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Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Their Possible Utilization for Human

Consumption

1 12 2 2 Giorgia Foca , Alessandro Ulrici , Marina Cocchi , Caterina Durante , Mario Li Vigni ,

Andrea Marchetti2, Simona Sighinolfi2, Lorenzo Tassi2

1 Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Introduction 654 Botanical Descriptions 654 Historical Cultivation and Usage 654

Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 654

Horse chestnuts: chemical composition and characterization 654

Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 658 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 659 Summary Points 659 Acknowledgements 660 References 660

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

A, Aesculus

AH, Aesculus hippocastanum CNS, central nervous system

SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SRXRF, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence ETAAS, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

SEM-EDS, scansion electron microscopy—energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

TG, thermogravimetry

DSC, differential scanning calorimetry

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