Summary Points

• Macadamia nuts are a valuable source of nutrients, in particular monounsaturated fatty acids.

• Modern cultivation practices have resulted in a reliable and plentiful supply of macadamia nuts, from countries such as the United States of America and Australia.

• Macadamia nuts have been shown to improve various risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypercholesterolemia, body weight, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

• Macadamia nuts may be useful when consumed alone, or in combination with traditional pharmacotherapy to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

• Long-term health benefits of macadamia nut consumption warrant further investigation.


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Use of Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Seeds in Medicine, and Possible Mechanisms of Action

Yang Deok Lee

Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea


Introduction 727 Botanical Description 728 Historical Cultivation and Usage 728

Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 729

Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 729 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 731 Summary Points 731 References 731


COX-2, cyclooxygenase 2 mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog

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