Effect on Non Target Organisms

References

Anacardium occidentale Apium graveolens Azadiracta indica

Citrus reticulate

Carica papaya

Safe for mice at high dose (0.3 g/kg). No adverse effects on human skin observed. More toxic against Aphanius dispar (killifish) than An. stephensi larvae

Safe for Oreochromis niloticus Nile Tilapia fishes at 2.3 ppm

Safe for the bug Diplonychus annulatum and the midge Chironomus circumdatus. No change in behavior and survival noticed at LC50

Farias et al., 2009 Choochote et al., 2004 Khan et al., 2000

Sumroiphon et al., 2006

Rawani et al., 2009

See Shaalan and Canyon (2010) for these citation references.

control mosquito vectors, and should be considered for inclusion in mosquito control programs. The remaining obstacle is how to make production acceptable, efficient, and affordable in order for local affected populations to prevent mosquito bites and interrupt mosquito-borne disease transmission.

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