Total Amounts Of Antioxidants In Nuts And Seeds

Our analyses (Table 6.2) demonstrate that walnuts contain massive amounts of antioxidants about 20 mmol antioxidants per 100 g. Pecans, chestnuts, peanuts, pistachios, and sunflower

TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds

Product

Manufacturer/Product Label/ Country of Origin

Procured in

Antioxidant Content (mmol/100 g)

Almonds, with pellicle

Kjokkensjefens

Norway

0.23

Almonds, with pellicle

Eldorado

Norway

0.37

Almonds, with pellicle

Coop Chef's

Norway

0.28

Almonds, with pellicle

USA

0.53

Almonds, with pellicle, sliced

Blue Diamond, USA

Norway

0.26

Almonds, without pellicle

Eldorado

Norway

0.13

(scalded using hot water)

Almonds, without pellicle

Coop Chef's

Norway

0.22

(scalded using hot water)

Almonds, without pellicle, sliced

Freia

Norway

0.20

Brazil nuts

USA

0.47

Brazil nuts, with pellicle (partly)

Den Lille Nottefabrikken

Norway

0.50

Cashews, without pellicle

USA

0.66

Cashews, without pellicle, roasted

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

0.40

Chest nuts, with pellicle (purchased

Italy

4.67

with shell)

Chest nuts, without pellicle

Italy

0.75

(purchased with shell)

Flaxseed

Peru

Peru

0.64

Flaxseed, ground

USA

1.13

Flaxseed, whole brown

USA

0.80

Hazelnuts, roasted with salt and

Iran

Iran

0.46

spices, with pellicle

Hazelnuts, with pellicle

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

0.49

Hazelnuts, with pellicle

Norway

0.50

Hazelnuts, with pellicle

Sunport

Norway

0.69

Hazelnuts, with pellicle

USA

0.94

Hazelnuts, without pellicle

Sunrise Food

Norway

0.08

Hazelnuts, without pellicle

Sunport

Norway

0.16

TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds—continued

Product

Manufacturer/Product Label/

Procured in

Antioxidant Content

Country of Origin

(mmol/100 g)

Kernel from watermelon, roasted

Iran

Iran

3.27

with salt and spices

Kernels from pumpkin, roasted

Iran

Iran

0.40

with salt and spices

Macadamia nuts, without pellicle

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

0.55

Macadamia nuts, without pellicle

USA

0.44

Peanut butter, coarse type

Mills, Norway

Norway

0.47

Peanut butter, creamy

Skippy

USA

0.66

Peanut butter, creamy

Jif

USA

0.57

Peanut butter, crunchy

Store Brand

USA

0.51

Peanut butter, crunchy

Skippy

USA

0.55

Peanuts, Malawi nuts, Traditional

Rab Processors Ltd, Malawi

Malawi

0.89

African Roasted Peanuts

Peanuts, Polly, roasted, with salt,

KiMs, Norway

Norway

0.62

without pellicle

Peanuts, roasted, with pellicle

Food Man

Norway

1.97

(purchased with shell)

Peanuts, without pellicle

USA

0.35

Pecans, with pellicle

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

8.24

Pecans, with pellicle

San Lazara

Mexico

10.62

Pecans, with pellicle

Sunport

Norway

7.31

Pecans, with pellicle

The Green Valley

Norway

9.24

Pecans, with pellicle

Norway

6.32

Pecans, with pellicle

La Pasiega, Mexico

Mexico

7.91

Pecans, with pellicle

USA

9.67

Pine nuts

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

0.52

Pine nuts

USA

0.71

Pine nuts

Davy's, Holland

Norway

0.10

Pine nuts, ecologically grown

Urtekram, Denmark

Norway

0.07

Pistachios

India

Norway

4.98

Pistachios

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

0.78

Pistachios

Sunport

Norway

1.08

Pistachios

Iran

Iran

1.16

Pistachios

Norway

1.00

Pistachios

USA

1.43

Pistachios (purchased with shell)

Mexico

Mexico

1.41

Pistachios, roasted with salt and

Iran

Iran

1.38

spices

Poppy seeds

Spice Cargo

Mexico

0.44

Poppy seeds

USA

0.03

Poppy seeds, dried

Black Boy, Rieber og son

Norway

0.31

Poppy seeds, dried

TRS Wholesale CO, England

Norway

0.16

Sesame seeds

Nutana, Denmark

Norway

1.21

Sesame seeds

Spice Cargo

Mexico

0.95

Sesame seeds (ajonjoli)

La Surtidora

Mexico

1.32

Sesame seeds, black

India

India

0.26

Sesame seeds, hulled

USA

0.06

Sesame seeds, white

India

India

0.49

Sesame seeds, with shell

Risenta, Finland

Norway

1.16

Sesame seeds, without shell

Hakon, Norway

Norway

0.30

Sesame seeds, without shell

NatuVit, Denmark

Norway

0.43

Sunflower seeds

Hakon, Norway

Norway

7.50

Sunflower seeds

NatuVit, Denmark

Norway

5.39

Walnuts, with pellicle

USA

Norway

15.16

TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds—continued

Product

Manufacturer/Product Label/ Country of Origin

Procured in Antioxidant Content (mmol/100 g)

Walnuts, with pellicle

Den Lille Nottefabrikken, Norway

Norway

14.29

Walnuts, with pellicle

Norway

25.41

Walnuts, with pellicle

Diamond

Norway

16.02

Walnuts, with pellicle

USA

13.13

Walnuts, with pellicle

India

India

15.84

Walnuts, with pellicle

Demanter, Bio'noix, France

Norway

19.75

Walnuts, with pellicle (purchased

Italy

18.67

with shell and cupule)

Walnuts, with pellicle (purchased

Shells Bl

Norway

33.09

with shell)

Walnuts, with pellicle (purchased

Italy

33.04

with shell)

Walnuts, with pellicle (purchased

India

India

15.76

with shell)

Walnuts, with pellicle (purchased

Natural

Norway

31.38

with shell)

Walnuts, with pellicle (purchased

Norway

33.29

with shell)

Walnuts, without pellicle

Norway

1.81

Walnuts, without pellicle (purchased

Italy

0.46

with shell and cupule)

Walnuts, without pellicle (purchased

Shells

Norway

0.74

with shell)

Walnuts, without pellicle (purchased

Italy

1.04

with shell)

Walnuts, without pellicle (purchased

Norway

0.79

with shell)

Walnuts, without pellicle (purchased

Natural

Norway

1.27

Source: Carlsen et al. (2010).

Source: Carlsen et al. (2010).

seeds are also very rich in total antioxidants, with about 8, 5, 1, 1 and 6 mmol/100 g, respectively. Hazelnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, macadamias, pine kernels, cashew nuts, flax seeds, poppy seeds, and sesame seeds also contain significant amounts of total antioxidants (about 0.5—1.0 mmol/100 g). Peanut butter, a common form of nut consumption, contains only about 50% of the total antioxidants of peanuts; though not in the top ranks of antiox-idant-containing foods, it is still an important contributor.

Remarkably, in the walnuts most of the antioxidants are located in the pellicle, since less than 10% is retained in the walnuts when pellicle is removed. In most other cases, nuts without a pellicle contained less than 50% of the total antioxidants compared to nuts with a pellicle. Also, Brazil nuts and pistachios purchased without the outer shell contained far less antioxidants than did nuts purchased with the shell. Thus, a significant portion of nut antioxidants is located in the pellicle, and nuts stored with outer shell tend to contain more antioxidants than nuts stored without the outer shell intact. The total antioxidant content of most nuts is much higher than total antioxidant content values of food of animal origin, such as meat, cheese, and milk, which contain 0.0—0.1 mmol/100 g (Carlsen et al., 2010).

As demonstrated in the present study, the variation in the antioxidant values of otherwise comparable products is large. Like the content of any food component, antioxidant values will differ for a wide array of reasons, such as growing conditions, seasonal changes, genetically different cultivars, storage conditions, and differences in manufacturing procedures and processing.

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