Clear Cell Carcinoma

Clear cell carcinoma is also frequently associated with endometriosis, clear cell ade-nofibromas, and clear cell atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors, but molecular evidence for the stepwise progression model is still lacking. Recently, hepatocyte nuclear factor-ip and glutathione peroxidase 3 have been reported as molecular markers for ovarian clear cell carcinoma because both genes are highly expressed in ovarian clear cell carcinomas but rarely in other ovarian carcinomas.55,56 Transforming growth factor-p receptor type II has been found to be mutated in the kinase domain in two of three clear cell carcinomas but rarely in other histologic types of ovarian carcinomas.57 Microsatellite instability is present in endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma but is only rarely detected in serous and mucinous tumors.58,59 These findings provide further evidence that endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma may have a common precursor lesion.

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