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Braz Filho, R., Gottlieb, O. R., & Assumpcao, R. M. V. (1971). The isoflavones of Pterodon pubescens. Phytochemistry, 10, 2835—2836.

Carvalho, J., Sertie, J., Barbosa, M., Patricio, K., Caputo, L., Sarti, S., et al. (1999). Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude extract from the fruits of Pterodon emarginatus Vog. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 64, 127—133.

Coelho, M. G. P., Marques, P. R., Gayer, C. R. M., Vaz, L. C. A., Neto, J. F. N., & Sabino, K. C. D. (2001). Subacute toxicity evaluation of a hydroalcoholic extract of Pterodon pubescens seeds in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 77, 159—164.

Dutra, R., Leite, M., & Barbosa, N. (2008a). Quantification of phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of Pterodon emarginatus Vogel seeds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9, 606—614.

Dutra, R. C., Trevizani, R., Pittella, F., & Barbosa, N. R. (2008b). Antinociceptive activity of the essential oil and fractions of Pterodon emarginatus Vogel seeds. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 27, 865—870.

Dutra, R. C., Fava, M. B., Alves, C. C. S., Ferreira, A. P., & Barbosa, N. R. (2009a). Antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory activities of the essential oil from Pterodon emarginatus seeds. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 61, 243—250.

Dutra, R. C., Pitella, F., Ferreira, A. S., Larcher, P., Farias, R. E., & Barbosa, N. R. (2009b). Healing effect of Pterodon emarginatus seeds in experimental models of cutaneous ulcers in rabbits. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 28, 375—382.

Dutra, R. C., Braga, F. G., Coimbra, E. S., Silva, A. D., & Barbosa, N. R. (2009c). Antimicrobial and leishmanicidal activities of seeds of Pterodon emarginatus. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 19, 429—435.

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1095

Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has estimated the worldwide mycotoxin contaminated crop at 25%.

In addition to serious economic losses, the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in agricultural staples can cause acute and/or chronic intoxication symptoms in both humans and animals at low concentration levels (mg/kg to mg/kg range) (CAST, 2003).

The human health hazard associated with the natural occurrence of harmful mycotoxins has compelled several countries to adopt regulatory guidelines, but the maximum tolerated levels for mycotoxins vary widely between countries (FAO, 2004), tending to be higher in tropical and subtropical producing countries, and lower in importing countries with a temperate climate.

Although other mycotoxins (zearalenone, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A) can occur, the most reported mycotoxins in nuts and seeds are aflatoxins, a group of related bisfur-anocoumarin compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Twenty different analogs have been identified; however, the major naturally occurring toxins are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 (Figure 13.1). They have been shown to cause mutagenic, teratogenic, and hepatocarcinogenic effects, and the liver is the primary target (CAST, 2003). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified naturally occurring mixtures of aflatoxins as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). The toxicity order is AFB1 > AFG1 > AFB2 > AFG2 (IARC, 1993).

AFM1 and AFM2, the hydroxylated derivatives of AFB1 and AFB2, are detected in the milk of dairy cattle or lactating mothers exposed to aflatoxins. AFM1 is less mutagenic and carcinogenic than AFB1, but shows acute toxicity similar to other aflatoxins. The IARC (1993) classified it as a Group 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans).

Among aflatoxins, AFB1 has triggered the most research efforts due to its high toxicity and worldwide occurrence in staple foods and feeds. At least 99 countries involved in international trade have established regulatory limits for AFB1, or the sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 (Table 13.1), in foods and/or feeds (FAO, 2004). Table 13.2 shows the maximum tolerated levels of aflatoxins in foodstuffs in some countries in 2003. Harmonization of tolerance levels is taking place in some free trade zones (European Union, MERCOSUR, Australia/ New Zealand).

Aflatoxin B

Aflatoxin B2 : 15, 16-Dihidro sO

Aflatoxin B

Aflatoxin B2 : 15, 16-Dihidro sO

och3

Aflatoxin M1

FIGURE 13.1

Chemical structures of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2.

och3

Aflatoxin M1

FIGURE 13.1

Chemical structures of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2.

Aflatoxin G

Aflatoxin G2 : 15, 16-Dihidro

och3

Aflatoxin M2

och3

Aflatoxin M2

Aflatoxin G2 : 15, 16-Dihidro

TABLE 13.1 Medians and Ranges of Maximum Tolerated Levels (mg/kg) for Some (Groups of) Aflatoxins in 2003, and Numbers of Countries Known to have Relevant Regulations

Aflatoxin/Matrix Combination

Median (mg/kg)

No. of Countries

TABLE 13.1 Medians and Ranges of Maximum Tolerated Levels (mg/kg) for Some (Groups of) Aflatoxins in 2003, and Numbers of Countries Known to have Relevant Regulations

Aflatoxin/Matrix Combination

Median (mg/kg)

No. of Countries

AFB1 in foodstuffs 5

1-20

61

AFB1 + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2 in foodstuffs 10

0-35

76

AFM1 in milk 0.05

0.05-15

60

Adapted from FAO (2004), with permission.

TABLE 13.2 Maximum Tolerated Levels of Aflatoxins in Foodstuffs in Some Countries in 2003

Countries

Aflatoxin(s) (mg/kg)

Limit (mg/kg)

European Union (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The

Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom)

Groundnuts, nuts and dried fruit and processed products

AFB1

2

thereof, intended for direct human consumption or as an

AFB1

+ AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2

4

ingredient in foodstuffs

Groundnuts to be subjected to sorting, or other physical

AFB1

8

treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in

AFB1

+ AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2

15

foodstuffs

Nuts and dried fruit to be subjected to sorting, or other physical

AFB1

5

treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in

AFB1

+ AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2

10

foodstuffs

United States of America

All foods except milk

AFB1

+ AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2

20

Japan

All foods

AFB1

10

MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay)

Peanuts, maize and products thereof

AFB1

+ AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2

20

Adapted from FAO (2004), with permission.

Adapted from FAO (2004), with permission.

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