Seven Secrets To Reverse Your Osteopenia

The Osteoporosis Reversing Breakthrough

eres just a few things youll learn about how to get back into health. and conquer Osteoporosis. Those not-so innocent yet everyday substances that are currently attacking your body, perpetuating and aggravating your Osteoporosis. What to do and what Not to do to overcome your Osteoporosis effectively and permanently. How to create the energy you need to be able to work full time and feel confident you will be able to take care of your loved ones. How the pharmaceutical and food industry are conspiring to poison you and make you sick (Hint: American medical system is now the leading cause of death in the US). Which food industries use advertising to encourage doctors to tell you that their food is good for you just like those cigarette ads in the 1950s! The single most effective fruits and vegetables in cleaning up excess acidic waste and how to cleanse your inner terrain completely from systemic acidosis. Why, what your Doctor has told you is wrong, and why many medications actually increase the side effects and complications of Osteoporosis (primarily by depleting vital vitamins, minerals and nutrients from your body). Which supplements every patient must take to stop the symptoms and boost your body's ability to reverse Osteoporosis. How to naturally reduce your cravings for toxic foods. Lifestyle and food choices to reverse your Osteoporosis fast, naturally, and for good. Why treating the symptoms of disease is like using an umbrella inside your house instead of fixing the roof. The most powerful creator of health (Hint: its not a food or vitamin!) The best way to simplify the task of making a health-conscious lifestyle adjustment. A miraculous scientific discovery that jump-starts your body to do its natural work, which is to heal itself and restore your Health.

The Osteoporosis Reversing Breakthrough Summary

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Osteoporosis Prevention

Pharmaceutical HRT is sometimes used for preventing loss of bone following menopause however, a growing number of users are concerned about the increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term HRT. As such, phyto-oestrogens have been used as an alternative to prevent osteoporosis. Most research has focused on soy isoflavones, although there is some evidence that red clover-derived isoflavones may also be of benefit. In a recent trial by Atkinson et al, loss of lumbar spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density was significantly reduced in women taking red clover-derived isoflavones (43.5 mg day) compared to placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial in 205 women over 12 months (Atkinson et al 2004c). Bone formation markers were also significantly increased however, no improvement in hipbone mineral content or bone mineral density was noted. A double-blind study of 46 postmenopausal women investigated the effects of a red clover isoflavone...

Case 1 Osteoporosis Screening

The diagnosis of osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass, and the concomitant determination of fracture risk, has posed a continuing challenge to both radiologists and clinicians.77 The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 provided the Medicare program with a new osteoporosis screening benefit in which multiple bone mass measurement techniques (e.g., some applied to the skeleton and others to peripheral sites such as the wrist or heel) would be covered within certain frequency parameters if a defined set of beneficiary eligibility criteria were met. In this case, the resultant regulation75 was sufficiently complex that an LCD79 was necessary to properly execute the legislation and ensure that appropriate limited coverage was established. Notably, only limited public commentary could be incorporated by the medical policy team, given the instrinsically prescriptive nature of the benefit. For example, during the 2004 statewide consolidation process, multiple clinicians from the...

Bone mineral density

Osteopenia is prevalent in diet-treated persons with PKU from early life. Reduced bone mineral density and or bone mass has been detected in up to approximately 50 of patients screened by various methods. These methods have included DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), and SPA (single photon absorptiometry). The defect seems to be characterized by a reduction in the speed of bone mineralization, especially after 8 years of age. Osteoporosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults in the general population. Reduction in bone mass increases the risk of fracture. A reduction of one The pathogenesis of osteopenia in PKU is under study. Discrepant associations have been reported between osteopenia and blood phenylalanine levels, serum vitamin and mineral levels, protein, vitamin and mineral intakes, serum markers of bone formation and PTH, and ratio of urinary minerals, to creatinine. One theory is that...

Osteoporosis and Osteopenia

Osteoporosis and osteopenia are conditions involving decreased bone mass and hence a decrease in the strength of the bones with an increased risk of fractures. Osteopenia has been defined as having bone mass that is more than one standard deviation below the normal level, and osteoporosis as having bone mass that is more than two and a half standard deviations below normal. These definitions have been difficult to apply to children because the normal levels have not been well defined for children of different ages and races. However, precise medical definitions are not what parents should be concerned about. What it is important for parents to understand is that children who do not get enough calcium in their diet, children with chronic arthritis, children who take corticosteroids or certain other drugs (especially diuretics such as furosemide), and children with a variety of hormonal disorders are all at risk of decreased bone mass and easily broken bones. For parents, the first...

Treatment Of Osteoporosis And Osteopenia

The most important element of treatment for childhood osteoporosis is prevention. Every child should have an adequate calcium intake. If extra calcium is given in the form of supplements, it must be accompanied by vitamin D. However, while calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients, excessive vitamin D consumption is dangerous and can even be fatal, and excessive intake of calcium should be avoided because it often causes constipation and stomach upset. Attention to diet and appropriate supplementation should be adequate treatment for children with mild osteopenia. Children with fractures or DEXA-docu-mented osteoporosis may require more aggressive therapy. However, appropriate treatment for children with osteoporosis remains controversial. Bisphosphonates such as alendronate and other drugs used in adults may be required. They prevent the withdrawal of calcium from bones and have been proven to reverse osteoporosis to some extent in children. However, their long-term safety for...

Prognosis For Children With Osteoporosis Or Osteopenia

The prognosis for a child with osteopenia is very good. Identification of any underlying problem, correction of the diet, and appropriate medical therapy should lead to improvement. The prognosis for children with osteoporosis is more guarded. Parents must consider whether such children should be treated with bisphosphonates. Children with severe osteoporosis should be referred to large centers with experienced staff, where they can receive the best possible therapy.

Complications Of Osteoporosis And Osteopenia

The major complications of osteoporosis are fractures of various kinds. Stress fractures in the limbs of athletes become evident as pain at the site of the fracture. Vertebral fractures in children with chronic disease cause severe back pain. Occasionally, children are recognized to have osteoporosis only when they fracture an arm or leg after a minor fall. For children with an underlying rheumatic disease, the key to the prevention of osteoporosis is control of the inflammatory process. However, while corticosteroids are effective anti-inflammatory agents, they promote osteoporosis. They must be used very cautiously, but at the same time you do not want to risk serious damage from uncontrolled rheumatic disease because of the future risk of osteoporosis due to corticosteroids. Any child who must take corticosteroids needs to understand the importance of not taking extra when he or she feels bad. At times the doctor may find it necessary to increase the dose to improve disease...

Protein and osteoporosis

What about the claim that high-protein diets cause osteoporosis In inactive people, some studies have shown that increased protein intakes lead to elevated calcium excretion. This is because high-protein intakes increase the acidity of the blood, and the body must leach calcium from the bones to buffer the acidity. The researchers theorized that this calcium loss could lead to accelerated osteoporosis, especially in women. While this phenomenon has been observed in sedentary individuals, there's no clearly established link between high-protein intake and osteoporosis. Women with risk factors for osteoporosis should be more cautious, but if you're athletically inclined and participate in aerobic and resistance exercise, you'll have fewer risk factors. Weight training and weight-bearing exercise increases bone density. Here's what Herbert and Shubak-Sharpe had to say on the subject Our typical high-protein, high-meat diets have also been implicated as a factor in the development of...

Primary Forms Of Osteoporosis Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis

Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis (IJO) is a rare, self-limited disease, first described in 1965 by Dent and Friedman (20). IJO reveals itself in otherwise healthy children, more often 2 to 3 years before puberty, even if more The pathognomonic feature of IJO is the radiological evidence of impaction-type fractures, typically located at weight-bearing metaphyses (e.g. distal tibiae), and characterized by abnormal newly formed bone (neo-osseous osteoporosis). Long bones have no alteration in dimensions, while vertebral bodies may present height reductions because of biconcave or wedge deformities. There are no relevant laboratory anomalies, except possible nonspecific alterations of bone turnover markers. The diagnosis of IJO is based on the exclusion of other forms of osteoporosis. The differential diagnosis between IJO and the mild forms of Osteogenesis imperfecta may be difficult. The most characteristic clinical feature of IJO is its spontaneous resolution within 2 to 5 years, more...

Low Bone Mineral Density Definition And Relevance

Low bone mineral density (BMD) can be defined as a reduction of bone mineral mass per volume unit of bone tissue, in the absence of mineralization defects. The last point is particularly important regarding infants and children, to avoid confusion with rickets. Clinically significant low BMD is increasingly observed in younger patients. While this condition in adults is normally referred to as osteoporosis (1), there is no consensus about the definition of osteoporosis in children before the appearance of fragility fractures, and there are not widely accepted cut-off densitometric values, such as those proposed by WHO for adult women (2). This is due to two main reasons. process itself including the onset and progression of puberty can be influenced by the primary disease. Therefore, it is often difficult to identify an appropriate control group to define normal densitometric values. The usual comparison with sex- and age-matched controls can be inadequate in the presence of chronic...

Other Secondary Forms Of Osteoporosis In Adolescents

Secondary forms of osteoporosis can be found in a variety of other illnesses (Table 1). In all forms of secondary osteoporosis in addition to the direct bone derangements caused by the primary disease malnutrition, reduced dietary intake of calcium, protein and vitamin D, limited physical activity, reduced exposure to sunlight, all contribute to alter the skeletal growth and development and the acquisition of bone mass. Among the most frequent causes of osteoporosis also in pediatric age, we must remember long-term glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment. Many studies have demonstrated that GCs induce osteoporosis, compromise the attainment of a normal peak of bone mass, and increase the fracture risk even in the young (30). A negative correlation between cumulative steroid dose and bone mass has been demonstrated, particularly in children (31,32). Much discussed are the possible effects on bone mass of inhaled corticos-teroids (33), a significant problem considering the increasing...

Best Practices to Prevent Osteoporosis

In summary, several practices can be adopted to assist in the prevention of osteoporosis. From a nutritional standpoint an emphasis should be made on adequate intakes of calcium, vitamin D and a balanced diet that meets the requirements of other essential bone-related minerals and nutrients (detailed in Table 1). A healthy body weight should be achieved and maintained throughout the life cycle. Age-appropriate physical activity and exercise programs should be promoted to maintain fitness, muscle strength and weight bearing activities. Lifestyle habits that adversely impact bone health, including smoking and excessive alcohol intake, should be avoided. Individuals with risk factors known to increase the risk of low bone mass should discuss these concerns with their physician to identify the need for bone density screening. Appropriate screening will allow for the initiation of medical interventions to maintain or build existing bone mass and reduce the subsequent risk of fragility...

Osteoporosis

The role of lactose maldigestion, calcium intake, and osteoporosis has been studied. Osteoporosis and osteoporitic fractures are major public health problems. The role of lactose maldigestion and osteoporosis remains unsettled. For example, minority populations consuming small amounts of milk should be at greater risk for osteoporosis. Nevertheless, African American and Hispanic populations in the United States appear to have a lower risk of developing osteoporosis. Caucasian and Asian women were found to have the highest risk for osteoporosis, with fracture rates of 140.7 100 000 and 85.4 100 000, respectively. Hispanic and African American females had lower age-adjusted rates at 49.7 100000 and 57.3 100 000, respectively. The paradox reinforces the complexity of the disease and the importance of biologic, genetic, and as yet undetermined factors in the eitology of osteoporosis.

Optimal Bone Health

Osteoporosis, or loss of calcium from bone, creates a state of fragility. I encourage my patients to eat consistent, adequate amounts of protein with which bone is inter-mixed in the matrix. A quality source of omega 3 oil or flax oil is also important to maintain proper hormone function, especially of the thyroid to ensure calcium integrity.

Bone Health in SLE

The use of long-term corticosteroids to control SLE activity has detrimental effects on bone health, leading to decreased bone mass (24). This is of particular concern in the adolescent, as adolescence and young adulthood are an important time to develop optimal peak bone mass (25). In adults, a low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with an increase in risk for osteoporotic fractures. Although the magnitude of the fracture risk for adolescents with low BMD due to SLE and steroid treatment is not known, it is a concern for long-term morbidity. Current strategies employed are to measure BMD with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and to encourage supplemental calcium and vitamin D. The use of bisphosphonates in adolescents is controversial at the present time (see Chapter 12).

Complications And Prognosis

Glucocorticosteroid treatment-related adverse events occur commonly among these elderly patients, and at least 65 of patients may have at least one adverse event (3). Patients are at a risk for diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis with osteoporotic fractures, which occur in this patient group at a rate two to five times higher than in age-matched controls. Complications are more frequent in patients over the age of 75 and patients receiving higher doses of steroids (3). All patients should receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation and appropriate treatment for osteoporosis including bisphosphonates.

Nutritional summary

Excessive intake Very high intake of protein and mixed amino acids more than three times the RDA or 2.4g kg) is thought to increase the risk of renal glomerular sclerosis and accelerate osteoporosis. The consequences of very high intakes of Ala have not been adequately evaluated.

Pharmacological Uses of Vitamin K

It has been suggested that supplements may be beneficial in the healing of bone fractures. There is some evidence that patients with osteoporosis (Section 3.4.3) have low circulating concentrations of vitamin K, and some evidence that supplements ofvitaminKmay retard the progression of osteoporosis (Vermeer etal., 1995, 1996 Feskanichet al., 1999). Shearer MJ (1997) The roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 915-937. Shearer MJ, Bach A, and KohlmeierM (1996) Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1181S-6S. Weber P (2001) Vitamin K and bone health. Nutrition 17, 880-7.

Bone Mass Acquisition

Nutrition Increasing dietary calcium intake during childhood and adolescence is associated with a greater bone mass gain and a higher peak of bone mass. The skeleton seems to be more responsive to an increase in calcium intake before the onset of pubertal maturation (18). Benefits are more marked in the appendicular than the axial skeleton. Among other nutrients, protein intake is especially important (19). During the period of growth, inadequate energy and protein intake can affect bone development. Low protein intake also reduces the production of IGF-1. During adolescence, a relative deficiency in IGF-1 may result not only in a reduction of bone longitudinal growth but also of cross-sectional growth. Young people affected by anorexia nervosa or other forms of eating disorders are at high risk of osteoporosis, also because they may have severe calcium, protein or energy (caloric) deficits.

Phosphate in Health and Disease

Phosphate balance in adults is almost always zero, in contrast to calcium balance, which is usually negative, because of the effective action of PTH on renal tubules to block Pi reabsorption. In late life, however, intestinal phosphate absorption decreases and the serum phosphate concentration declines. These physiological decrements may contribute to disease, especially to increased bone loss and osteo-penia or more severe osteoporosis. Typically, these changes in Pi balance are also accompanied by similar changes in calcium balance. Too little dietary phosphorus and too little dietary calcium may be determinants of low bone mass and density and, hence, increased bone fragility. The usual scenario invoked to explain osteoporosis in old age, however, is that too little dietary calcium in the presence of adequate dietary phosphorus stimulates PTH release and bone loss (Figure 1).

Micronutrients and Physical Activity

Osteoporosis is now widely recognized as a problem for both men and women, particularly so in women, and an increased bone mineral content is one of the benefits of participation in an exercise program. Regular exercise results in increased mineralization of those bones subjected to stress and an increased peak bone mass may delay the onset of osteoporotic fractures exercise may also delay the rate of bone loss. Estrogen plays an important role in the maintenance of bone mass in women, and prolonged strenuous activity may result in low estrogen levels, causing bone loss. Many very active women also have a low body fat content and may also have low energy (and calcium) intakes in spite of their high activity levels. All of these factors are a threat to bone health. The loss of bone in these women may result in an increased predisposition to stress fractures and other skeletal injury and must also raise concerns about bone health in later life. It should be emphasized, however, that...

Dieting and Weight Loss

Normal weight who gain and lose weight throughout their lives. Because of the societal appearance standards for women and girls, they are at particular risk for the side effects of weight cycling. Additionally, the reduced calorie intake can cause dieters to receive inadequate nutrients such as calcium, thus increasing their risk for osteoporosis and related injury (NEDA, 2005b). Psychologically, dieting can lead to eating disorders such as binge eating, depression, and lowered self-esteem (Darby, Hay, Mond, Rodgers, & Owen, 2006 Grilo, & Masheb, 2000 NEDA, 2005b). However, the National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity's (2000) review of the literature suggests that these concerns have been exaggerated and makes the point that, such concerns should not preclude attempts to reduce caloric intake and increase physical activity to achieve modest weight loss or prevent additional weight gain (p. 2581).

Programed and Genetic Theories

Accelerated aging syndromes No distinct pheno-copy exists for normal aging, but there are several genetic diseases syndromes that display some features of accelerated aging, including Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (classic early onset Progeria), Werner's syndrome, and Down's syndrome. Patients with these syndromes suffer from many signs of premature aging including hair loss, early greying, and skin atrophy, and also suffer from premature age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and glucose intolerance. The defined genetics involved in these syndromes provide strong evidence for the genetic basis of aging.

Static Biochemical Tests

Vitamin K status requires a multiple approach including a functional test. Plasma phylloquinone is measured by reversed-phase HPLC using postcol-umn chemical reduction followed by fluorometric detection. Determination of the serum undercar-boxylated form of prothrombin (PIVKA-II) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and urinary 7-carboxyglutamic acid by HPLC with fluorometric detection has been proposed. Confounding effects of age, sex, season, malfunction of gastrointestinal tract, osteoporosis, liver diseases, antibiotics, and other drugs are reported.

Bioavailability of Fortified Iron

Carotenoids Chemistry, Sources and Physiology. Cobalamins. Copper. Food Fortification Developed Countries Developing Countries. Iodine Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements. Microbiota of the Intestine Prebiotics. Osteoporosis. Selenium. Vitamin A Biochemistry and Physiological Role. Zinc Physiology.

Linda A Jacobs Jane Alavi Angela DeMichele Steven Palmer Carrie Stricker and David Vaughn

Angela Demichele

The Panel created four working subgroups to identify important questions, review the literature, and develop clinical practice guidelines. The four working groups reflect the Panel's identification of four major topics to address in the proposed guidelines (1) Cardiovascular morbidity and late cardiovascular effects of treatment in long-term adult cancer survivors (2) Hormone replacement, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction in long-term adult cancer survivors (3) Second cancers and cancer screening in long-term adult cancer survivors and (4) Psychosocial concerns in long-term adult cancer survivors. The timeline set for the Panel will result in a final product for dissemination to members in the next few years.

Clare Stevinson Kristin L Campbell Christopher M Sellar and Kerry S Courneya

In assessing the risk-benefit ratio of exercise, it is important to consider the potential harm to cancer survivors of remaining inactive, alongside the possible hazards of exercise. Physical inactivity leads to deconditioning, bone loss, and muscle atrophy, decreases in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, digestive function and immunosurveillence, and increases in cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., lipid levels, blood pressure). Maintaining regular activity is essential therefore for reducing the risk of developing other chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis), and particularly so for cancer survivors who may at increased risk of further disease.94-96 7. Vuori, I.M. Dose-response of physical activity and low back pain, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. Med. Sci. SportsExerc. 2001 33(6 Suppl) S551-86.

Is hormone replacement therapy HRT good for PD

Estrogen replacement can relieve hot flashes, which in some people can be debilitating. This is of concern to women with PD, whose risk for osteoporosis is To judge whether you are a candidate for HRT remember (1) HRT will not prevent heart disease and may increase it. (2) HRT will help to prevent bone thinning, and this is a consideration for women with a family history of osteoporosis. However, there are natural forms of estrogen along with supplements of minerals and vitamins, as well as weight-bearing exercise, also help to prevent bone thinning. (3) HRT slightly

Early Parenteral Nutrition Studies in ELBW Neonates

The first comprehensive, prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 'aggressive' versus 'conservative' nutrition in 125 relatively sick neonates weighing < 1,500 g at birth was conducted in the 1990s by Wilson et al. 18 . Infants in the aggressive intake group were sicker, were started on earlier enteral nutrition (day 2 vs. day 5 in the control group), parenteral amino acids (day 1 vs. 3), and parenteral lipid (day 2 vs. 5). Nutrients were advanced more quickly and to higher maximal intakes in the aggressive nutrition group, and insulin was used if hyperglycemia developed. In terms of outcomes, there were no differences between groups in survival, hospital stay, days to full enteral feeding, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, cholestasis, and osteopenia. There was a significant improvement in weight gain at discharge from hospital in the aggressive intake group, though both groups demonstrated significant postnatal growth failure...

What is the relationship between ulcers and GERD

Acid burning the area and or by certain medications. Examples of medications that cause esophageal ulcers are aspirin and NSAIDs, potassium pills, iron pills, medications for osteoporosis such as alendronate sodium, and certain antibiotics like tetracycline. This is a short list there are many more, but these are the most common causes.

Glucocorticoid receptor antisense knock down

Recently, Tranche et al. (1999) generated a conditional GR knockout mouse (GRNesCre mice) where GR function is selectively inactivated in the CNS, using a Cre loxP-recombination system in which Cre is under the control of the nestin promoter enhancer. In this model, GR protein is absent in the brain but is normally distributed in the anterior pituitary and other peripheral tissues. GRNesCrc mice display pronounced alterations in HPA axis equilibrium despite intact negative feedback on pituitary cells. Hypothalamic CRF expression is elevated, leading to increased POMC transcription in the pituitary and elevated plasma corticosterone. These finding demonstrate that intact negative feedback at the pituitary is not able to overcome uninhibited hypothalamic CRF drive, because glucocorticoids are still able to act on nonneuronal cells with intact GR, these mice display several symptoms of Cushing's syndrome, including growth retardation, altered fat distribution and osteoporosis. A detailed...

Sources of further information and advice

Almustafa m, doyle f h, gutteridge d h, hand d j, davis t m, spinks t j, freemantle c and joplin g f (1992), 'Effects of treatments by calcium and sex hormones on vertebral fracturing in osteoporosis', Q. J. Med., 83, 283-294. azadbakht l, mirmiran p, esmaillzadeh a and azizi f (2005), 'Dairy consumption is inversely associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults', Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 82, 523-530. barger-lux m j, davies k m, heaney r p, chin b k and rafferty k (2001), 'Calcium supplementation may attenuate accumulation of fat in young women', J. Bone Miner. Res., 16, S219. barr s i (2004), 'Calcium and obesity', in Mela D. (Ed.), 'Food, Diet and Obesity', substances on fecal fat', Gastroenterology, 41, 242-244. Edelstein s (2004), 'Calcium citrate and bone health', in Remacle, C. and Reusens B. (Eds), 'Functional Foods, Ageing and Degenerative Disease', Cambridge, Woodhead, pp. 174-183. flynn A and cashman K (1999), 'Calcium', in Hurrel, R. (Ed.), 'The...

What are antacids and how and when should they be used

As discussed, antacids come in many formulations, meaning they contain many different active ingredients to neutralize acid. Some are more effective than others and also may have other added health benefits or side effects. A favorite antacid that I use regularly (DLB) is calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate comes in many flavors, is chewable, and is effective for GERD. But an added benefit of calcium carbonate is that it contains calcium. Adults require 1200 to 1600 milligrams of calcium per day to maintain bone health, and this can be easily achieved by taking a few calcium carbonate tablets each day. In fact, I frequently recommend that my patients take calcium carbonate as a calcium supplement even if they do not have GERD.

Musculoskeletal System

Bone mineral content declines with age this aging process is known as 'osteopenia.' (It should be distinguished from the related pathological process in which bone architecture is altered, producing 'osteoporosis.') From the peak in the third and fourth decades, a 30 average decline in bone mineral density occurs through the ninth decade. In women, there is well-characterized acceleration of the rate of bone mineral loss immediately following the menopause. Decreasing levels of anabolic hormones may be associated with musculoskeletal atrophy and decrease in function that is observed in older women. This change in skeletal mineralization with aging is not associated with any apparent change in vitamin D nutriture as reflected in circulating levels of the vitamin.

Point by point how do you answer charges that

Too much vitamin D leads to high blood calcium, headaches and appetite loss Vitamin D plays an essential role in the absorption of calcium from the gut and may therefore help prevent osteoporosis and other conditions. Recent tests showed that the majority of elderly people are deficient in vitamin D. The toxic effects of vitamin D have been found only at doses which exceed 2,000 IU per day in adults. This is many times the dose found in multivitamin supplements. The danger occurs when an over-zealous person misguidedly takes prolonged mega doses of the individual vitamin, without having a severe deficiency proven by tests (mega doses of vitamins are sometimes appropriate to deal with deficiency symptoms but this is best administered with the guidance of a nutrition consultant or doctor).

And Radiographic Evaluation

Dental Implant Radiographic Evaluation

Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is particularly relevant for the post menopausal woman, and it may be worthwhile seeking Bone Mineral Content evaluation as part of a routine Bone Metabolic Counsel 3 Roberts, W.E., Simmons, K.E., Garetto, L.P., DeCastro, PA. Bone physiology and metabolism in dental implantology Risk factors for osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. Implant Dent 1992 1 11-21.

Indications Dandelion

Abscess (f CRC MAD) Acne (f VAD) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f BIB) Alactea (f LMP PH2) Alcoholism (f SKY) Alzheimer's (1 FNF) Anemia (f1 AAH DEM JFM WAM) Anorexia (12 APA KOM PH2 PIP VAD) Arthrosis (f BIB) Backache (f DEM) Bacteria (1 WOI) Biliary Dyskinesia (2 PIP) Biliousness (f BIB) Bladderstones (2 KOM) Boil (f CRC LMP) Bronchosis (f12 APA BIB LAF) Bruise (f BIB CRC) Cachexia (f NAD) Cancer (f CRC) Cancer, bladder (f JLH) Cancer, bowel (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f CRC JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Caries (f CRC LMP) Cardiopathy (f APA BIB) Catarrh (f BIB CRC) Cellulite (1 FT71 S73) Chill (f HJP) Cholecystosis (2 BGB CRC HH3 KOM PH2) Cirrhosis (SKYf ) Cold (1 APA) Colic (1 PH2) Congestion (1 PH2) Conjunctivosis (f AAH AKT) Constipation (f1 FAD SKY FT71 S73) Consumption (f BIB) Cough (f MAD) Cramp (f DEM) Cystosis (1 WAM) Dermatosis (f APA BGB KAP KOM PH2) Diabetes (f1 BIB CRC JFM KOM MAD PH2 X15704495 X14750205) Dropsy (f1 BGB BIB DEM KAP MAD) Dysentery (f AKT)...

Consequences of Mg Deficit and Implications in Various Metabolic Diseases

Perturbations in the action and or metabolism of vitamin D may also occur in Mg deficit. Because Mg plays a key role in skeletal metabolism, Mg deficit may be a possible risk factor for osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies relating Mg intake to bone mass or rate of bone loss have been conflicting, and further investigation is necessary to clarify the role of Mg in bone metabolism and osteoporosis.

Role of physiotherapy

Whole body vibration exercises (WBV) performed in oscillating platform could be a good option to aid the patient with cancer. The vibrations generated in these platforms can be transmitted to body of the patient, and, it is suggested that, in appropriated conditions, these vibrations could improve walking function, muscle strength, bone mineral density, cardiovascular fitness and body balance. Moreover, the health-related quality of life is increased and the fall risk is decreased. The frequency and the amplitude of the vibration can be totally controlled by the physiotherapist that is supervising the clinical procedure. The

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

How many people are aware that heavier women have much lower rates of osteoporosis . . . Avioli, Significance of Osteoporosis A Growing International Health Care Problem, Calcif Tissue Int 49, S5-S7 (1991) Edelstein and Barrett-Connor, Relation Between Body Size and Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Men and Women, Am J Epidemiol 138, 160-69 (1993) Tremollieres et al., Vertebral Postmenopausal Bone Loss Is Reduced in Overweight Women A Longitudinal Study in 155 Early Postmenopausal Women, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77, 683-86 (1993).

Eating and Snacking Patterns

Osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure Dietary decisions made in adolescence may have lasting health effects. For example, in the United States, more than 85 percent of teen girls and about 65 percent of teen boys do not include enough calcium in their diets. Such deficiency increases their chances of developing osteoporosis as adults. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission.

Which medications can affect both esophagus and stomach

The problem arises when the esophagus and stomach are not able to keep up with the constant injury to their linings. Some medications affect the mucosa so much that the body cannot produce cells fast enough and certain areas become exposed, allowing damage from acid or other digestive juices. Medications that can cause this type of injury include certain antibiotics, medications for osteoporosis, and even simple over-the-counter pain medications. These medications can cause problems by increasing acid production, which irritates the esophagus and stomach. max), and clarithromycin (Biaxin), can cause stomach irritation. Medications for osteoporosis, the bis-phosphonates, can cause problems by irritating the lining of the esophagus as well as that of the stomach. Bisphosphonates, which include risendronate (Actonel) and alendronate, can directly affect the lining of the esophagus and increase the acid production in the stomach. Finally, pain medications related to aspirin in the drug...

Requirements Determined by the Factorial Method

Deposited in order to maintain bone health. It has become evident that accretion of bone mineral at somewhat less than the fetal rate can be compatible with good bone health, but it is impossible to translate such observations into quantitative estimates of the amounts of dietary calcium and phosphorus needed to maintain bone health.

Abnormal Immune Response

While symptoms can be protean and nongastrointestinal, the classical clinical expression of CD in children is a persistent malabsorptive enteropathy and diarrhea, malnutrition, abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal disten-tion. Nongastrointestinal symptoms may predominate and occur in the apparent absence or subtle gastrointestinal symptoms and include proximal muscle wasting, dermatitis herpetiformis, dental enamel hypoplasia of permanent teeth, osteoporosis, short stature, delayed puberty, iron deficiency anemia resistant to oral iron, among others. The risk of CD is much higher among first-degree than second-degree relatives and in children with certain chronic disease such as type-1 diabetes mellitus (2-5 ) and autoimmune disorders, IgA deficiency (10 ), Down's syndrome (10 ), Turner's syndrome, and Williams syndrome.

Foods for special uses

A recent trend is toward the consumption of 'functional foods,' which are foods or dietary components designed to support health and reduce the risk of chronic, diet-related illnesses and conditions, including cardiac disease, osteoporosis, and cancer (Hasler, 1998). Most examples of functional foods are plant based, such as oats, soy, flaxseed, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and cranberries. Fatty fish and eggs from chickens fed flaxseed are good sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Fernandez-Gines et al. (2005) reviewed meat products that are formulated with additional plant products and have reduced or modified lipid content as functional foods.

Medical Physical and Functional Problems

Elder Person Alone

Many chronic medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, depression, and diabetes have nutritional consequences. Loss of body water, lean body mass, and bone mass decline of the immune response over- and underweight malnutrition and declining taste, smell, and thirst are among the problems that affect physical strength, functional ability, and vitality. At times, specialized diets or medical nutrition therapy are needed these are the absorption and use of nutrients. Lists of food and drug interactions are absorption uptake by the digestive tract available from a pharmacist or from a registered dietitian who can coordinate advice about medications with specialized dietary information. see also Dietary Reference Intakes Meals On Wheels Menopause Nutrient-Drug Interactions Osteoporosis Recommended Dietary Allowances.

Bibliography Of Vitamins

American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis (2001) Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of gluco-corticoid-induced osteoporosis 2001 update. Arthritis and Rheumatism 44, 14961503. Amin S, LaValley MP, Simms RW, and Felson DT (1999) The role of vitamin D in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis a meta-analytic approach. Arthritis and Rheumatism 42, 1740-51. Eisman JA (1999) Genetics of osteoporosis. Endocrine Reviews 20, 788-804.

Changes in Calcium Metabolism during the Life Span

The efficiency of calcium absorption is highest during infancy (approximately 60 ), and the amount absorbed from breast milk does not appear to be affected by calcium consumed in solid foods. During the growth spurt of adolescence, calcium retention and accretion increase to peak at approximately 200-300 mg per day in girls and boys, respectively. It involves the action of growth hormone, IGF-1, and sex steroids. The onset of menstruation in girls is associated with a rapid decline in bone formation and resorption. Intestinal calcium absorption is predictably more efficient during the growth spurt and also decreases subsequently. Importantly, it is thought that calcium intakes during the period of growth can affect the peak bone mass achieved and therefore influence the amount of bone mineral remaining when osteoporosis begins in later life. Bone mass may continue to accumulate up to approximately age 30 years, although the amount gained is relatively small after age 18 years. end of...

Nutritional Modification

Osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, skeletal of, and develop strategies for using various classes of antioxidants to reduce the effects of aging. Other dietary components may also have a beneficial effect in preventing or delaying the onset of age-related disease. For example, as a deterrent against the onset of osteoporosis, adults should ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes.

Patterns of Clinical Presentation

Dish Syndrome

Figure 4 This 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of severe neck, shoulder, and back pain. On examination, she was found to have significant limitation in movement and diffuse severe tenderness around her shoulder and upper back. X-rays showed generalized osteoporosis of her thoracic spine with collapse of upper thoracic vertebra (asterisk). She had a white blood count of 2.6 K cells mcl with a normal differential hemoglobin of 9.6gm dl platelet count of 117,000 mcl ESR of 49 and CRP of 1.8 (normal to 0.8). She was found to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia on her bone marrow aspirate. Figure 4 This 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of severe neck, shoulder, and back pain. On examination, she was found to have significant limitation in movement and diffuse severe tenderness around her shoulder and upper back. X-rays showed generalized osteoporosis of her thoracic spine with collapse of upper thoracic vertebra (asterisk). She had a white blood count of 2.6 K cells mcl...

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Biliary atresia This disorder is the prototypic biliary tract disorder in infancy, accounting for 50 of all liver transplants in the pediatric age group and 10 of all liver transplants. It presents with cholestasis in early infancy there is a palliative surgical procedure called the Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy that, if performed before 60 days of age, may at least delay disease progression. In 20-25 of infants in whom the procedure is done in a timely fashion, liver transplantation may never be necessary. Severe steatorrhea and malnutrition are common and malabsorption of the fat-soluble vitamins is profound, sometimes requiring parenteral administration (particularly of vitamin K) to achieve sufficiency. Nutritional deficiency disorders such as osteoporosis are common. cholestatic disorders in patients with Crohn's disease of the small bowel, aggressive administration of an elemental diet rich in medium-chain triglycerides may be beneficial. It is accepted, however, that...

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Some beneficial effects following dietary intervention with soy isoflavones have been observed on bone health, and the mechanism is likely to be via an oestrogenic action, particularly because ERfl is highly expressed in bone, although this requires further investigation. Consumption by postmeno-pausal women (6-month parallel group design) of soy protein (40g day providing either 56 mg isofla-vones day or 90 mg isoflavones day) compared to caesin and nonfat dry milk (40 g day) produced significant increases in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine (but not in any other parts of the body) only in the higher isoflavone (90mg day) group compared to the control group. In a long-term study, consumption by postmenopausal women (2-year parallel group design) of isoflavone-rich soy milk (500 ml day providing 76 mg isoflavones day) compared to isoflavone-poor soy milk control (providing 1 mg isoflavones day) resulted in no decline in BMC and BMD in the...

Prickly Pear Tooth Decay Caries

Gout Flour Oxalic Acid

Although a net loss of calcium from bones occurs as a normal part of the ageing process, and may lead to osteoporosis, there is little evidence that higher intakes of calcium in later life will affect the process. calcium acid phosphate Also known as monocalcium phosphate and acid calcium phosphate or ACP, Ca(H2PO4)2. Used as the

Can medicines exacerbate GERD

Many medications are directly toxic to the esophagus and damage the lining of the esophagus. Examples of these are aspirin and over-the-counter pain medications, some antibiotics, some minerals such as potassium and iron, and drugs for osteoporosis such as alendronate sodium (Fosamax). These drugs are either acidic or caustic, and manufacturers generally recommend that they be taken with a lot of water or with food. People who take drugs for osteoporosis should remain upright for 30 minutes after taking the pills. This is suggested so that the pill does not sit in the esophagus and dissolve, which would allow it to damage the lining of the esophagus. Staying upright helps the pill move down into the stomach.

Requirements and High Intakes

Reported unequivocal or specific signs of fluoride deficiency are almost nonexistent. A study with goats indicated that a fluoride deficiency decreases life expectancy and caused pathological hisrology in the kidney and endocrine organs. Most of the evidence accepted as showing a need for fluoride comes from studies in which it was orally administered in pharmacological doses. Pharmacological doses of fluoride have been shown to prevent tooth caries, improve fertility, hematopoiesis and growth in iron-deficient mice and rats, prevent phosphorus-induced nephro-calcinosis, and perhaps prevent bone loss leading to osteoporosis.

Carbohydrate Malabsorption

Frequent consumption of milk and other dairy foods has been associated with better bone health in some studies, and a strict lactose-free diet may not contain adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D. Table 2 provides a list of some commercially available lactose-free calcium supplements.

Cellular and Genetic Approaches for Spinal Fusions

Spinal Stabilization

Musgrave 78 transduced mesenchymal cell populations obtained from human muscle with the BMP-2 gene using an adenoviral vector. The transduced cells were implanted into SCID mice and demonstrated successful ectopic bone formation. Lee et al. 79 inserted the BMP-2 gene into muscle-derived mesenchymal cells in mice and implanted the cells into mouse critical-sized cranial defects. The transduced cells significantly increased the healing rate of defects compared to control cells. In addition, fluorescent in situ hybridization was utilized to demonstrate incorporation of the transduced cells into the induced bone. In another compelling study, Turgeman 80 isolated human MSCs from the bone marrow of normal patients, as well as patients suffering from osteoporosis. The cells were transduced with the BMP-2 gene and subsequently grafted into ectopic and orthotopic locations, leading to successful osteogenesis. Utilizing a retroviral BMP-2 vector, Laurencin et al. 81 demonstrated successful...

How are MS attacks treated Why are there different drugs to treat attacks of MS

Any opacification (loss of transparency) of the lens or its capsule. Osteoporosis trast, oral steroids had no effect except to double the risk of relapse of optic neuritis as compared with IV Medrol. There often is a rapid response to either drug in patients with acute, severe relapses, but there are no good studies of either IV compared with any dose of oral steroids to evaluate this in MS. The side effects of steroids include an increased risk of infection, including viral, bacterial, yeast, fungal, and parasitic types. This includes progressive multifocal leukoen-cephalopathy (PML), which has been recently reported in two study patients treated with Avonex and Tysabri. Other complications include psychiatric problems, cataracts, osteoporosis, and ischemic necrosis of hips and other joints (as well as others).

Emerging Issues in the Twenty First Century

Another neglected group is the elderly. Currently, there are 580 million people older than 60 years (61 in developing countries), and this number is projected to increase to 1 billion by 2020 (71 in developing countries). The majority are women because they live longer than men. Special problems associated with nutrition include osteoporosis and fractures, vulnerability to malnutrition, and degenerative diseases.

Why should I take drugs that have side effects

What are the side effects of the drugs that are used for treatment of MS attacks Are cataracts a result of steroid use Is osteoporosis a complication of MS Bone damage The use of steroids results in the loss of calcium from bones that underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Subsequently, this may lead to the collapse of vertebrae and an increased risk of fracture of the long bones. Even more serious is the increased likelihood of ischemic (aseptic) necrosis of the hips and other joints. When diagnosed early, treatment can reverse or limit permanent damage. Con

Dairy wW s Up with That

Got Osteoporosis In fact, a significant amount of scientific research has prompted serious concerns regarding the health risks associated with consuming dairy products. Cow's milk and the majority of products made from it are high in fkt (particularly saturated fat) and cholesterol, and contain excess protein and contaminants, from pesticides to drugs. The advertising, sponsored by the National Dairy Council, gives the distinct impression that there is a calcium emergency, and that we need to drink milk in order to keep our bones strong and healthy. Yet, according to Dr. Walter Willett, in Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy, osteoporosis is not a problem that should be associated with lack of calcium intake. Osteoporosis results from calcium loss, with excess dietary protein being a critical factor. He suggests that the substantial amount of protein in milk can result in a 50 percent loss of calcium in the urine Clinical studies also have established that high protein intake aggravates...

The Extremities and Bone

For example, painful sacral fractures are a late effect of pelvic radiation that can be concerning for local recurrence or osseous spread of a malignancy like rectal cancer. A history of radiation is associated with increased risk of spinal compression fractures within the field. Recently an increased risk of hip fracture has also been recognized following pelvic radiation.44 Providers must recognize that in these patients osteopenia and osteoporosis may be focal, and if present, consider interventions such as bisphosphonates and recommendations for weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercise.

Permanent Weight Control

Today the most popular diet plans are based on a high-protein, low-carbohydrate regimen. The focus is on protein-rich meats, poultry, fish, and cheese, and the severe restriction of carbohydrates. In contrast, the plant-based lifestyle I recommend is based on a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, and low-protein intake. Therefore the high-protein Zone-type diets are diametrically opposed to every enlightened principle that I support. People who follow these diets run the risk of developing potentially dangerous side effects, because of the excess protein, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol they consume can lead to an increased risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, kidney stones, and cancer. The weight loss such diets offer is immediate, but cannot be sustained over the long term.

To twofer or not to twofer

A twofer is also very much acceptable if it serves to improve symptoms and signs of a comorbid condition in a patient with hypertension. For instance, a thiazide diuretic has been shown to diminish the risk of osteoporosis in elderly patients. Calcium antagonists, particularly verapamil, may have a beneficial Osteoporosis

Toxicity of Vitamin A

Bones joint pains, thickening of the long bones, hypercalcemia, and calcification of soft tissues, but with reduced bone mineral density. High intakes of vitamin A are associated with an increased rate of loss of bone mineral density with age, and some studies have shown that intakes above 1,500 g per day are associated with increased incidence ofosteo-porosis and hip fracture, although other studies have not shown any relationship between vitamin A intake and osteoporosis (Institute of Medicine, 2001). At high levels of intake, vitamin A both stimulates bone

Osteocalcin and Matrix Gla Protein

Osteocalcin is synthesized in the osteoblasts as a precursor protein that then undergoes y-carboxylation of glutamate residues and cleavage of a pep-tide extension before secretion into the extracellular space, where it binds to hydroxyapatite. Osteocalcin binds to hydroxyapatite in bone and modifies the crystallization of calcium phosphates, retarding the conversion of brushite CaHPO4.2H2O to hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and inhibiting the mineralization of bone. Osteocalcin knockout mice have a higher bone mineral density than normal. The absence of osteocalcin leads to increased bone formation without impairing resorption (Ducy et al., 1996).

Population Groups at Risk of Vitamin K Deficiency

As noted previously, some older people, especially postmenopausal women, seem to be at increased risk of developing marginal vitamin K deficiency, which manifests itself, for instance, by an increased percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) in the circulation. The sequelae of such marginal deficiency, and in particular its implications for bone health, are currently the subject of considerable research effort (Table 2). Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have noted an association between higher vitamin K intakes and higher bone mineral density or lower fracture risk. One study reported that a subgroup of postmenopausal women who were 'fast losers' of calcium responded to vitamin K supplements by reduced calcium and hydroxyproline excretion. Although vitamins D and K have distinct functions in calcium absorption, and its distribution, deposition, and excretion, there is evidence that synergistic interactions can occur between them, and that both can affect the...

Dietary Supplementation for Active Individuals

See also Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Appetite Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects. Bone. Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance. Electrolytes Water-Electrolyte Balance. Energy Balance. Exercise Beneficial Effects. Fats and Oils. Osteoporosis. Protein Synthesis and Turnover Requirements and Role in Diet. Sports Nutrition. Supplementation Dietary Supplements Role of Micronutrient Supplementation Developing Countries Developed Countries.

Components of Parenteral Nutrition

Since the accretion rate of calcium in the fetus is normally 100 mgkg-1 day-1 (2.5 mmol kg-1 day-1), infants on prolonged parent-eral nutrition may develop osteopenia and fractures. The usual dose of magnesium is 0.3-0.5 mEq kg-1 day-1 (0.3-0.5 mmol kg-1 day-1).

Complications of Systemic Onset JA

Many children with systemic-onset arthritis receive corticosteroids to control the fever and rash, and complications such as impairment of growth, obesity, osteoporosis, and avascular necrosis of the hips may occur with long-term use of these drugs. Some children with systemic-onset disease who have never taken steroids also have some impairment of growth and wind up shorter than would be expected.

Complications of Polyarticular Onset JA

The complications of polyarticular-onset juvenile arthritis are primarily those of the arthritis itself. Pain, swelling, and limitation of motion may result in weakness, bone loss (osteoporosis), and difficulty in activities of daily living. This type of arthritis may spread to involve the hip in some children, and hip replacement surgery is sometimes necessary to maintain function (see Treatment of Polyarticular-Onset JA, below). Involvement of the wrists and fingers may also limit function. Cervical spine fusion and foot deformities are additional complications that are seen in some children with chronic active disease. Fortunately, the majority of children experience substantial relief when aggressively treated, and the risk of severe joint damage has diminished substantially with the increased utilization of etanercept and adalimumab.

What is anorexia and what are the effects

The long-term effects of anorexia are not so obvious, but can be of greater concern. In girls long-term loss of periods can lead to infertility, and the abnormally low hormone levels can lead to osteoporosis, resulting in bones that are weak and can fracture very easily. Other hormones such as thyroid and growth hormones can also be affected by long-term starvation. The reduced hormone levels have similar effects in boys in terms of infertility, bone density, growth etc. Internal organs are inevitably affected by a lengthy period of starvation, and in particular the heart and kidneys may suffer irreversible damage. Circulation of blood around the body can also be dramatically restricted, following a lengthy period of malnutrition, and in severe cases this can lead to tissue death in the extremities. Many long-term anorexics have suffered from gangrene and some have needed below the knee amputations. Unfortunately some anorexics die but thankfully the percentage is quite low. Some can...

Types of Nutrition Problems Addressed

In developing countries, these are mainly under-nutrition, labeled as protein energy malnutrition, and specific deficiency conditions, most commonly vitamin A, anemia, and goiter. Although the so-called 'diseases of affluence' often affect the richer urban sections of the population, they have not been policy priorities, but they have recently become so in some Asian and Latin American and other developing countries. However, countries such as China that are in nutritional transition between the predominance of diseases of poverty and of affluence have to consider how to reduce remaining nutritional deficiencies but avoid the nutrition-related problems afflicting developed countries. In developed countries, chronic diseases related to poor nutrition, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis (sometimes referred to as 'overnutrition'), are the main problems addressed because most micronutrient deficiencies have been contained, although anemia remains...

Public Health Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency

The increase in low serum 25(OH)D3 found in so-called ordinary adults in a hospital survey of surgical patients in Massachusetts opened the eyes of health authorities who did not expect to find such low blood concentrations, which indicate future osteomalacia and also osteoporosis. This evidence suggests that many adults in the US are not consuming adequate amounts of vitamin D and calcium in their usual patterns of food selection and that supplementation of these two nutrients is probably inadequate among adults. Low intakes among the elderly result from the same type of eating pattern, but typically with even lower caloric consumption (see below).

Motivation for Micronutrient Supplement

Major health reasons given for taking supplements include a sense of well-being and 'feeling better' (especially multivitamins minerals), preventing colds and flu (especially vitamin C), preventing chronic disease (especially vitamin E and calcium), increasing 'energy,' coping with stress, and improving the immune system. Many vitamin E users believe that the vitamin helps prevent heart disease, and most calcium users know that calcium use helps prevent osteoporosis. Using micronutrient supplements is one way by which people who may be at high risk for certain diseases try to gain some degree of personal control over their health outcomes. Ironically, many individuals who take supplements regularly report that they do not discuss the supplement use with their physicians because they believe that physicians are biased against supplements and are not knowledgeable about the products.

Genetics of Prader Willi Syndrome

Fulfillment of diagnostic criteria and genetic testing confirm in individuals suspected with PWS. In 1993, age-stratified diagnostic criteria were published by Holm et al. PWS is very likely in children < 3years of age with 5 points (3 from major criteria) or in those > 3 years of age with 8 points (4 from major criteria). Major diagnostic criteria for PWS (1 point for each) include infantile central hypotonia, feeding difficulties in infancy, accelerated weight gain in early childhood, hypgonadism, developmental delay and typical facial features (narrow bifrontal diameter, almond palpebral fissures, narrow nasal bridge, down-turned mouth). Current minor diagnostic criteria for PWS (1 2 point each) include decreased fetal movement, sleep apnea, short stature, hypopigmenta-tion, small hands feet, narrow hands with straight ulnar border, esotropia myopia, thick saliva, skin picking and speech problems. Other commonly reported features of individuals with PWS include high pain...

Effects on Renal Functions

Tolerance to the diuretic action of caffeine was demonstrated more than 50 years ago and was shown to develop on chronic caffeine intake so that the clinical significance of hypokalemia and calciuria is difficult to evaluate. Although controversial, some epidemiological studies have implicated caffeine in the increased risk for poor calcium retention. For calcium intakes lower than 750 mg per day, increased rate of bone loss and lower bone density were reported. However, it has been suggested that the effect on bone of high caffeine intake requires a genetic predisposition toward osteoporosis. In individuals who ingest calcium recommended daily allowances, there is no evidence of any effect of caffeine on bone status and calcium economy.

Calcium and Vitamin D

These micronutrients are discussed elsewhere (see 00033 and 00051). Childhood is an important time for deposition of bone mineral and the development of peak bone mass (PBM). Seventy-five per cent of bone mineral is deposited in childhood. Low PBM in late adolescence is a significant precursor of later osteoporosis. Much of the population variation in PBM is genetically determined, but low calcium and vitamin D together with a relatively sedentary lifestyle seem factors likely to contribute to low PBM and risks of osteoporosis later in life. Data from The Gambia show that in preadolescent children adequate calcium deposition takes place despite very low intakes of calcium. In some studies where milk-derived calcium phosphate was fed to children there was accelerated growth and maturation in the supplemented children. The Gambian studies showed no change in growth in the supplemented children although there was increased bone mineralization.

Bone Mass and Nutritional Factors

Factors other than age and sex that are associated with low bone mass include low body weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, reduced physical activity, low calcium absorption, and secondary risk factors such as the use of steroids. Although there is still uncertainty about the quantitative role of nutritional factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, preventive measures include adequate calcium intakes (probably even in old age) and exposure to sunlight to ensure vitamin D adequacy and or dietary supplementation with vitamin D. Restricted sunlight exposure, reduced capacity of the skin to produce vitamin D, and low vitamin D intake make elderly people prone to vitamin D deficiency.

Risks Associated with Dieting

This type of diet may indeed show an initial period of weight loss, but most of the weight loss is not due to the miracle of 'switching the body's metabolism over to burning fat stores.' It is due to a diet-induced diuresis (Denke 2001 59). A diet low in carbohydrates changes some of the metabolic processes in the body, leading to an increase in the production of urine by the kidneys. Furthermore, these diets calling for elevated quantities of protein may not be healthy because h igh levels of animal protein intakes have been linked to higher risks for coronary heart disease and cancer . . . and also have been linked to higher risks for osteoporosis, and renal disease, but both of these areas are controversial (Anderson et al. 2000 586). High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets also recommend no intake of fruits, vegetables, or grains, which contain many of the important nutrients needed by the body for daily processes. The loss of these foods can cause unwanted health problems, such as...

Indications Faba Bean

Abscess (f EB49 406) ADD (1 FNF) Addiction (1 FNF) Adenopathy (f JLH) Asthma (f SOU) Boil (f SOU) Bronchosis (1 FNF) Burns (f PHR) Callus (f JLH) Cancer (1 FNF) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, eyes (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, eyelid (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, foot (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, gland (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, parotid (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, penis (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, testes (1 FNF JLH) Corn (f JLH) Cough (f PHR PH2) Cramp (f BOU) Cystosis (f JLH) Dermatosis (f PHR PH2) Drunkenness (2 BIB FNF) Encephalitis (1 FNF) Felon (f JLH) Flu (f ROE) Fungus (1 WOI) Gastrosis (f BOU JLH) Hepatosis (f JLH) Impotence (1 BIB FNF) Induration (f JLH) Leukemia (1 FNF) Mastosis (f JLH) Melanoma (1 FNF) Mycosis (1 WOI) Nephrosis (f BOU PHR PH2) Ophthalmia (f JLH) Orchosis (f JLH) Osteoporosis (1 FNF) Pain (f BOU) Parkinson's (12 FNF) Pneumonia (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f BIB) Sclerosis (f BIB) Smoking (1 FNF) Sore (f...

Requirements and Supplementation

Calcium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis, which is a condition that occurs when bone breaks down more quickly than it is replaced. In this illustration, the bone above is normal, but the bone below is more porous and therefore more susceptible to fracture. Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Calcium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis, which is a condition that occurs when bone breaks down more quickly than it is replaced. In this illustration, the bone above is normal, but the bone below is more porous and therefore more susceptible to fracture. Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission. mg to help prevent osteoporosis, a common condition in which bones be- osteoporosis weakening of the bone Calcium supplements are widely used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Supplements are also recommended, or are being investigated, for a number of conditions, including hypertension, colon cancer, cardiovascular disease,...

Bonetargeted treatments

Metastatic prostate cancer has an affinity to spread to the bone. Bone metastases occur in up to 90 of patients with HRPC. These metastases can lead to significant morbidity, including severe pain, fractures, and spinal cord compression tumors in the bone may cause pain, compression, or pathologic fratures, known as skeletal related events (SRE's). Because of the frequent involvement of vertebrae by metastatic prostate cancer, the incidene of cord compression is of particular concern. Zoledronic acid has been shown to prevent or delay skeletal complications in men with bone metastases, as well as to palliate bone pain 74, 75 . At an average followup of 24 months, there was a significant reduction in the frequency of skeletal related events (SREs) in men receiving zoledronic acid compared to placebo 38 versus 49 percent), and the median time to develop an SRE was significantly longer with zoledronic acid 488 versus 321 days) 76 . Biphosphonates may also have a role in...

Micronutrient Deficiency

In older adults reduced cutaneous synthesis and enteric absorption of vitamin D increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Reduced renal responsiveness to parathormone is an added risk factor. At least 500IUday 1 of vitamin D are required to prevent significant osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Institutionalized patients with reduced exposure to sunlight are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency due to reduced cutaneous synthesis. The role of calcium supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis is also well accepted. Additional evidence suggests that inadequate dietary calcium consumption may play a role in the genesis of colorectal cancer and hypertension. Osteomalacia, osteoporosis

Decision making 7 practical steps

The side effects of cancer treatment are never less in the elderly. In addition to the standard side effects, there are significant age-related toxicities to consider. Though most of these are more a function of frailty than chronological age, even the fittest senior cannot avoid the physical effects of aging. In addition to the changes in fat and muscle you see in the mirror, there are age-related changes in your kidney, liver, and digestive (gastrointestinal) function. These changes affect how your body absorbs and metabolizes anticancer drugs and other medicines. The average older woman takes many different medicines (to control, for example, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, diabetes, arthritis, etc.). This polypharmacy can cause undesirable side effects as the many drugs interact with each other and the anticancer medications.

Colon Cancer 741 Epidemiology

In a survey of 117 colon cancer survivors, 30 frequently experienced pain. In another community-based survey, 173 colorectal cancer survivors completed a quality of life instrument, the FACT-C,133 and the Health Utilities Index-Mark III.134 These researchers found that pain did not improve over time. Lower income status was associated with the pain dimension on the HUI and the physical dimension of the FACT-C. More detailed information regarding pain was not available.135 In a survey of 259 long-term (mean follow-up 9 years) female colorectal cancer survivors who completed the SF-36, bodily pain scores varied with the number of comorbid conditions with a correlation coefficient r -0.42, p < 0.001. The comorbid conditions included arthritis (57 ), hypertension (46 ), anxiety (19 ), and osteoporosis (18 ).136

Chronology of Problems

Arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, osteoporosis, alcoholism, ulcers, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, tuberculosis, stroke, psychiatric problems, epilepsy, lung disease, venereal disease, sciatica, drug dependency, thyroid disease, hepatitis, skin disorders, AIDS, fractures, multiple sclerosis, endometriosis, lupus, cancer, heart attack, carpal tunnel, breast implants, irritable bowel, Sjogren's, asthma, posttraumatic stress, sinusitis, vasculitis

Clinical phase II studies of IAS

Significantly improved during on-therapy periods with no new pain occurring once therapy was withdrawn 26 . Goldenberg et al. observed that all patients tolerated therapy well and responded in a positive physical and psychological manner to the cycling approach 27 . The attenuation of spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) decline after 3-year IAS compared with those reported for CAS appears to be due to testosterone-driven BMD recovery in the cessation period 28 . Failure of testosterone recovery was associated with worse final BMD. Patients experienced the greatest average change in BMD during early treatment periods of IAS with a smaller average change thereafter and fractures were rare 29 . During the first off-treatment period (median duration 37.4 weeks), BMD recovery at the spine was significant however, subsequent periods had heterogeneous changes of BMD without significant average changes. By reducing the potential risk for adverse bone complications, intermittent therapy...

Systemic Side Effects

A number of different systemic adverse effects have been observed with ICS, including reduced bone mineral density and an increased risk of fracture, adrenal suppression, cataracts, easy bruising, and thin skin (55-58). Of these effects, the bone, adrenal, and eye effects are considered to be the most clinically important and represent the primary systemic outcome measures considered in this review. The interpretation of the dose-response studies that have investigated these effects have been limited by inadequate power with small numbers of subjects, use of indirect measures of function or structure, inadequate time periods of study, confounding by previous oral and ICS use, and the lack of placebo-controlled, randomized studies in which more than one dose of ICS has been investigated.

Specific Nutrients Calcium

Decade, there is a steady decline in bone calcium. This is especially marked after menopause in women, when estrogen declines, and often leads to bone loss (osteopenia) to below a threshold that predisposes women in particular to fractures (osteoporosis). Osteoporosis is not just a disease of the elderly, and may occur in much younger patients, especially athletic young women, those with anorexia nervosa, those on steroids and other medications, and in anyone on prolonged bed rest, including astronauts experiencing long periods of weightlessness. Thus, attention has focused on whether supplementation or fortification with calcium, especially during adolescence, will ensure achievement of peak bone mass. Calcium supplementation in adolescent females has shown short-term increases in bone mineral density, but this may be because it increases mineralization in a limited amount of tra-becular bone, and it remains to be seen whether this leads to long-term improvement or protection against...

Allergic rhinosinusitis

A more effective approach to nasal congestion and inflammation is the use of a topical nasal corticosteroid spray. This class of agent is the most potent and effective modality for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and is effective against all of the manifestations of this disorder (8). Common side effects include local nasal irritation and occasional thrush. Less common, but possibly important in the case of long-term use, are an increase in incidence of glaucoma, cataracts, and osteoporosis. These drugs diminish the inflammatory influx of cells into the nasal mucosa and diminish the strength of the local allergic response.

Introduction role of dietary and supplementary calcium in weight control

The recommended daily intake of calcium (1000 mg day for most adults, 1200 mg day for pregnant women) has been set to meet the requirements of bone-health and the prevention of osteoporosis. Beyond this, calcium plays an essential role in numerous other vital functions regulation of cell membrane fluidity and permeability, nerve conduction, muscle contraction and blood clotting. Calcium has anti-hypertensive properties and the consumption of calcium in sufficient amounts may reduce the risk of colon cancer. Various studies over the last few years have shown that increased calcium intake can significantly fight overweight and obesity.

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

Vitamin D (as D3) is also produced in the body as a result of the conversion of a cholesterol-based precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is produced in the sebaceous glands of the skin. Exposure to sunlight (UVB) converts this precursor into cholecalciferol over a 2-3 day period. Prolonged exposure to UVB can inactivate some of the newly-formed vitamin D and its precursors so that eventually a state of equilibrium is reached between vitamin D synthesis and catabolism. Therefore, short periods of sun exposure are considered more efficacious than long periods (Working Group of the Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society, Endocrine Society of Australia and Osteoporosis Australia 2005). Some vitamin D is stored in adipose tissue and can be mobilised during periods when exposure to sunlight is reduced or shortages develop (Nowson & Margerison 2002). Vitamin D and its metabolites are primarily excreted through bile and the degraded active form is removed via the kidney....

Dietary Intake and Body Mass

Table 1 Nutritional and lifestyle parameters that may influence bone health Table 1 Nutritional and lifestyle parameters that may influence bone health individual's body weight is one of the strongest determinants of bone mass because of the skeleton's responsiveness to the load that is placed on it. Individuals with small body frames or those who are excessively thin have an increased risk of osteoporosis due to a lower overall skeletal reserve to draw on for calcium needed to offset the annual loss of bone that occurs later in life. At the extreme end of this spectrum, individuals with anorexia nervosa are at risk of osteoporosis because of alterations in hormonal status and amenorrhea in addition to insufficient dietary intake of nutrients required for bone health. Although higher body weight is typically associated with a greater skeletal mass, obese individuals may sequester nutrients needed for skeletal health, such as vitamin D, in adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery as a...

Dietary Management Dietary Guidelines

The antioxidant defence system has a particularly important role in Down's syndrome, and parents and caregivers can be advised on providing a diet rich in antioxidants. Dietary intakes need to be considered for the sulfur amino acids (which are needed for glutathione synthesis) fat-soluble vitamins A, C, and E water-soluble vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid and the minerals selenium and zinc. In latitudes where no vitamin D is synthesized in the winter months, it is particularly important to ensure exposure to sunlight during summer months to maintain adequate stores of the vitamin throughout the year because studies indicate an increase in the incidence of osteoporosis in Down's syndrome.

Conclusions and future trends

On the other hand, it seems quite justified to develop low-calorie foods for the purpose of maintaining weight reduction, and to fortify them with functional food components with weight reducing properties, where calcium can also provide a relevant contribution to health. Alongside this, the desirability of a plentiful calcium supply from milk products, other (fortified) foods and calcium supplements remains without question, particularly for osteoporosis prevention, but also for its potential cancer-preventive effects and its favourable effect on blood pressure.

Regulation of Dietary Supplements

DSHEA also gave manufacturers the freedom to provide information about product benefits on labels through three types of claims. Health claims describe a relationship between a food substance and a disease or health-related condition. For example, the health claim diets high in calcium may reduce the risk of osteoporosis has been authorized by the FDA and may appear on the labels of dietary supplements. Structure junction claims may state a benefit related to a nutrient-deficiency disease (such as scurvy, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin C), as long as the statement tells how widespread the disease is. These claims may also describe the role of a nutrient intended to affect a structure or function for example, antioxidants maintain cell integrity, or calcium builds strong bones. Nutrient content claims describe the level of a nutrient or dietary substance in a product, using FDA-regulated terms such as good source, high, or free. For example, if a label claims a dietary...

Safey Issues Related to Inhaled and Systemic Corticosteroids

The GINA document states that, in adults, systemic side effects rarely occur with daily doses of < 500 mg of BDP or equivalent doses of other ICSs. Higher doses of ICSs are associated with increased risk for bruising, cutaneous laxity, cataracts and glaucoma (in some studies), decreased bone mineral density and adrenal suppression. The expert committee admits that the actual clinical impact of ICS agents on osteoblastic activity and on adrenal suppression has not yet been determined (5). For this reason, specific recommendations for prevention of osteoporosis (in contrast to NAEPP) are not provided. children receiving long-term ICS. The committee also reported that long-term observational studies in children receiving ICS therapy for six years failed to show significant effects on bone mineral density or on incidence of subcapsular cataracts or glaucoma. The GINA committee could identify no evidence to support a risk of fracture in young children on ICS agents. However, most of the...

Levodopa And Homocysteine

The relation between disease progression and HC level also warrants further study. Whether PD patients treated with levodopa require supplementation with vitamins B6, B12, and folate or with COMT inhibitors to prevent elevation of HC levels still needs to be studied. Three small trials with the COMT inhibitor entacapone have demonstrated that its use prevents the elevation of HC to some extent (141-143). The impact of this effect on the health of PD patients will require the completion of a long-term prospective trial. A final finding is that elevated HC levels may be associated with the development of osteoporosis and secondary fractures. One study examined 199 women with PD and found that patients with the highest quartile level of HC were at greater risk for hip fractures (144). These results warrant further examination.

Table 61 Some Experts Recommendations on CAM Therapies

Or people receiving anticoagulant therapy) Deep tissue massage (sometimes not advisable in people with a low platelet count or severe osteoporosis or people receiving anticoagulant therapy) Cancer patients most commonly try special dietary regimens, herbs, homeopathy, hypnosis, imagery, meditation, megadoses of vitamins, relaxation, and spiritual healing. Progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, hypnosis, prayer, and meditation are all reasonable to try. They may help reduce stress and pain and have essentially no side effects. Some treatments, such as massage and acupuncture, are usually fine to try, though in rare instances your doctor may not want you to use them. For example, if your immune system has been suppressed by cancer treatment or if you are taking anticoagulants, then both massage and acupuncture may be unwise (not always check with your doctor). If you have extremely brittle bones from osteoporosis, then deep-tissue massage might not be the best treatment for you to try....