• Cardamom, admired as the "Queen of Spices," belongs to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is one of the most exotic and highly priced spices across the globe, after vanilla and saffron.
• Oil from the seeds is used in processed food, tonics, liquors, and perfumes. The fruit also finds significant usage in Ayurvedic medicine, as it has healing effects in dental infections, digestive disorders, etc.
• Cardamom is generally produced in the tropical regions of the world. The total world production of this species is around 35,000 tonnes per annum, and the largest producing country is Guatemala, followed by India. The major consuming countries are the Middle Eastern countries, India, Pakistan, European countries, the US, and Japan.
Studies have revealed its use as an effective skin penetration enhancer for certain activities, and as an anticarcinogenic, anti-ulcerogenic, antimicrobial, and anticonvulsant. The extract also finds wide application as an ingredient in formulations for treating dementia of Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, tension, insomnia, and sore throats. The seed extract finds applications in some of the herbal-based cosmetic formulations, which include skin-whitening, anti-dandruff, hair-shine, and hair-growth preparations. India and Guatemala are committed to finding more productive, drought-tolerant, and disease-resistant cardamom varieties through genetic improvement. In the past 15 years, global production and consumption have increased almost 2.5 times, and it appears that cardamom has a bright future, facing a steady increase in demand and supply. Due to the extensive appliance of cardamom, its production needs to be increased by adopting modern technology.
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