Aframomum melegueta roscoe K. Schum belongs to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, commonly found in the coastal regions of Africa. AM is cultivated essentially for its valuable seed, which earned it the name "grain of paradise," indicating its high value as a spice and medicine (Iwu et al., 1999). The seed is extensively used in ethno-medicine for a variety of ailments. It possesses active constituents with several biological activities, especially against inflammation and infectious diseases (Iwu et al., 1999). Studies have shown that the seeds of AM might turn out to be a source of medicines for health promotion and disease control (Dybas & Raskin, 2007; Umukoro & Ashorobi, 2008). In this chapter, the cultivation, applications to health and disease prevention, and adverse effects of Aframomum melegueta seeds are described.
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