• Almonds have a long history of use in culinary and health.
• Frequent consumption of almonds has been associated with reduced risk of a variety of chronic diseases, including obesity, heart disease, and diabetes.
• Inherent properties of almonds, such as their high fiber, unsaturated fat, antioxidant, and phytochemical content, likely explain their health protective effects.
• Acute almond consumption has either neutral or beneficial effects on glycemia/insulinemia and satiety, and further research of the effect on gut peptides is needed.
• The lipid fraction of almonds may be the predominant contributor to alterations in insulin sensitivity and satiety.
• Almond lipid bioaccessibility is largely determined by mastication efficiency and processing.
• There is little risk to consuming almonds unless a tree-nut allergy is present.
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