• Ginkgo biloba is the oldest living plant, and is highly resistant to insects, bacterial and viral infections, and air pollution.
• Ginkgo leaves and nuts have been traditionally used as food and phytomedicine in East Asia. Over the past few decades, the leaf extract has seen wide use as a supplement in Europe and the United States.
• Ginkgo leaves contain a variety of terpene trilactones, ginkgolides and bilobalide, which are effective in neuronal diseases such as vascular dementia and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
• Ginkgo seeds contain several storage proteins, including proteins with antibiotic activities.
• Gnk2 inhibits the growth of human and plant pathogenic fungi. In a plausible antifungal mechanism, Gnk2 may require an association between the positively charged surface and the negatively charged phospholipids and/or phosphomannan on the fungal-cell surface.
• Gb-nsLTP1 exhibits binding activity toward cis-unsaturated fatty acids, and inhibits the aspartic protease pepsin. This inhibitor would suppress the proteinase activity secreted by pathogens and reduce the resulting inflammation.
• Ginkgo seeds and their external seed coat contain some toxic compounds, including ginkgotoxin and ginkgolic acids. The toxic mechanisms of these compounds have been elucidated in detail at the molecular level.
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