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Benign mucinous cystadenoma, imaging of, 70 Benign serous cystadenoma, imaging of, 70 BEP regimen for germ cell tumors, 215, 216 for granulosa cell tumors, 204-205 Bevacizumab, for recurrent and resistant ovarian cancer, 175

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO)

for advanced-stage epithelial cancer, 113-117, 114f,

115f, 116f for borderline tumor, 197 for germ cell tumors, 135, 136t for granulosa cell tumors, 202 prophylactic for BRCA mutations, 42

in general population, 56-57

for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer,

in high-risk population, 57-60, 61t procedure for, 58, 58f-59f and risk reduction, 132-133, 132f vs. screening, 102, 104, 104b Biomarker(s) with adjuvant chemotherapy, 152-154, 154t for screening, 95-96, 96b, 97f, 98f multiplex arrays of, 101 validation of panels of, 101-102

Bleomycin, for germ cell tumors, 215 Borderline tumors, 193-199 adjuvant treatment for, 198 advanced-stage, 134-135, 135t, 198 Brenner, 26t in carcinogenesis model, 17-18, 26, 26t clinical characteristics of, 195-196, 196f diagnosis of, 196

epidemiology of, 133, 193

histology of, 194-195, 194t implants of, 194

microinvasion by, 195

micropapillary architecture within, 195

prognostic features in, 194, 194t recurrence of, 199

serous in carcinogenesis model, 17-18 molecular genetic changes in, 26t surgery for, 133-135, 196-198 extent of, 197

intraoperative frozen section in, 196-197 staging in, 134, 197-198 surveillance for, 198 survival with, 133, 134f Bowel obstruction, palliative surgery for, 125-127 BRAF inhibitors, 21 BRAF mutations, 21, 22-23, 22t, 23f BRCA1, functions of, 35-36 BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer, 38, 43 in carcinogenesis, 5-7, 7t chemoprevention with, 55-56, 56t and endogenous hormonal factors, 39 features and risks of cancers related to, 36-39 founder effect in, 41, 41f genetic testing for, 39-41, 39b, 40f, 41f in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 35 in men, 38

and modifier genes, 39 and other cancers, 38 penetrance of, 36, 37f prevalence of, 36

prophylactic surgery for, 59-60, 61t and risk reduction, 132-133, 132f and protective effect of oral contraceptive, 38-39 risk of breast cancer with, 38 cumulative, 102, 102f relative, 88, 88t risk of ovarian cancer with, 36-37 cumulative, 102, 102f lifetime, 52, 53t relative, 88, 88t risk reduction strategies with for breast cancer, 43 for ovarian cancer, 42-43 screening for women with, 102-105 for breast cancer, 43

CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound for, 103-105 for ovarian cancer, 42-43 vs. prophylactic surgery, 102, 104, 104b recommendations on, 102 Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm in, 105, 105b UKFOCSS trial of, 105 BRCA2, functions of, 35-36 BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer, 38, 43 in carcinogenesis, 5-7, 7t chemoprevention with, 55-56, 56t and endogenous hormonal factors, 39 features and risks of cancers related to, 36-39

BRCA2 mutations (Continued) founder effect in, 41, 41f genetic testing for, 39-41, 39b, 40f, 41f in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 35 in men, 38

and modifier genes, 39

and other cancers, 38

ovarian cancer cluster region of, 36, 37f penetrance of, 36, 37f prevalence of, 36

prophylactic surgery for, 59-60, 61t and risk reduction, 132-133, 132f risk of breast cancer with, 38 cumulative, 102, 102f relative, 88, 88t risk of ovarian cancer with, 36-37 cumulative, 102, 102f lifetime, 52, 53t relative, 88, 88t risk reduction strategies with for breast cancer, 43 for ovarian cancer, 42-43 screening for women with, 102-105 for breast cancer, 43

CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound for, 103-105 for ovarian cancer, 42-43 vs. prophylactic surgery, 102, 104, 104b recommendations on, 102 Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm in, 105, 105b UKFOCSS trial of, 105 Breast cancer, hereditary. See Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Brenner tumor, carcinogenesis of borderline, 26t malignant, 19t, 20 Broad ligament leiomyoma, imaging of, 74, 74f BSO. See Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO).

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