunshot wounds, as the Centers for Disease Control found to its political embarrassment a number of years ago) or other health-related event. It may be global (pandemic), but it is always defined by its rate of increase, not its universality.


The laboratory diagnosis of influenza uses a wide range of techniques including rapid immunoassays, immunofluorescence techniques, virus culture methods, and increasingly sophisticated molecular assays. The potential utility of each of these methods has changed over the years, most dramatically perhaps with the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. While rapid immunoassays had previously been widely used in clinics and emergency departments, their poor detection sensitivity for the 2009 subtype brought their application into question. Concerns were also raised about the detection sensitivities of antibody reagents used in immunofluorescence methods, and the safety of virus culture was initially questioned with regard to the newly emerged subtype. Early molecular detection techniques had been labor intensive, and required separate facilities in order to prevent contamination. Those techniques have largely been supplanted by more modern methods, most notably real-time...

Other Vaccines

The reports in the media have become less frequent, but as I write this bird flu is still a significant problem for birds, though only rarely for people. Should there be a new pandemic because bird flu does become an easily contagious human disease, the benefits of immunization with a satisfactory killed-virus vaccine will outweigh the risks of increased arthritis.

Do viruses cause PD

Viruses have been suspected as a cause of PD since the epidemic of encephalitis lethargica, the sleeping sickness that occurred early in the 20th century and was the basis for Oliver Sack's book Awakenings. In the winter of 1916-1917, a new illness suddenly appeared, and rapidly spread world-wide over the next 10 years. Symptoms of the sleeping sickness were so varied that no two patients ever presented exactly the same, and so strange as to call forth such diagnoses as epidemic delirium, epidemic schizophrenia, epidemic PD, and atypical poliomyelitis. Although there had been numerous smaller epidemics in the past, there had never been a worldwide epidemic on the scale of the one that started in 1916-1917. In the years that it raged, this epidemic affected 15 million people before it disappeared, as mysteriously as it had appeared. A third of those affected died. A third developed a disorder in which they would sit motionless and speechless all day, sleeping intermittently, and...

Closing thoughts

The enthusiastic quest to vanquish disease is a common, if unconscious, thread in much of what is written about medical biotechnology. Given the extraordinary progress made in diagnosing and treating many previously untreatable conditions, it's understandable that people expect the trend to continue ever onward and upward. And yet, during the same period of this medical revolution, we've also seen the resurrection of old diseases once thought conquered, such as tuberculosis and polio. There has been an increase in certain cancers, and the advent of some new and even more virulent diseases, such as AIDS and the Ebola virus. Why is that This type of ecological perspective on disease has also been put forward to explain the apparently sudden appearance of disease-causing agents such as the Ebola virus. One hypothesis proposes that this virus was formerly at home among wild primates and other mammals in tropical forests, where it had achieved an equilibrium with its hosts over many...

Signs And Symptoms

Weight loss, diarrhea, and night sweats. At about the same time or later, patients develop opportunistic infections or cancers. The diagnosis of one of the opportunistic infections or cancers indicates that the patient has developed AIDS. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a fungal infection of the lung, is the most common opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. Other opportunistic infections include candidiasis of the mouth (thrush), cryptococcal meningitis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis. Tuberculosis is another serious infection that has become increasingly common because of the AIDS pandemic.

From 1000 To 1500

During this period, hops, which enhanced both the flavor and durability of beer, were introduced. In Italy and France, wine became even more popular, both in the diet and for expanding commerce. Distillation had been known to the Arabs since about 800, but among Europeans, a small group of clergy, physicians, and alchemists monopolized that technology until about 1200, producing spirits as beverages for a limited luxury market and for broader use as a medicine. Gradual overpopulation was halted by the Black Death (a pandemic of bubonic plague), and schisms in the Catholic church resulted in unrest and political struggles later in this period.

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

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