Arnason, J. T., Morand, P., & Pinogene, R. T. (1989). Insecticides of plant origin. American Chemical Society Symposium, Script 387. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. p. 110.

Banso, A., & Adeymo, S. (2003). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon mauritianum, Bacopa monnifera and Datura stramonium. Biokemistri, 18, 39—44.

Baswa, M., Rath, C. C., Dash, S. K., & Mishra, R. K. (2001). Antibacterial activity of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: a preliminary report. Microbios, 105, 183—189.

Biswas, K., Chattopadhyay, I., Banerjee, R. K., & Bandyopadhyay, U. (2002). Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science, 82, 1336—1345.

Chalkley, L. J., & Koornholf, H. J. (1985). Antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus determined by the kill curve method: antibiotics comparison and synergistic interactions. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 28, 331—342.

Chaurasia, S. C., & Jain, P. C. (1978). Antibacterial activity of essential oils of four medicinal plants. Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 15, 166—168.

Dhongade, R. K., Kavade, S. G., & Damle, R. S. (2008). Neem oil poisoning. Indian Pediatrics, 45, 56—57.

Evenson, D. P., Bear, R. K., Jost, L. K., & Gesch, R. W. (1986). Toxicity of thiotepa on mouse spermatogenesis as determined by dual-parameter flow cytometry. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 82, 151—163.

Jacobson, M. (1995). Toxicity to vertebrates. In H. Schmutterer (Ed.), The neem tree: Source of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes (pp. 484—495). Weinheim, Germany: VCH.

Mandal, S., Mandal, M., & Pal, N. K. (2007). Antibacterial potential of Azadirachta indica seed and Bacopa monniera leaf extracts against multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates. Archives of Medical Science, 3, 14—18.

Okemo, P. O., Mwatha, W. E., Chhabra, S. C., & Fabry, W. (2001). The kill kinetics of Azadirachta indica a.juss. (meliaceae) extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. African Journal of Science and Technology, 2, 113—118.

Pritima, R., & Pandian, R. (2008). Antibacterial potency of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica A. juss (Leaf) against microbes causing reproductive tract infections among women. Current Biotica, 2, 193—205.

Rao, K. (2005). Neem tree — a profile. Available at: http://max /articles/neem tree profile.

Rao, D. V. K., Singh, I., Chopra, P., Chhabra, P. C., & Ramanujalu, G. (1986). In vitro antibacterial activity of neem oil. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 84, 314—316.

Rosenkranz, H. S., & Klopman, G. (1995a). An examination of the potential genotoxic carcinogenicity of a biopesticide derived from neem tree. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 26, 255—260.

Rosenkranz, H. S., & Klopman, G. (1995b). Relationship between electronegativity and genotoxicity. Mutation Research, 328, 215—227.

SaiRam, M., Ilavazhagan, G., Sharna, S. K., Dhanraj, S. A., Suresh, B., Parida, M. M., et al. (2000). Anti-microbial activity of a new vaginal contraceptive from neem oil (Azadirachta indica). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 71, 377—382.

Siddiqui, S. (1942). A note on the isolation of the three new bitter principles from nim oil. Current Science, 11, 278—279.

Biological Properties of a Methanolic Extract of Neem Oil, A Natural Oil from the Seeds of the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica var. A. Juss)

Cecilia Aiello, Valerio Berardi, Francesca Ricci, Gianfranco Risuleo

Dipartimento di Genetica e Biología Molecolare, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma Italy


Introduction 814 Botanical Description 814 Historical Cultivation and Usage 815 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 815

Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 815

General bioactivity of neem tree components 815 Cytoxicity of MEX obtained from whole neem oil 816 Molecular assessment of the selective sensitivity to MEX 816

Cellular and molecular targets of MEX 816

MEX alters the cell membrane fluidity and has an antiviral effect 817 Conclusions 819 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 819 Summary Points 819 Acknowledgement 820 References 820


cccDNA, circular covalently closed DNA COXV, coxsackieviruses B DNV, dengue virus ER, electrorotation

MDA, malonaldialdehyde MEX, methanol extract MTT, cell survival test PCR, polymerase chain reaction Py, murine polyomavirus ssRNA, single stranded RNA

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Health And Fitness 101

Health And Fitness 101

Self-improvement is a thing which you must practice throughout your life because once you started to believe that you are perfect then, things will start to become complex. You need to know that no one is perfect and no one can be perfect.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment