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Effects of Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) Seed Extract on Human Neutrophil Elastase Activity

Rachid Kacem

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University, Setif, Algeria

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Introduction 824 Botanical Description 824 Historical Cultivation and Usage 824

Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 825 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 825

Effects of N. sativa (L.) seed extracts on HNE activity 825

Structure and Inhibition of HNE 825 HNE Assay 826 Calculation of IC50 826 Effects of Essential Oil on HNE Activity 826 Adverse Effects and Reactions (ALlergies and Toxicity) 828 Summary Points 829 References 829

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

a1-AT, ^-antitrypsin

ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome CF, cystic fibrosis

COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide

DTQ, dithymoquinone

HIC, highest inhibitory concentration

HNE, human neutrophil elastase

IC50, inhibitory concentration, 50%

LD50, lethal dose, 50%

MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases

MPO, meloxy pero-oxydase

NSP, neutrophil serine protease

PMN, polymorphonuclear leukocyte THQ, thymohydroquinone THY, thymol TQ, thymoquinone

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