Fennel is now cultivated in most parts of the world, including Pakistan and India, preferably in sandy clay with sufficient lime and plenty of water in dry periods (Rizvi et al., 2007). It is also cultivated in dry, stony, calcareous soils near the sea. Its cultivation is affected by many diseases, such as leaf spot, blight, bulb rot, root rot, and gray mold rot, caused by different pathogens. In Pakistan, it is grown in temperate and subtropical areas up to an altitude of 2000 m, and cultivated as an annual crop. It can also be cultivated on the foothills and plains (Ahmad et al., 2008). Major insects that attack this plant are Systole coriandri, S. albepennis, and aphids. Production of fennel is also influenced by the sowing season, and spacing. Autumn sowing has been reported as better for production (Ahmad et al., 2004). The principal fennel producing countries in the world are India, Argentina, China, Indonesia, Russia, Japan, and Pakistan. Different parts of this plant are used in Eastern medicine, including dried ripe fruit, dried roots, and steam-distilled fennel oil. Fennel seeds have been reported to be effective in relaxing smooth muscles, and in promoting the functions of the digestive system (Rizvi et al., 2007).
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