• Hazelnuts are well adapted to different agro-climatic conditions, and a great number of varieties are known.
• The fruit is used in different forms, and in a large number of products.
• Hazelnuts possess a rich chemical composition, being beneficial to health mainly because of their high monounsaturated fatty acids content.
• Among the phytochemicals with biological properties, tocopherols and phenolic compounds are of great importance.
• Extracts of different C. avellana parts, such as leaves and fruits, and of different varieties, show the ability to inhibit the growth of different important pathogenic microorganisms.
• The consumption of these fruits, beyond other important biological properties, may promote human protection against infections, explaining their wide use in traditional medicine and showing their great potential as a source of bioactive substances.
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