• Brassica oleracea varieties, in particular B. oleracea var. costata and B. oleracea var. acephala, are extremely rich in phenolics.
• These species present both diversity and high contents of those compounds.
• Flavonoids and phenolic acids exert potent antioxidant activity, which can explain some of the health-promoting properties of these crops, namely in inflammation and some types of cancer.
• These seeds also exhibit acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity, which may be explored for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
• Other compounds present, namely glucosinolates, can be associated with some pathologies, like goiter.
• For safer and healthier exploitation of these matrices, identification and quantification of these compounds in seeds used for human consumption is needed.
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