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Biological Properties of a Methanolic Extract of Neem Oil, A Natural Oil from the Seeds of the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica var. A. Juss)

Cecilia Aiello, Valerio Berardi, Francesca Ricci, Gianfranco Risuleo

Dipartimento di Genetica e Biología Molecolare, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma Italy

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Introduction 814 Botanical Description 814 Historical Cultivation and Usage 815 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 815

Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 815

General bioactivity of neem tree components 815 Cytoxicity of MEX obtained from whole neem oil 816 Molecular assessment of the selective sensitivity to MEX 816

Cellular and molecular targets of MEX 816

MEX alters the cell membrane fluidity and has an antiviral effect 817 Conclusions 819 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 819 Summary Points 819 Acknowledgement 820 References 820

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

cccDNA, circular covalently closed DNA COXV, coxsackieviruses B DNV, dengue virus ER, electrorotation

MDA, malonaldialdehyde MEX, methanol extract MTT, cell survival test PCR, polymerase chain reaction Py, murine polyomavirus ssRNA, single stranded RNA

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